Katharina Gockeler (1612-1677), One Child Survived – 52 Ancestors #369

Catharina or Katharina Gockeler was born in Schnait, Germany on October 9, 1612, to Hans Gockeler and his wife, Katharina, whose surname is unknown.

For some time, Katharina’s surname was recorded as Lenz. She did marry a Lenz man, but in a small German village, it certainly wouldn’t be unheard of for the bride’s surname to be the same since families had resided in that area for generations. Martin Goll, the local historian, discovered that her surname was Gockeler, not Lenz, and provided me with updated information. A HUGE thank you to Martin for this and all of his other research which he has generously shared.

Katharina’s Childhood

Photo courtesy of cousin Wolfram.

Katharina’s parents and godparents stood beside the minister at the baptismal font before the alter in St. Wendelin Church as baby Katharina was baptized.

Hans Lenz, the baker, would have been attending church that day too. He lived where the red star is located, just a few feet away, across the market square from the church in Schnait.

Hans Lenz had a son, also named Hans Lenz, who was born on January 24, 1602. Hans the younger would have been ten years old at the time and was likely attending church with his parents. During Katharina’s baptism, he was probably squirming and fidgeting in that hard wooden pew, the way 10-year-old boys do, not very patiently waiting for church to be over.

I wonder if Hans remembered being present at Katharina‘s baptism. If Hans was a normal boy, he was probably either annoyed at having to stay late for the baptism, or distracted by a bug, leaf, or some such. However, 23 years later, Hans Lenz would marry that baby girl.

A lot would happen during that 23 years, though.

Schnait

Schnait, shown here in 1685, was a beautiful, quaint, village, nestled between hills, just a block or two in either direction.

Most residents were vinedressers, tending the vineyards on the rolling hillsides outside town, except for the obligatory butcher, baker, and candlestick maker in every village, plus the minister, of course.

The Gockelers had family in neighboring Beutelsbach, as did most families in Schnait, according to early records. Prior to 1570, Schnait was too small to have its own church, so the families in Schnait worshipped in Beutelsbach and were quite intertwined.

The War Begins

In 1618, the 30 Years‘ War changed everyone‘s life – causing terror for the next three decades. Nothing would ever be the same.

Of course, when the war began, no one knew how long it would last, or if Schnait and this part of Germany would be directly involved.

Katherina would have been six years old. Perhaps her parents tried, at least at first, to shield her from what was going on so she wouldn’t be afraid. Soon enough, though, everyone knew. And everyone was afraid.

Unfortunately, the war came to their doorstep and barged into their homes as an unwelcome guest. Catholic and Protestant Princes faced off against one another, their armies battling for decades on German soil. Wurttemberg was a central battlefield of the war, with its population declining by 57% during that time.

Starvation, illness, displacement, and the actual war itself, of course – all took a terrible toll.

The Plague

In 1626, a plague swept through the region, fueled by military conditions, battles, troop movements, and the behavior of the soldiers. Plague and illness were rampant in the camps, and the soldiers moved from place to place, marching across the countryside, again and again.

Celebrations and rituals of normalcy would have been most welcome.

Daydreaming

It’s likely that, a few years later, Katharina attended the wedding of Hans Lenz the younger when he married the Schnait church minister’s daughter, Agnes Eyb, about 1627. The girls certainly knew each other, even though Agnes was older than Katharina by 11 years. Perhaps Katharina looked up to Agnes as the Reverend’s daughter. They had known each other all of their lives and may have been related in one way or another, or many.

At 13, Katharina may have sat during weddings imagining herself as the beautiful blushing bride, one day marrying the love of her life.

God willing, and the war didn’t interfere, one day, it would be her turn.

The war, and thoughts of the war, permeated everything. Even a young girl’s daydreams.

That damned war.

Beutelsbach

Hans Lenz, the baker, and his bride settled up the road in Beutelsbach, while Katherina continued to live in Schnait with her parents.

Infant mortality hovered around 50% during normal times when a war was not taking place, but lack of food, marauding soldiers, pillaging, burning, and the destruction of homes and sometimes entire villages caused the infant mortality rate to rise steeply.

