DNAPainter: Painting Leeds Method Matches

Last week, I wrote about how I utilized the Leeds Method in the article, The Leeds Method. What I didn’t say is that I was sizing up the Leeds Method for how I could use the technique to paint additional segments of my chromosomes.

The Leeds Method divides your matches into four groups, one attributable to each grandparent. That means those matches can be painted to your four sets of great-grandparents, assuming you can identify the maternal and paternal groups. Hint – Y and mitochondrial DNA matching or haplogroups may help if you have no better hints.

For genealogists who know who their grandparents are, testing close relatives and cousins is a must in order to be able to associate matches with your four grandparents’ lines.

Please note that the Leeds method generates hints for genealogists by grouping people according to common matches. We must further evaluate those matches by doing traditional genealogy and by looking for segments that triangulate. The Leeds method in conjunction with the actual match results at vendors, combined with DNAPainter helps us do just that.

Utilizing DNAPainter

Since I’ve been able to sort matches into maternal and paternal “sides” using the Leeds Method, which in essence parentally phases the matches, I can use DNAPainter to paint them. Here are my four articles I wrote about how to utilize DNAPainter.

DNAPainter – Chromosome Sudoku for Genetic Genealogy Addicts 
DNAPainter – Touring the Chromosome Garden 
DNAPainter – Mining Vendor Matches to Paint Your Chromosomes 
Proving or Disproving a Half Sibling Relationship Using DNAPainter

Combining the Two Tools

DNAPainter has the potential to really utilize the Leeds Method results, other than Ancestry matches of course. Ancestry does not provide segment information. (Yes, I know, dead horse but I still can’t resist an occasional whack.)

You’re going to utilize your spreadsheet groupings to paint the DNA from each individual match at the vendors to DNAPainter.

On the spreadsheet, if these matches are from Family Tree DNA, MyHeritage, 23andMe or GedMatch, you’ll copy the matching segments from that vendor and paint those matching segments at DNAPainter. I explained how to do that in the articles about DNAPainter.

I do not use mass uploads to DNAPainter, because it’s impossible to assign those to different sides of your tree or ancestors. I paint individual matches, including information about the match and what I know about the history of the segment itself or associated ancestor.

I only paint segments that I can identify with certainty as maternal or paternal.

Pushing Back in Time

Based on which segments of identified ancestors the Leeds matches overlap with at DNAPainter, I can push that segment information further back in time. The blessing of this is that these Leeds matches may well fill in several blanks in my chromosome that are not yet painted by people with whom I share identified ancestors.

Even if your maternal and paternal grandparents are intermarried on each side, as long as they are not intermarried across your parental lines (meaning mother & father,) then the Leeds Method will work fine for painting. Even if you think you are attributing a segment to your paternal grandmother, for example, and the person actually matches through your paternal grandfather, you’ve still painted them on the correct chromosome – meaning your paternal chromosome. As you build up that chromosome with matches, you’ll see soon enough if you have 9 matches attributed to John Doe and one to Jane Smith, the Jane Smith match is likely incorrectly attributed, those two lines are somehow interrelated or it’s a false positive match.

Because I work with only fairly large Leeds matches – nothing below 30 cM, I sometimes receive a nice gift in terms of painting large previously unpainted segments – like the one on my mother’s side, below.

Look at this large green segment on chromosome 19 that I painted thanks to one of the Leeds matches, Harold. (Note that the two long blue and brown bars at the bottom of each chromosome are my ethnicity, not matches.) Another benefit is that if a Leeds match matches on already identified segments assigned to ancestors, I’ve just identified which ancestral lines I share with that match.

The green Ferverda side match to Roland through the Leeds Method aligns partially with a segment already known to descend from Jacob Lentz and Frederica Ruhle who were born in the 1780s. I’m related to Roland somehow through that line, and by just looking at his (redacted here) surname, I *think* I know how, even though he doesn’t have a tree online. How cool is that!

Important Notes for DNAPainter

Word of caution here. I would NOT paint anyone who falls into multiple match groups without being able to identify ancestors. Multiple match groups may indicate multiple ancestors, even if you aren’t aware of that.

Each segment has its own history, so it’s entirely possible that multiple match groups are accurate. It’s also possible that to some extent, especially with smaller segments, that matches by chance come into play. That’s why I only work with segments above 30 cM when using the Leeds method where I know I’m safe from chance matches. You can read about identical by descent (IBD) and identical by chance (IBC) matches here.

What a DNAPainter Leeds Match Means

It’s very important to label segments in DNAPainter with the fact that the source was through the Leeds Method.

These painted matches DO NOT MEAN that the match descends from the grandparent you are associating with the match.

It means that YOU inherited your common DNA with this match FROM that grandparent. It suggests that your match descends from one of the ancestors of this couple, or possibly from your great-grandparents, but you don’t necessarily share this great-grandparent couple with your match.

That’s different than the way I normally paint my chromosomes – meaning only when a specific common ancestor has been identified. For someone painted from matches NOT identified through the Leeds Method, if I know the person descends from a grandparent, I paint them to the great-grandparent couple. People painted through the Leeds Method don’t necessarily share that couple, but do share an ancestor of that couple.

When I paint using the Leeds method, I’m assigning the match to a set of great-grandparents because I can’t genealogically identify the common ancestor further upstream, so I’m letting genetics tell me which genealogical quadrant they fall into on my tree. With the Leeds Method, I can tell which grandparent I inherited that DNA through. In my normal DNAPainter methodology, I ONLY paint matches when I’ve identified the common ancestor – so Leeds Method matches would not previously have qualified.

I don’t mean to beat this to death and explain it several ways – but it’s really important to understand the difference and when looking back, understand why you painted what you did.

Labeling Leeds Match Painted Segments

Therefore, with Leeds Method match painting, I identify the match name as “John Doe FTDNA Leeds-Ferverda” which tells me the matches name (John Doe,) where they tested (FTDNA) and why I painted them (Ferverda column in my Leeds spreadsheet,) even though I don’t know for sure which ancestor we actually have in common. I paint them to the parents of my Ferverda grandfather. Not John Ferverda, my grandfather, but to his parents, Hiram Ferverda and Eva Miller. I know I received my matching DNA through one of them – I just don’t know which person of that couple yet.