The war dragged on, with soldiers coming and going, taking whatever they wanted, and laying waste to wide swaths of the countryside. Everyone was in danger, all of the time, no matter which side the soldiers were on.

Pressure began to build leading up to the horrific Battle of Nordlingen, arguably the most important battle of the war, fought in September of 1634 not far from Beutelsbach, involving 58,000 soldiers.

Someplace between 12,000 and 16,000 were killed, mostly Protestants, with another 4,000 Protestant soldiers taken captive. How does anyone even begin to bury that many bodies?

The Protestant troops lost that battle, soundly beaten, routed, defeated, making the situation infinitely worse for the German Protestant towns, now occupied by angry, emboldened Catholic soldiers in direct, daily conflict with villagers.

What could possibly go wrong in that pressure-cooker?

By 1634, soldiers were quartered in Beutelsbach. After the Battle of Nordlingen, citizens and village authorities alike were reduced to either begging or bribing soldiers NOT to burn their homes – meaning that in most cases, the pitiful residents had literally nothing of any value left, and no food. Soldiers on both sides took everything.

Until that time, because Hans was a baker and vintner, his property was probably spared because the soldiers enjoyed eating and drinking. Armies run on their stomachs. In other words, Hans was useful to them, but after Nordlingen, that wouldn’t matter anymore.

Fire!

On December 6, 1634, three months after Nordlingen fell, the anger boiled over, and their greatest fear was realized.

Beutelsbach was torched by the soldiers. Anyone who resisted was brutally killed.

Katharina would have watched from Schnait, a mile or so away, as flames rose up and licked the sky. Black smoke billowed over the landscape, for hours, and pretty much everything, save the walled and fortified church, was consumed.

Residents in both locations were cousins probably hundreds of ways. In other words, there wasn’t anyone you weren’t related to, and often, closely.

There was nothing they could do in Schnait while Beutelsbach burned, except to gather as safely as possible, probably in the church, pray, and prepare to shelter any survivors.

God, let there be survivors.

The Schnait minister’s sister was Hans Lenz’s wife, Agnes, living in Beutelsbach.

Agnes was severely burned and was brought to her brother’s home in Schnait. Three days, later, on November 9th, she died and was buried in the Schnait churchyard the following day after her brother preached her funeral. Her brother scribed an agonizing entry in the church “Book of the Dead“ about his “dear sister“ who was burned in the great fire set by the soldiers. His grief-stricken entry is how we know what happened, and when Beutelsbach burned.

Agnes left behind her husband, Hans, and probably young children, if any survived.

Agnes and Hans had been married about seven years, so she would have given birth to at least 3 or 4 children in Beutelsbach, where they lived, although Beutelsbach church records don’t exist for this timeframe.

It’s likely that Hans and Agnes’s children either died as babies, children, or during that horrific fire.

It’s also possible that one of their children outlived Agnes. Martin Goll believes that Georg Lenz (1627-1663), who became a barber-surgeon in Beutelsbach was their child.

If that’s the case, then when Katharina Gockler married the widower, Hans Lenz, sometime about 1635, she would have raised her friend, Agnes’s child or perhaps children as well.

Katharina Marries Hans

As Katharina sat in the church watching Hans and Agnes exchange wedding vows when she was 13 years old, never in her wildest dreams would she have imagined for one minute that SHE would one day marry Hans.

In fact, if Katharina were dreaming about someone as her eventual groom, it would have been some cute boy closer to her age, sitting a pew or two over, thinking about frogs, not a man a decade older at 23.

Yet, it would come to be. Rising from the ashes.

A few months after the fire, sometime about 1635, Katharina Gockler married the widower, Hans Lenz. Again, we have no church records.

Given the circumstances when they began their married life, they did surprisingly well. The war was in its 17th year, give or take, and must have seemed “normal” in a terrible way. They had known nothing else as adults, and war had been a fact of life for most of Katharina’s lifetime – since she was six years old.

Katharina moved to Beutelsbach, where Hans was the baker and vintner, and, as a team, they started over.

Martin believes that a good portion of Hans Lenz‘s wealth came in some way from his wife, Katherina. During his lifetime, Hans built a new house at Siftstrasse 17, pictured above, which still stands today. Additionally, he had at least eight vineyards with just under one hectare, or about 2.5 acres. Most families made do with about one-tenth of that, or a quarter-acre vineyard.