However, looking at who else is assigned to that segment with an identified common ancestor will tell me where in my tree that segment originated – for me. We still don’t know where in your matches tree that segment originated.

“Match To” Issues

Lastly, if you happen to select a “match to” person to represent one of your grandparent matches that just happens to be descended from two grandparent lines, you’ve had your bad luck for the month. Remember, your “match to” person is the first person (closest match) that hasn’t yet been grouped, so you don’t really select them. If you realize you’re getting goofy results, stop and undo those results, then select the next candidate as your “match to” person.

At one vendor, when I selected the first person who hadn’t yet been grouped and used them for the red column which turned out to be Bolton, about half of them overlapped with Estes segments that I’ve already painted and confirmed from several sources. Obviously, there’s a problem someplace, and I’m guessing it just happens to be the luck of the draw with the “match to” person being descended from both lines. The lines both lived in the same county for generations. I need to redo that section with someone whose tree I know positively descends from the Bolton line and does NOT intersect with another of my lines. However, I was able to identify that this issue existed because I’ve already painted multiple ancestor-confirmed cousins who carry those same segments – and I know where they came from.

These tools are just that – tools and require some level of analytical skill and common sense. In other words, it’s a good idea to stay with larger matches and know when to say “uh-oh.” If it doesn’t feel right, don’t paint it.

Breaking Down Distant Brick Walls

I’m still thinking about how to use the Leeds Method, probably in combination with DNAPainter, to break down brick walls. My brick walls aren’t close in time. Most of them are several generations back and revolve around missing female surnames, missing records or ancestors appearing in a new location with no ability to connect them back to the location/family they left.

In essence, I would need to be able to isolate the people matching that most distant ancestor couple, then look for common surnames and ancestors within that match group. The DNAGedcom.com client which allows you to sort matches by surname might well be an integral piece of this puzzle/solution. I’ll have to spend some time to see how well this works.

Solving this puzzle would be entirely dependent on people uploading their trees.

If you have thoughts on how to use these tools to break down distant brick walls, or devise a methodology, please let me know.

And if you haven’t uploaded your tree, please do.

Would I Do The Leeds Method Again?

Absolutely, at least for the vendors who provide segment information.

I painted 8 new Leeds matches from Family Tree DNA on my Ferverda grandparent side which increased the number of painted segments at DNAPainter from 689 to 704, filled in a significant number of blank spaces on my chromosomes, and took my total % DNA painted from 60 to 61%. I added the rest of my Leeds hints from Family Tree DNA of 30 cM or over, and increased my painted segments to 734 and my percentage to 62% I know that 1 or 2% doesn’t sound like a very big increase, but it’s scientific progress.

It’s more difficult to increase the number of new segments after you’ve painted much of your genome because many segments overlap segments already painted. So, a 2% increase is well worth celebrating!

Having said that, I would love for the vendors to provide this type of clustering so I don’t have to. To date, Family Tree DNA is the only vendor who does any flavor of automatically bucketing results in this fashion – meaning paternal and maternal, which is half the battle. I would like to see them expand to the four grandparents from the maternal/paternal matching they provide today.

We’ve been asking Ancestry for enhanced tools for years. There’s no reason they couldn’t in essence do what Dana has done along with provide the DNAgedcom.com search functionality. And yes…I still desperately want a chromosome browser or at least segment information.

I will continue to utilize the Leeds Method, at least with vendors other than Ancestry because it allows me to incorporate the results with DNAPainter. It’s somehow ironic that I started out grouping the Ancestry results, but wound up realizing that the results from other vendors, specifically Family Tree DNA and MyHeritage are significantly more useful due to the segment data and combined tools.

Getting the Most Bang for Your Buck

If you tested at Ancestry or 23andMe, I would strongly encourage you to download your raw data file from both of these vendors and transfer to Family Tree DNA, MyHeritage and GedMatch to get the most out of your DNA tests. Here is the step-by-step guide for how to download your DNA from Ancestry.

The uploads to those three locations are free. All tools are free at MyHeritage until December 1, 2018 when they will begin charging for more advanced tools. The upload is free at Family Tree DNA and the advanced tools, including the chromosome browser, only require a $19 unlock.

Here is the step-by-step guide for uploading to MyHeritage and to Family Tree DNA. Fishing in every pond is critically important. You never know what you’re missing otherwise!

How many segments of your DNA can you paint using the Leeds Method in combination with DNA Painter?

_____________________________________________________________________

Standard Disclosure

This standard disclosure appears at the bottom of every article in compliance with the FTC Guidelines.

I provide Personalized DNA Reports for Y and mitochondrial DNA results for people who have tested through Family Tree DNA. I provide Quick Consults for DNA questions for people who have tested with any vendor. I would welcome the opportunity to provide one of these services for you.

Hot links are provided to Family Tree DNA, where appropriate. If you wish to purchase one of their products, and you click through one of the links in an article to Family Tree DNA, or on the sidebar of this blog, I receive a small contribution if you make a purchase. Clicking through the link does not affect the price you pay. This affiliate relationship helps to keep this publication, with more than 900 articles about all aspects of genetic genealogy, free for everyone.

I do not accept sponsorship for this blog, nor do I write paid articles, nor do I accept contributions of any type from any vendor in order to review any product, etc. In fact, I pay a premium price to prevent ads from appearing on this blog.

When reviewing products, in most cases, I pay the same price and order in the same way as any other consumer. If not, I state very clearly in the article any special consideration received. In other words, you are reading my opinions as a long-time consumer and consultant in the genetic genealogy field.

I will never link to a product about which I have reservations or qualms, either about the product or about the company offering the product. I only recommend products that I use myself and bring value to the genetic genealogy community. If you wonder why there aren’t more links, that’s why and that’s my commitment to you.

Thank you for your readership, your ongoing support and for purchasing through the affiliate link if you are interested in making a purchase at Family Tree DNA, or one of the affiliate links below:

Affiliate links are limited to:

MyHeritage Step by Step Guide: How to Upload-Download DNA Files

In this Upload-Download Series, we’ll cover each major vendor:

  • How to download raw data files from the vendor
  • How to upload raw data files to the vendor, if possible
  • Other mainstream vendors where you can upload this vendor’s files

Uploading TO MyHeritage

Upload Step 1

To upload your DNA to MyHeritage, click here and then click on the purple “Start” button.