Children

We know that Katharina had four children, based on either records after the war or their church death records as adults, where her name is spelled both Catharina and Katharina. We have no records of children who were born and died during the war, except inferences by silent, vacant spaces in the too-large gap years between births of known children, all of whom were born and died in Beutelsbach. If they died elsewhere after the war, we have no record of them.

  • If Hans and Katherina were married about 1635, they would have had about five children, every 18 months to two years, before having the first child who lived. How soul-crushing for Katharina. I wonder if she dreaded each pregnancy, fearing the death of yet another baby.

Finally, finally, a son was born and survived. Katharina must have been ecstatic and held her breath daily, praying for the best, but fearing the worst.

  • Hans Lenz, my ancestor, also a baker who became a vintner, was born in 1645, during the war, and died on January 22, 1725. He married Barbara Sing in 1669 in Beutelsbach and had 11 children, 6 of which survived to adulthood. Barbara was living for the births of her first six grandchildren, which must have brought her immense joy.
  • Daughter, Katharina Lenz was born on October 26, 1646, and died on October 13, 1689, outliving her mother. She was described as “simple“ in the church records. After her parents’ deaths, she lived with her brother, Hans, who utilized her share of their inheritance to care for her.
  • Another child would have been born in 1648, the year the war finally ended.
  • Maria Lenz was born on January 5, 1650, and died a week later. Another small wooden cross in the churchyard.
  • Another child was probably born in 1652.
  • A daughter, born on March 9, 1654, was also named Maria. She died in 1677 at the age of 23. Martin Goll found no spouse or children for her.

By 1654, Katharina would have been 42. Her childbearing years were over.

Only one of her children would live to reproduce. Lucky for me!

After the War

After the war ended in 1648, Katharina and Hans did quite well for themselves. By the time Hans died 19 years later, in 1667, he had accumulated a significant legacy to leave to his children and grandchildren – a total of 5 houses, ten vineyards, and over 15,000 liters of wine in his cellars. No, that’s not a typo.

Katharina died in Beutelsbach on October 25, 1677, outliving Hans by two months shy of a decade.

Given that her daughter, Maria, died in the same year, although we don’t have a date, I wonder if the plague or pestilence, as epidemics were then known, savaged Beutelsbach once again. Katharina’s granddaughter was born on July 27, 1677, and we have no further entry. I wonder if she died as well. Two additional grandchildren, ages 6 and 7, died two days apart in July of 1678.

This war was with an unseen organism, a germ of some description. One they couldn’t see and probably didn’t know how to fight.

Final Rest

Katharina would have been laid to rest just a few feet from their home in Beutelsbach, probably in the churchyard following her funeral service inside, near her husband and children. Hopefully, it was a beautiful fall day.

Early graves always surrounded the church, but this 1825 map shows that a second cemetery was in use by then, a block or so away from the church and where Katharina Gockeler lived for more than 40 years.

The Beutelsbach church cemetery had been in use since at least 1321 and probably since about 1080, when we know the collegiate church was formed. Given the early date, many regular and plague burials existed in the churchyard. Were graves being reused in Europe at that time, or would villagers have been unwilling or superstitious about digging up plague or smallpox victims, perhaps?

Was the new cemetery utilized because the old one was full, or maybe there were just too many people to bury at one time at some point – like possibly the 1634 fire?

Red stars mark the churchyard, the home where Hans and Katharina lived, and the cemetery. Martin Goll’s red border shows the properties owned by Hans Lenz at his death that were inherited by his son, Hans.

The individual “farms“ and garden plots adjacent to homes are marked with tiny trees, so it’s easy to miss the subtle crosses in the cemetery if you don’t look closely. It appears that today, the cemetery is expanded as needed where those trees used to stand.

As you can see on the map above, the cemetery on the 1825 map is still in use. It’s unknown exactly where Katharina rests, in that cemetery or the churchyard, but we‘re within a few feet, either way.

I can’t help but look at those two burial locations, and in my mind’s eye, view bits of my DNA dotting the landscape, like twinkling stars, if the DNA of those ancestors that I carry today could fluoresce.