Upload Step 1 If You Already Have an Account at MyHeritage

If you already have an account, click here to sign in and then click on the DNA tab to display the “Upload DNA Data” option which displays the graphic above. Click on the purple “Start” button. This is the same process you’ll use whether it’s the first time you’ve uploaded a kit, or you’re uploading subsequent kits to your account that you’ll be managing.

Upload Step 2

You’ll be prompted to create a free account by entering your name, e-mail and password, and from there you can upload your autosomal DNA file.

You’ll be asked whose DNA you’re uploading and prompted to read and agree to the terms of service and consent.

Click the purple upload button.

Then click done when the file is finished uploading.

You’ll be notified by e-mail within a couple days when the file is finished processing.

Downloading FROM MyHeritage

Download Step 1

Sign on to your MyHeritage account.

Click on DNA on the upper toolbar.

The dropdown menu includes “Manage DNA Kits”

Download Step 2

At the right of the kit you wish to download, click on the three small buttons which will include an option for “Download,” as shown in the graphics below from the MyHeritage blog article.

Download Step 3

You’ll be presented with a box titled “Learn more about DNA data files.” Click the purple “Continue” button.

Download Step 4

You’ll need to confirm that you want to download your data, and that you understand that the download is outside of MyHeritage and their protection. Click the purple “Continue” button.

Download Step 5

You’ll receive a confirmation e-mail. Click on “Click here to continue with download.”

This e-mail link is only valid for 24 hours.

Download Step 6

Enter your password again, and click on the purple “Download” button.

Download Step 7

Save the file as a recognizable file name on your computer.

MyHeritage File Transfers TO Other Vendors

You can upload your MyHeritage file to other vendors, as follows.

From below to >>>>>>>>>>> Family Tree DNA Accepts Ancestry Accepts 23andMe Accepts GedMatch Accepts
MyHeritage Yes No No Yes

Neither Ancestry nor 23andMe accepts uploads from any vendor.

MyHeritage File Transfers FROM Other Vendors

You can upload files from other vendors to MyHeritage, as follows:

  From Family Tree DNA From Ancestry From 23andMe From LivingDNA
To MyHeritage Yes Yes Yes Yes

Testing and Transfer Strategy

Transferring to MyHeritage is always free. You can view your ethnicity, your matches and their trees, and utilize the DNA tools, but you won’t receive the full benefit of SmartMatching and other records without a subscription. You will be limited to building a tree of 250 people for free, but you can upload a Gedcom file of any size, although you do need to subscribe to change anything in that file if it contains more than 250 individuals.

Until December 1, 2018, all DNA tools will be and remain free for anyone who uploads before that date. After December 1st, matching will remain free, but the advanced tools such as ethnicity, the chromosome browser, triangulation and more will require payment. MyHeritage has not yet indicated how that will work, so upload now to receive free DNA tools forever.

My testing/transfer recommendations are as follows relative to MyHeritage:

Have fun!

_____________________________________________________________________

Standard Disclosure

This standard disclosure appears at the bottom of every article in compliance with the FTC Guidelines.

I provide Personalized DNA Reports for Y and mitochondrial DNA results for people who have tested through Family Tree DNA. I provide Quick Consults for DNA questions for people who have tested with any vendor. I would welcome the opportunity to provide one of these services for you.

Hot links are provided to Family Tree DNA, where appropriate. If you wish to purchase one of their products, and you click through one of the links in an article to Family Tree DNA, or on the sidebar of this blog, I receive a small contribution if you make a purchase. Clicking through the link does not affect the price you pay. This affiliate relationship helps to keep this publication, with more than 900 articles about all aspects of genetic genealogy, free for everyone.

I do not accept sponsorship for this blog, nor do I write paid articles, nor do I accept contributions of any type from any vendor in order to review any product, etc. In fact, I pay a premium price to prevent ads from appearing on this blog.

When reviewing products, in most cases, I pay the same price and order in the same way as any other consumer. If not, I state very clearly in the article any special consideration received. In other words, you are reading my opinions as a long-time consumer and consultant in the genetic genealogy field.

I will never link to a product about which I have reservations or qualms, either about the product or about the company offering the product. I only recommend products that I use myself and bring value to the genetic genealogy community. If you wonder why there aren’t more links, that’s why and that’s my commitment to you.

Thank you for your readership, your ongoing support and for purchasing through the affiliate link if you are interested in making a purchase at Family Tree DNA, or one of the affiliate links below:

Affiliate links are limited to:

Ancestor Birthdays Mean Presents for YOU!

I’ve been wanting to celebrate my ancestors’ birthdays for some time now, and I’ve finally figured out exactly how to accomplish this goal in a really fun way.

Being reminded once a year about their birthday and the anniversary of their death reminds me to work on their genealogy, and in particular, genetic genealogy. With more people testing every single day, meaning different people at every vendor, we need to check often with specific ancestors in mind. You never know who’s going to be the person who puts the chink in that brick wall.

With this in mind, I’ve put together a spreadsheet to track what I know about each ancestor. This makes it easy to schedule those dates in my calendar, with a reminder of course, and then to check my spreadsheet to see what information might have been previously missing that might be able to be found today.

It’s like a birthday present for them, but now for me. I am, after all, their heir, along with the rest of their descendants of course! If I’m lucky, I inherited part of their DNA, and if not, their DNA is still relevant to me.

Checking the List

Here’s my spreadsheet checklist for each ancestor:

  • Birth date
  • Birth place
  • Death date
  • Death place
  • Spouse
  • Y DNA haplogroup (if male)
  • Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup
  • Autosomal confirmed
  • Ancestry Circle

New information becomes digitized every year making new information available.

Additionally, some items may change. For example, if a base haplogroup was previous known, a deeper haplogroup might be available a year later if someone has taken a more detailed test or the haplogroup name might have been updated. Yes, that happens too.

I originally had a triangulation column on the spreadsheet too, but I pretty quickly discovered that column was subject to lots of questions about interpretation. Is the actual ancestor triangulated, or the line? I decided that “autosomal confirmed” would suffice to cover whatever I decide constitutes confirmation and a comment column could hold the description. For example, my grandparents are autosomal confirmed because I match (and triangulate) with cousins who are descended from ancestors upstream of my grandparents. If my grandparent wasn’t my grandparent, I wouldn’t be related to those people either. In particular, first cousins.

I also added an “Article Link” column to paste the link to that ancestor’s 52 Ancestors article so I can quickly check or maybe even provide this spreadsheet to a family member.

Here’s an example of what the first several entries of my Ancestor Birthday Spreadsheet look like.

Ancestor Birthday Presents for You

In order to remind myself to check on my ancestors’ status, on their birth and death days, I schedule reminders in my phone calendar. Every morning when I wake, I’m greeted by my ancestor – well – at least this much of them.

  • First, I check at Family Tree DNA for new matches, haplogroups and the presence of my family lines in surname projects.
  • Then it’s off to Ancestry to see if I have any new green leaf DNA or record hints, to add or update the circle for this particular ancestor, and to see if any of my matches would be a candidate for either Y or mitochondrial DNA testing, assuming they reply to messages and agree to test at Family Tree DNA. I keep a separate spreadsheet of each person that I’ve identified as a match with an identified ancestor. I know it’s extra work, but that spreadsheet is invaluable for determining if the ancestor is autosomal proven and if the match is a candidate for Y or mtDNA testing.
  • Then I get another cup of coffee and check at MyHeritage for new record matches for that ancestor, along with new DNA SmartMatches.
  • GedMatch and 23andMe aren’t as easy to check for matches specific to ancestors, but I still check both places to see if I can find matches that I can identify as descending from that ancestor.
  • While I’m at it, sometimes I run over to FamilySearch to see if there’s anything new over there, although they don’t deal with DNA. They do, however, have many traditional genealogical records. I may add another column to track if I’m waiting for something specific to be digitized – like court minutes, for example. FamilySearch has been on a digitization binge!
  • As I go along, I add any new discovery to my genealogy software and my Ancestor Birthday Spreadsheet as well.
  • Last, I paint new segment information from Family Tree DNA, MyHeritage, GedMatch or 23andMe at DNAPainter. My three articles about how I use DNAPainter are here, here and here.

I just love ancestor birthdays.

Any day that I get to find something new is a wonderful day indeed – fleshing out the lives, history and DNA of my ancestors. With this many places to look, there’s seldom a day that goes by that I don’t discover at least something in my ancestor scavenger hunt!

Ancestor birthday presents for me😊

_____________________________________________________________________

Standard Disclosure

This standard disclosure appears at the bottom of every article in compliance with the FTC Guidelines.

I provide Personalized DNA Reports for Y and mitochondrial DNA results for people who have tested through Family Tree DNA. I provide Quick Consults for DNA questions for people who have tested with any vendor. I would welcome the opportunity to provide one of these services for you.

Hot links are provided to Family Tree DNA, where appropriate. If you wish to purchase one of their products, and you click through one of the links in an article to Family Tree DNA, or on the sidebar of this blog, I receive a small contribution if you make a purchase. Clicking through the link does not affect the price you pay. This affiliate relationship helps to keep this publication, with more than 900 articles about all aspects of genetic genealogy, free for everyone.

I do not accept sponsorship for this blog, nor do I write paid articles, nor do I accept contributions of any type from any vendor in order to review any product, etc. In fact, I pay a premium price to prevent ads from appearing on this blog.

When reviewing products, in most cases, I pay the same price and order in the same way as any other consumer. If not, I state very clearly in the article any special consideration received. In other words, you are reading my opinions as a long-time consumer and consultant in the genetic genealogy field.

I will never link to a product about which I have reservations or qualms, either about the product or about the company offering the product. I only recommend products that I use myself and bring value to the genetic genealogy community. If you wonder why there aren’t more links, that’s why and that’s my commitment to you.

Thank you for your readership, your ongoing support and for purchasing through the affiliate link if you are interested in making a purchase at Family Tree DNA, or one of the affiliate links below:

Affiliate links are limited to:

Family Tree DNA Step by Step Guide: How to Upload-Download DNA Files

In this Upload-Download Series, we’ll cover each major vendor:

  • How to download raw data files from the vendor
  • How to upload raw data files to the vendor
  • Other mainstream vendors where you can upload this vendor’s files

You can both upload autosomal data files from another vendor to Family Tree DNA, and download from Family Tree DNA.

Uploading TO Family Tree DNA

Step 1

On the main Family Tree DNA page, click on “Upload DNA Data,” at the top.

Step 2

Select either “Autosomal DNA” or Nat Geo’s Geno 2.0 data. Hint, the current version of Genographic data won’t work. The current version is processed on the Helix chip as of November 2016.

Step 3

If you are not transferring from Nat Geo, go to Step 4.

If you are transferring a Nat Geo 2.0 kit, proceed to enter your National Geographic Kit Number. If you don’t know your kit number, click on “Where do I find my Geno ID Code.”

Step 4

These instructions in Step 4 focus on uploading your autosomal DNA file from other vendors, not Genographic 2.0.

Complete the form. If you already have tested Y or mitochondrial DNA at Family Tree DNA, select “Already have a Family Tree DNA account,” so that your uploaded test can be integrated with your existing account. If you have already taken the Family Finder test at Family Tree DNA, there’s no need to upload your autosomal DNA from any other vendor.

Step 5

Next, select the vendor test that you are going to upload. Uploads accepted include:

  • 23andMe V3 and V4 – tests taken after December 2010 and before August 2017. The V5 chip, in use at 23andMe since August 2017 is not compatible.
  • Ancestry V1 – tests taken until May 2016.
  • Ancestry V2 – tests taken since May 2016
  • MyHeritage – fully compatible, Family Tree DNA is the lab that does their testing

If you select “MyHeritage,” you will be redirected to MyHeritage to log in and select your kit for transfer.

If you select either 23andMe or Ancestry DNA, you will be directed to either drag and drop your data file from that vendor or browse to upload.

Family Tree DNA provides a step by step guide for accessing your raw data files from those vendors by clicking on “How to I access my raw data files?,” above the grey transfer box.

You will be assigned a Family Tree DNA kit number. After your results are processed, you can sign in to see your matches.

Compatibility

The 23andMe V3, V4 and the Ancestry V1 kits are fully compatible, meaning that you will get the same matches at Family Tree DNA using those transfer kits as you would if you tested at Family Tree DNA. However, the Ancestry V2 kit is only partially compatible, meaning that you will only receive 20-25% of the matches by transferring a V2 test that you would receive if you tested at Family Tree DNA. Ancestry changed their chip in May of 2016.