Part of me is there with them, and I carry part of them in me today.

_____________________________________________________________

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How to Download Your DNA Match Lists & Segment Files

If you’ve taken an autosomal DNA test and you’re working to determine how your matches are related to you, meaning which ancestors you share, you’ll want to download your DNA match list.

There are three types of files that you can potentially download from each of the major autosomal DNA testing vendors.

Raw DNA file – If you want to upload your DNA file to another vendor for matching at their site (MyHeritage and FamilyTreeDNA,) you’ll need to download your raw data file from the vendor where you tested. I provided step-by-step instructions for this process at each of the vendors, here.

DNA Segment File – This file contains the segment information with each of your matches, including the start and end locations of your matching segment(s), the total number of matching (shared) centiMorgans (cM) above the vendor’s matching threshold, and sometimes the longest segment.

If you want to sort a spreadsheet to look for all of your matches on specific areas of chromosomes, this is the best way to achieve that goal. I use this information at DNAPainter when painting the segments of matches with whom I can identify a common ancestor.

You may be able to download filtered lists or individual match data as well, as opposed to an entire match list spreadsheet, but the methodology varies at each vendor.

Ancestry does not provide segment information at all. 23and Me combines this information with the next file.

Match List – This file will contain your list of matches along with other information about the matches which you will find genealogically helpful. I find using this file easier than viewing each match separately at the vendors when trying to obtain an overview or when searching for a particular surname in either my match list or their ancestral surnames.

I can also sort by haplogroup, for example, which can sometimes help immensely if that information is available.

Ancestry does not facilitate or allow downloading your match list. 23andMe combines this information with your matching DNA segments in one file.

Here’s a handy-dandy summary by testing vendor.

Vendor Raw DNA File DNA Segment File Match List
23andMe Yes, instructions here Yes, instructions in this article Yes, instructions in this article
FamilyTreeDNA Yes, instructions here Yes, instructions in this article Yes, instructions in this article
MyHeritage Yes, instructions here Yes, instructions in this article Yes, instructions in this article
Ancestry Yes, instructions here No, does not provide No, does not provide

I’ve written step-by-step instructions for how to download your Match List and DNA Segment file(s) at each vendor.

23andMe

Please note that 23and Me is the only vendor to limit your matches, which means you will only receive a file containing:

  • 1500 matches if you tested before the V5 chip, so before August 9, 2017, and have not established communications with matches that would have rolled off of your list otherwise. (I have 1805 matches, so have established contact with 305 that would otherwise have rolled off the end.)
  • 1500 if you tested on the V5 chip, so beginning August 9, 2017, but did not establish communications OR did not purchase the health option, OR did not purchase the yearly membership. If you established communications, those matches won’t roll off, and if you purchase the membership, the match threshold is raised. You may still need to establish contact to keep people from rolling off the larger list as well.
  • 5000-ish (23andMe doesn’t say exactly) if you tested on the V5 chip for BOTH ancestry and healthy AND purchased the yearly membership.

You will only receive match information for people who are listed on your restricted match list, not people who have rolled off as closer matches arrived. Therefore, I encourage you to retain your old match lists because some of your matches will be gone each time you download.

23andMe combines your match list with your segment file.

Sign on and select DNA Relatives on the toolbar.

Next, select “See all relatives.”

Scroll to the very bottom and click on Request DNA Relatives Data Download.

Your file will be prepared, and you’ll receive an email when the file is ready to be downloaded. Mine only took a minute or two, and I simply waited on my 23andMe page until the message appeared.

Save and open the downloaded file, and you’ll see a variety of information about each of your matches, in closest-match-first order, including:

  • Match name
  • Chromosome segment match information, including start and end locations, genetic distance (centiMorgans cMs,) and SNPs
  • Maternal and paternal sides if your parent or parents have tested
  • Number of matching segments
  • Relationship information
  • Birth year
  • Percent shared DNA
  • Haplogroups
  • Notes you’ve made
  • Family surnames
  • Family locations
  • 4 Grandparents’ birth country
  • Family Tree URL, external to 23andMe, if provided by tester

FamilyTreeDNA

At FamilyTreeDNA, your match list and segment information are contained in two separate files.