If you want all of your possible matches, and who doesn’t, you should test at Family Tree DNA instead of uploading a V2 Ancestry test.

Step 6

The transfer to Family Tree DNA is free and so is viewing your matches along with basic tools. However, for additional tools, such as ethnicity and the chromosome browser, you’ll need to purchase the $19 unlock. This is a great value, as compared to retesting at $79, or sometimes less when on sale.

You will be prompted for the “Unlock” purchase if you click on either the Chromosome Browser button, the Ethnicity button or other advanced tools on your dashboard after your results are finished.

Downloading FROM Family Tree DNA

Step 1

To download your raw autosomal DNA file from Family Tree DNA, click on the orange “Download Raw Data” link at the bottom of your Family Finder section on your dashboard.

Alternatively, you can select the “Download Raw Data” option at the top of the page under myDNA, “Family Finder.”

Step 2

You will be given the option of downloading your Build 36 and Build 37 raw data files.

Different vendors request different types of files.

  • GedMatch – Build 36 Raw Data Concatenated
  • MyHeritage – Build 37 Raw Data Concatenated

Other vendors may request different file formats, and the above vendors may change over time.

Click the arrow beside the version you need.

Step 3

Save the file in a manner that you’ll recognize. The file name will be something like “37_R_Estes_Chrom_Autoso_20180818.gz”. I append the word FTDNA in front of the 37 so there is no question which vendor’s file this is. The last several digits are the date.

Family Tree DNA File Transfers TO Other Vendors

You can upload Family Tree DNA results to other vendors, as follows:

From below to >>>>>>>>>>> Ancestry Accepts MyHeritage Accepts 23andMe Accepts GedMatch Accepts
Family Tree DNA No Yes No Yes

Neither Ancestry nor 23andMe accept uploads from any vendor.

Family Tree DNA Transfers FROM Other Vendors

You can upload files from other vendors to Family Tree DNA, as follows:

From Ancestry  From MyHeritage  From 23andMe  From Living DNA
Family Tree DNA Accepts Yes Yes V3, V4 No

Testing and Transfer Strategy

Transferring to Family Tree DNA is always free, and you can see your matches. In order to view your ethnicity and use advanced tools like the chromosome browser, you’ll need to purchase the $19 unlock.

Remember that while Ancestry and MyHeritage both have records subscriptions to sell you, Family Tree DNA doesn’t. For Tier 1 tools, GedMatch requires a subscription. At Family Tree DNA, you pay a one time fee to unlock all of their tools. Every company needs to be profitable to stay in business and develop new tools, and each company has a different product pricing model.

My testing/transfer recommendations are as follows relative to Family Tree DNA:

An Ancestry V1 test is entirely compatible at Family Tree DNA, but with a V2 test, because the testing platform that Ancestry uses is only about 20-25% compatible with the Family Tree DNA test, you’ll only receive your closest 20-25% matches. Family Tree DNA can’t match on those smaller segments if you don’t test on a compatible platform, so please do. I wrote a step-by-step guide about how to download from Ancestry here, including how to tell if you have a V1 or V2 format test.

    • If you have Ancestry V2 results, you can transfer to MyHeritage and GedMatch but I recommend retesting at Family Tree DNA. The cost difference at Family Tree DNA between the $19 unlock and a new Family Finder test is $60, for a total of $79 when the tests aren’t on sale. When they are on sale, it’s less. You never know which match is going to break down that brick wall, and it would be a shame to miss it because you transferred rather than retested.
    • If you test at Family Tree DNA, transfer your results to MyHeritage for free. Matching and ethnicity is free with a transfer to MyHeritage, but you won’t receive the full potential benefit of tree matching with other testers without a subscription.
    • If you test at MyHeritage, transfer your results to Family Tree DNA for free.
    • If you test at 23andMe and have the V3 or V4 test, transfer to both Family Tree DNA and MyHeritage. If you have the 23andMe V5 test, retest at Family Tree DNA and transfer those results to MyHeritage and GedMatch.

Have fun!

_____________________________________________________________________

Standard Disclosure

This standard disclosure appears at the bottom of every article in compliance with the FTC Guidelines.

I provide Personalized DNA Reports for Y and mitochondrial DNA results for people who have tested through Family Tree DNA. I provide Quick Consults for DNA questions for people who have tested with any vendor. I would welcome the opportunity to provide one of these services for you.

Hot links are provided to Family Tree DNA, where appropriate. If you wish to purchase one of their products, and you click through one of the links in an article to Family Tree DNA, or on the sidebar of this blog, I receive a small contribution if you make a purchase. Clicking through the link does not affect the price you pay. This affiliate relationship helps to keep this publication, with more than 900 articles about all aspects of genetic genealogy, free for everyone.

I do not accept sponsorship for this blog, nor do I write paid articles, nor do I accept contributions of any type from any vendor in order to review any product, etc. In fact, I pay a premium price to prevent ads from appearing on this blog.

When reviewing products, in most cases, I pay the same price and order in the same way as any other consumer. If not, I state very clearly in the article any special consideration received. In other words, you are reading my opinions as a long-time consumer and consultant in the genetic genealogy field.

I will never link to a product about which I have reservations or qualms, either about the product or about the company offering the product. I only recommend products that I use myself and bring value to the genetic genealogy community. If you wonder why there aren’t more links, that’s why and that’s my commitment to you.

Thank you for your readership, your ongoing support and for purchasing through the affiliate link if you are interested in making a purchase at Family Tree DNA, or one of the affiliate links below:

Affiliate links are limited to:

Ancestry Step by Step Guide: How to Upload-Download DNA Files

In this Upload-Download Series, we’ll cover each major vendor:

  • How to download raw data files from the vendor
  • How to upload raw data files to the vendor, if possible
  • Other mainstream vendors where you can upload this vendor’s files

Uploading TO Ancestry

This part is easy with Ancestry, because Ancestry doesn’t accept any other vendor’s files. There is no ability to upload TO Ancestry. You have to test with Ancestry if you want results from Ancestry.

Downloading FROM Ancestry

In order to transfer your autosomal DNA file to another testing vendor, or GedMatch, for either matching or ethnicity, you’ll need to first download the file from Ancestry.

Step 1

Sign in to your account at Ancestry and click on the DNA Results Summary link.

Step 2

Click on the Settings gear, at the far upper right hand corner of the summary page, just beneath your Ancestry user ID.

Step 3

Click on the link for “Download Raw DNA Data.”

Step 4

Enter your password and click on “I Understand,” after reading of course.

At that point, the confirm button turns orange – click there.

Step 5

Ancestry will send an e-mail to the e-mail address where you are registered with Ancestry. Check your inbox for that e-mail.

Waiting…waiting.

Still waiting…

If the e-mail doesn’t arrive shortly, check your spam folder. If you’ve changed e-mail addresses, check to be sure your new one is registered with Ancestry. That’s on the same Settings page. If all else fails, request the e-mail again.

Step 6

Ahhh, it’s finally here.

Click on the green “Confirm Data Download” and do not close the window.

Step 7

Next, click on the green “Download DNA Raw Data.”

You’ll see the following confirmation screen.

Step 8

At the bottom of the page, above, if you’re on a PC, you’ll see the typical file download box that asks you if you want to open or save. Save the file as a name you can find later when you want to upload to another site.

The file name will be “dna-data-2018-07-31” where the date is the date you downloaded the file. I would suggest adding the word Ancestry to the front when you save the file on your system.

Most vendors want an unopened zip file, so if you want to open your file, first copy it to another name. Otherwise, you’ll have to download again.

That’s it, you’re done!

Ancestry File Transfers to Other Vendors

Ancestry testing falls into two different categories. V1 tests taken before May of 2016 and V2 tests taken after May 2016. Tests processed during May 2016 could be either version.

The difference between V1 and V2 files is that Ancestry changed the chips they use to test and different DNA positions are tested, resulting in a file of a different format.

If you don’t remember when you tested, make a copy of your Ancestry file using a different name, like, “Opened Ancestry file 7-31-2018.” Then just click to open the zip file.

The first four rows of the file will say something like this:

#AncestryDNA raw data download
#This file was generated by AncestryDNA at: 08/11/2017 07:23:49 UTC
#Data was collected using AncestryDNA array version: V1.0
#Data is formatted using AncestryDNA converter version: V1.0

This is a version 1 (V1) file.

A version 2 file will say V2.0.

Your upload results to other vendors’ sites will vary in terms of both matching and ethnicity accuracy based on your Ancestry version number, as follows:

From below to >>>>>>>>>>> Family Tree DNA Accepts ** MyHeritage Accepts*** 23andMe Accepts* GedMatch Accepts ****
Ancestry before May 2016 (V1) Yes, fully compatible Yes, fully compatible No Yes
Ancestry after May 2016 (V2) Yes, partly compatible Yes, fully compatible No Yes

*Note that 23andMe earlier in 2018 allowed a one-time transfer from Ancestry, but people who transferred results did not receive matches from 23andMe.

**Note that the transfer to Family Tree DNA and matching is free, but advanced tools including the chromosome browser and ethnicity require a $19 unlock fee. That fee is less expensive than retesting, but V2 customers should consider retesting to obtain fully compatible matching and ethnicity results. V2 tests typically receive only the closest 20-25% of matches they would receive if they tested directly at Family Tree DNA.

***MyHeritage utilizes a technique known as imputation to achieve compatibility between different vendors files. The transfer and tools are free, but without a subscription you can’t fully utilize all of the MyHeritage benefits available.

****I’m not sure exactly how GedMatch compensates for the V1 versus V2 differences, but they can handle both data file types. Most people don’t take both tests, but I was conducting an experiment and have uploaded both V1 and V2 tests.

A quick survey of GedMatch matches to my Ancestry V1 and Ancestry V2 kits shows that of my first 249 (125 V2, 124 V1) matches, I have 3 V1 tests that don’t have a corresponding match to a person on the V2 kit, and 5 V2 kits that don’t have a corresponding V1 kit match. That’s roughly a 6% nonmatch rate between Ancestry V1 and V2 kits. I would presume that as the genealogical and genetic distance increases with more distant matches, so would the percentage of non-matches because the segment size is smaller with more distant matches, so there is less matching DNA to have the opportunity to match in the first place.

Testing and Transfer Strategy

My recommendation, if you test at Ancestry, is to transfer your V1 results to MyHeritage, Family Tree DNA and GedMatch.

An Ancestry V1 test is entirely compatible at Family Tree DNA, but with a V2 test, because the testing platform that Ancestry uses is only about 20-25% compatible with the Family Tree DNA test, you’ll only receive your closest 20-25% matches. Family Tree DNA can’t match on those smaller segments if you don’t test on a compatible platform, so please do.

If you have Ancestry V2 results, transfer to MyHeritage and GedMatch but retest at Family Tree DNA. The cost difference at Family Tree DNA between the $19 unlock and a new Family Finder test is $60, for a total of $79 when the tests aren’t on sale. When they are on sale, it’s less. Right now, the tests are only $59.

You never know which match is going to break down that brick wall, and it would be a shame to miss it because you transferred rather than retested.

Matching and ethnicity is free with a transfer to MyHeritage, but you won’t receive the full potential benefit of SmartMatching without a subscription, as free trees are limited to 250 people and genealogical records aren’t included without a subscription. My subscription has been well worth the $.

_____________________________________________________________________

Standard Disclosure

This standard disclosure appears at the bottom of every article in compliance with the FTC Guidelines.

I provide Personalized DNA Reports for Y and mitochondrial DNA results for people who have tested through Family Tree DNA. I provide Quick Consults for DNA questions for people who have tested with any vendor. I would welcome the opportunity to provide one of these services for you.

Hot links are provided to Family Tree DNA, where appropriate. If you wish to purchase one of their products, and you click through one of the links in an article to Family Tree DNA, or on the sidebar of this blog, I receive a small contribution if you make a purchase. Clicking through the link does not affect the price you pay. This affiliate relationship helps to keep this publication, with more than 900 articles about all aspects of genetic genealogy, free for everyone.

I do not accept sponsorship for this blog, nor do I write paid articles, nor do I accept contributions of any type from any vendor in order to review any product, etc. In fact, I pay a premium price to prevent ads from appearing on this blog.