Sign on and click on Family Finder Matches under Autosomal DNA Results and Tools.

You’ll see your matches. At the top of your match list, on the right side, click on “Export CSV.”

You can select “All Matches” or “Filtered Matches.”

If you haven’t selected a filter, you won’t be able to make that selection. Generally, you want the entire match list.

Your match list will be prepared and downloaded.

You’ll find:

  • Match name
  • Relationship information
  • Shared DNA total
  • Longest segment
  • Linked relationship if you have linked that person to their profile card in your tree
  • Ancestral surnames
  • Haplogroups if tested
  • Notes you’ve made
  • Bucketing – Paternal, maternal, both, none
  • X-Match amount

Note – If you’re a male, valid X matches (meaning matches that are not identical by chance,) will always be on your maternal side because you received your Y chromosome from your father instead of a copy of his X. I wrote about X matching, here.

If your match is a male, an X match will always be through his mother’s line.

Segment information is available in a separate download on the chromosome browser page.

Under Autosomal DNA Results and Tools, click on the Chromosome Browser.

You’ll be able to select people to compare in the chromosome browser, but to download all of your matching segments to all of your matches, click on “Download All Segments.”

If you select people to compare your relationship, and then click on “Download Segments,” you’ll only be downloading the segments for the people you are comparing.

To download all of your segments, be sure the “All” is showing in the link and download before selecting anyone for comparison.

MyHeritage

MyHeritage also provides two separate files for matches and chromosome segment information.

Select DNA matches, then the 3-dot menu, then “Export DNA Matches.”

If you also want your individual segment information for your matches, also order the second file on that menu, “Export shared DNA segment info for shared DNA matches.”.

You’ll see a message that your report is being prepared and will be sent to the email address on file.

If your file doesn’t appear in your email box, check your spam folder.

Your match list provides:

  • Match name
  • Age
  • Country
  • Contact link
  • DNA managed by (if not the tester)
  • Contact link for DNA manager
  • Relationship information
  • Total cM
  • Percent of matching DNA
  • Number of matching segments
  • Largest segment
  • Has tree and tree manager
  • Number of people in their tree
  • Tree link and link to contact tree manager
  • Number of SmartMatches
  • Shared ancestral surnames
  • All ancestral surnames
  • Notes you’ve made
  • Has Theory of Family Relativity

Now that you have these files, what do you do with them?

Evaluating

Is there anything that stands out as remarkable, perhaps that you didn’t know or notice before? Patterns that might be informative?

I had a huge brick wall on my mother’s side that has since fallen, but retrospectively, had I reviewed these lists when that wall was still standing firm, there was a huge hint just waiting for me.

My mother has a very unexpected Acadian line through her great-grandfather, Anthony Lore, so 12.5% of her heritage.

On my match list, I see a large number of French surnames, but I didn’t know of any French ancestors on either side of my tree. Many surnames repeat, such as LeBlanc, d’Entremont (which is really unusual), Landry, and deForest. Why were these people on my match list? This is definitely smoke, and there must be fire someplace, but where?

Looking at the locations associated with these matches’ ancestors would have provided additional clues.

However, simply googling my great-grandfather’s surname in combination with those French surnames I listed above produced these 3 top search results.

Yes, you guessed it. Anthony turned out to be “Antoine” and Lore is spelled in a variety of ways, including Lord. His family is Acadian.

That’s Anthony Lore, which is how he was listed on the death certificate of his son, in the software on my computer, above, and here is Antoine Lore at WikiTree, below.

As you can see, that brick wall falling opened a whole new group of ancestors, and along with it, my appreciation of endogamy😊

Match lists facilitate viewing the big picture and can be a very useful tool for people seeking unknowns or trying to group people together in a variety of ways.

Do you have any brick walls that need to fall?

How can or do you utilize your match lists?

_____________________________________________________________

Follow DNAexplain on Facebook, here or follow me on Twitter, here.

Share the Love!

You’re always welcome to forward articles or links to friends and share on social media.

If you haven’t already subscribed (it’s free,) you can receive an email whenever I publish by clicking the “follow” button on the main blog page, here.

You Can Help Keep This Blog Free

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Uploads

Genealogy Products and Services

My Book

Genealogy Books

Genealogy Research