When reviewing products, in most cases, I pay the same price and order in the same way as any other consumer. If not, I state very clearly in the article any special consideration received. In other words, you are reading my opinions as a long-time consumer and consultant in the genetic genealogy field.

I will never link to a product about which I have reservations or qualms, either about the product or about the company offering the product. I only recommend products that I use myself and bring value to the genetic genealogy community. If you wonder why there aren’t more links, that’s why and that’s my commitment to you.

Thank you for your readership, your ongoing support and for purchasing through the affiliate link if you are interested in making a purchase at Family Tree DNA, or one of the affiliate links below:

Affiliate links are limited to:

Concepts: Anonymized Versus Pseudonymized Data and Your Genetic Privacy

Until recently, when people (often relatives) expressed concerns about DNA testing, genetic genealogy buffs would explain that the tester could remain anonymous, and that their test could be registered under another name; ours, for example.

This means, of course, that since our relative is testing for OUR genealogy addiction, er…hobby, that we would take care of those pesky inquiries and everything else. Not only would they not be bothered, but their identity would never be known to anyone other than us.

Let’s dissect that statement, because in some cases, it’s still partially true – but in other cases, anonymity in DNA testing is no longer possible.

You certainly CAN put your name on someone else’s kit and manage their account for them. There are a variety of ways to accomplish this, depending on the testing vendor you select.

If the DNA testing is either Y or mitochondrial DNA, it’s extremely UNLIKELY, if not impossible, that their Y or mitochondrial DNA is going to uniquely identify them as an individual.

Y and mitochondrial DNA is extremely useful in identifying someone as having descended from an ancestor, or not, but it (probably) won’t identify the tester’s identity to any matching person – at least not without additional information.

If you need a brush-up on the different kinds of DNA and how they can be used for genealogy, please read 4 Kinds of DNA for Genetic Genealogy.

Y and mitochondrial DNA can be used to rule in or rule out specific descendant relationships. In other words, you can unquestionably tell for sure that you are NOT related through a specific line. Conversely, you can sometimes confirm that you are most likely related to someone you match through the direct Y (patrilineal) line for males, and matrilineal mitochondrial line for both males and females. That match could be very distant in time, meaning many generations – even hundreds or thousands of years ago.

However, autosomal DNA, which tests a subset of all of your DNA for the genealogical goal of matching to cousins and confirming ancestors is another matter entirely. Some of the information you discern from autosomal testing includes how closely you match, which effectively predicts a range of relationships to your match.

These matches are much more recent in time and do not reach back into the distant past. The more closely you are related, the more DNA you share, which means that your DNA is identifying your location in the family tree, regardless of the name you put on the test itself.

Now, let’s look at the difference between anonymization and pseudonymization.

It may seem trivial, but it isn’t.

Anonymization vs Pseudonymization

Recently, as a result of the European Union GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation,) we’ve heard a lot about privacy and pseudonymization, which is not the same as anonymized data.

Anonymized data must be entirely stripped of any identifiable information, making it impossible to derive insights on a discreet individual, even by the person or entity who performed the anonymization. In other words, anonymization cannot be reversed under any circumstances.

Given that the purpose of genetic genealogy conflicts with the concept of anonymization, the term pseudonymization is more properly applied to the situation where someone masks or replaces the name of the tester with the goal of hiding the identity of the person who is actually taking the test.

Pseudonymization under GDPR (Article 4(5)) is defined as “the processing of personal data in such a way that the data can no longer be attributed to a specific data subject without the use of ‘additional information.’”

In reality, pseudonymization is what has been occurring all along, because the tester could always be re-identified by you.

However, and this important, neither anonymization or pseudonymization can be guaranteed to disguise your identity anymore.

Anonymous Isn’t Anonymous Anymore

The situation with autosomal DNA and the expectation of anonymity has changed rather gradually over the past few years, but with tidal wave force recently with the coming-of-age of two related techniques:

  • The increasingly routine identification of biological parents
  • The Buckskin Girl and Golden State Killer cases in which a victim and suspect were identified in April 2018, respectively, by the same methodology used to identify biological parents

Therefore, with autosomal DNA results, meaning the raw data results file ONLY, neither total anonymity or any expectation of pseudonymization is reasonable or possible.

Why?

The reason is very simple.

The size of the data bases of the combined mainstream vendors has reached the point where it’s unusual, at least for US testers, to not have a reasonably close match with a relative that you did not personally test – meaning third cousin or closer. Using a variety of tools, including in-common-with matches and trees, it’s possible to discern or narrow down candidates to be either a biological parent, a crime victim or a suspect.

In essence, the only real difference between genetic genealogy searching, parent searches and victim/suspect searches is motivation. The underlying technique is exactly the same with only a few details that differ based on the goal.

You can read about the process used to identify the Golden State Killer here, and just a few days later, a second case, the Cook/Van Cuylenborg double homicide cold case in Snohomish County, Washington was solved utilizing the following family tree of the suspect whose DNA was utilized and matched the blue and pink cousins.

Provided by the Snohomish County Sheriff

A genealogist discovering those same matches, of course, would be focused on the common ancestors, not contemporary people or generations.

To identify present day individuals, meaning parents, victims or suspects, the researcher identifies the common ancestor and works their way forward in time. The genealogist, on the other hands, is focused on working backwards in time.

All three types of processes, genealogical, parent identification and law enforcement depend on identifying cousins that lead us to common ancestors.

At that point, the only question is whether we continue working backwards (genealogically) or begin working forwards in time from the common ancestors for either parent identification or law enforcement.

Given that the suspect’s or victim’s name or identifying information is not known, their DNA alone, in combination with the DNA of their matches can identify them uniquely (unless they are an identical twin,) or closely enough that targeted testing or non-genetic information will confirm the identification.

Sometimes, people newly testing discover that a parent, sibling or half sibling genetic match is just waiting for them and absolutely no analysis is necessary. You can read about the discovery of the identity of my brother’s biological family here and here.

Therefore, we cannot represent to Uncle Henry, especially when discussing autosomal DNA testing, that he can test and remain anonymous. He can’t. If there is a family secret, known or unknown to Uncle Henry, it’s likely to be exposed utilizing autosomal DNA and may be exposed utilizing either Y or mitochondrial DNA testing.

For the genealogist, this may cause Pavlovian drooling, but Uncle Henry may not be nearly so enthralled.

In Summary

Genealogical methods developed to identify currently living individuals has obsoleted the concept of genetic anonymity. You can see in the pedigree chart example below how the same match, in yellow, can lead to solving any of the three different scenarios we’ve discussed.

Click to enlarge any graphic

If the tester is Uncle Henry, you might discover that his parents weren’t his parents. You also might discover who his real parents were, when your intention was only to confirm your common great-grandparents. So much for that idea.

A match between Henry and a second cousin, in our example above, can also identify someone involved in a law enforcement situation – although today those very few and far between. Testing for law enforcement purposes is prohibited according to the terms and conditions of all 4 major testing vendors; Ancestry, 23andMe, Family Tree DNA and MyHeritage.

Currently law enforcement kits to identify either victims or suspects can be uploaded at GedMatch but only for violent crimes identified as either homicide or sexual assault, per their terms and conditions.

Furthermore, both 23andMe and Ancestry who previously reserved the right to anonymize your genetic information and sell or otherwise utilize that information in aggregated format no longer can do so under the new GDPR legislation without your specific consent. GDPR, while a huge pain in the behind for other reasons has returned the control of the consumer’s DNA to the consumer in these cases.

The loss of anonymity is the inevitable result of this industry maturing. That’s good news for genetic genealogy. It means we now have lots of matches – sometimes more than we can keep up with!

Because of those matches, we know that if we test our DNA, or that of a family member, our DNA plus the common DNA shared with many of our relatives is enough to identify us, or them. That’s not news to genealogists, but it might be to Uncle Henry, so don’t tell him that he can be anonymous anymore.

You can pseudonymize accounts to some extent by masking Uncle Henry’s name or using your name. Managing accounts for the same reasons of convenience that you always did is just fine! We just need to explain the current privacy situation to Uncle Henry when asking permission to test or to upload his raw data file to GedMatch (or anyplace else,) because ultimately, Uncle Henry’s DNA leads to Uncle Henry, no matter whose name is on the account.

_____________________________________________________________________

Standard Disclosure

This standard disclosure appears at the bottom of every article in compliance with the FTC Guidelines.

Hot links are provided to Family Tree DNA, where appropriate. If you wish to purchase one of their products, and you click through one of the links in an article to Family Tree DNA, or on the sidebar of this blog, I receive a small contribution if you make a purchase. Clicking through the link does not affect the price you pay. This affiliate relationship helps to keep this publication, with more than 900 articles about all aspects of genetic genealogy, free for everyone.

I do not accept sponsorship for this blog, nor do I write paid articles, nor do I accept contributions of any type from any vendor in order to review any product, etc. In fact, I pay a premium price to prevent ads from appearing on this blog.

When reviewing products, in most cases, I pay the same price and order in the same way as any other consumer. If not, I state very clearly in the article any special consideration received. In other words, you are reading my opinions as a long-time consumer and consultant in the genetic genealogy field.

I will never link to a product about which I have reservations or qualms, either about the product or about the company offering the product. I only recommend products that I use myself and bring value to the genetic genealogy community. If you wonder why there aren’t more links, that’s why and that’s my commitment to you.

Thank you for your readership, your ongoing support and for purchasing through the affiliate link if you are interested in making a purchase at Family Tree DNA, or one of the affiliate links below:

Affiliate links are limited to:

The Science Behind the Golden State Killer – Insitome Podcast

Please join Spencer Wells, Founder and CEO of Insitome, former Director of the Genographic Project and Explorer in Residence at National Geographic, Razib Khan, Director of Scientific Content at Insitome and yours truly as we discuss the science behind the Golden State Killer case.

I would like to thank Spencer and Razib for inviting me to join them today. It was fun discussing the case itself and the possible ramifications to this entire industry. I was going to add, “in the future,” but the future is here.

The Golden State Killer case is remarkable because of the combined techniques used to solve the crime which include DNA, genealogy and associated data bases in addition to traditional investigative work.

As Spencer Wells says in the podcast, this case is “Sherlock Holmesian.” What a movie this will make one day!

I wrote about this topic a few days ago in the article, The Golden State Killer and DNA.

How did all of these techniques work together to identify a suspect? How does the actual science work? Is it accurate? Are there issues? What about privacy concerns with more than 17 million people having already participated in direct to consumer testing?

Yes, more than 17 million at the end of 2017 – probably more than 20 million now and maybe 30 million by year end. Razib weighs in on how many is enough for forensic testing.

Learn about the underlying science and hear what Spencer and Razib, both geneticists, have to say.

Please join us at any of the following links:

For those who might not be aware, Spencer’s company, Insitome, doesn’t offer DNA testing for matching, so can’t be used for law enforcement purposes.

Insitome does offer Neanderthal, Regional Ancestry and Metabolism DNA testing. In fact, the Mother’s Day pricing is 60% off of their Regional Ancestry test which provides you with your regional ethnicity for $49.

_____________________________________________________________________

Standard Disclosure

This standard disclosure appears at the bottom of every article in compliance with the FTC Guidelines.

Hot links are provided to Family Tree DNA, where appropriate. If you wish to purchase one of their products, and you click through one of the links in an article to Family Tree DNA, or on the sidebar of this blog, I receive a small contribution if you make a purchase. Clicking through the link does not affect the price you pay. This affiliate relationship helps to keep this publication, with more than 900 articles about all aspects of genetic genealogy, free for everyone.

I do not accept sponsorship for this blog, nor do I write paid articles, nor do I accept contributions of any type from any vendor in order to review any product, etc. In fact, I pay a premium price to prevent ads from appearing on this blog.

When reviewing products, in most cases, I pay the same price and order in the same way as any other consumer. If not, I state very clearly in the article any special consideration received. In other words, you are reading my opinions as a long-time consumer and consultant in the genetic genealogy field.

I will never link to a product about which I have reservations or qualms, either about the product or about the company offering the product. I only recommend products that I use myself and bring value to the genetic genealogy community. If you wonder why there aren’t more links, that’s why and that’s my commitment to you.

Thank you for your readership, your ongoing support and for purchasing through the affiliate link if you are interested in making a purchase at Family Tree DNA, or one of the affiliate links below:

Affiliate links are limited to: