Michael Haag (1649-1727), Village Baker and Judge – 52 Ancestors #284

Michael Haag was born on January 4, 1649, in Heiningen, Germany, the 6th of 7 children born to his parents, but probably only the third child to live.

Haag Michael birth

Michael’s birth record reads:

Baptism: 4 January 1649
Child: Michael (+ 1727 the 10th of April)
Parents: Hanss Haga (Haag) aka Koß & Catharina
Godparents: Michael Fischer & Maria ?

Michael married at the age of 22 years and 6 months, in the midst of the summer in his home church. Hopefully, the church was cool inside the stone walls on July 28, 1671, when Michael wed Margaretha Bechtold, 3 years his elder, daughter of Christoph Bechtold and Margaretha Ziegler of Ebersbach.

The location is somewhat unusual because marriages usually occur in the home church of the bride.

Haag Ebersbach

Ebersbach is about 9 miles through the German countryside from Heiningen.

Haag Michael marriage

Marriage: Friday, the 28th of July 1671

Michael Hag, legitimate son of Hanss Hag, Koss, & Catharina Bäur(in) and Margaretha, legitimate daughter of Christoph Bechtold deceased baker in Ebersbach and Margaretha Ziegeler. Bride pregnant.

Hmmm, perhaps that last statement had something to do with why they were married in his church, instead of hers. However, it’s not like her pregnancy would have been a secret.

Margaretha wasn’t just a couple months pregnant, she delivered their first child less than 2 months after the wedding. Why did they wait so long to marry? Clearly, Margaretha, along with her family, had to have known for several months. She was 25 years old by then.

While it’s noted that the bride was pregnant, ultimately, that mattered little given that Michael was clearly respected within the Heiningen community, serving as a judge for many years.

Given that Margaretha’s father was a deceased baker, and Michael was noted as a baker in Heiningen, I wonder if Michael and Margaretha met when he visited her father. Perhaps Michael apprenticed with her father. I’m sure there’s more to this story that we’ll never know.

Apprentices lived with the family, which would undoubtedly give the young couple ample opportunity to get to know one another. While 9 miles isn’t far, especially not today, a flat mile takes an average person about 20 minutes to walk. That’s 3 hours each way unless one hitched a ride on a wagon. Not convenient for courting, that’s for sure.

Michael and Margaretha went on to have 8 children over the next two decades, including one set of twins that died – the first twin, Maria, the day following their birth, and the second twin, Anna, a little over 6 months later.

Michael Haag’s family register is preserved in the church book, below.

Haag Michael register 2Haag Michael register

Thanks to Chris and Tom for obtaining and translating these various church documents. I can almost reach out through time and touch them.

The Heiningen Heritage book, here, provides us with additional information as well.

Haag Michael family history

Michael’s Sons and Y DNA

Michael and Margaretha had 3 sons. If those sons had sons who continued the Haag male line to present, Haag men can take the Y DNA test which provides insight into Michael’s patrilineal line. Where did the Haag family originate before they adopted the Haag surname? Y DNA can answer that question after church records go stonily silent.

  • Michael’s eldest son, also Michael Haag, a baker, was born in 1673 in Heiningen and died there in 1745. He married Barbara Widmann and had 2 sons, one who died shortly after birth, and Michael (the third) born in 1727 in Heiningen, but of whom nothing more is known.
  • Johann Georg Haag, my ancestor and also a baker, was born in 1682 and died in 1762 in Heiningen. He married Anna Hofschneider and had only one surviving son, Johann Georg, born in 1718, who had one son that might have survived.
  • Jacob Haag was born in 1687 and died in 1755, both in Heiningen. He married Margareta Stolz and had two sons, Johann George and Michael, who lived to marry and have children.

If you are a male who carries the Haag surname patrilineally and descends from this family, I have a Y DNA testing scholarship for you. I’d love to hear from you.

Michael was Buried on Good Friday

Michael Haag lived to be 78 years old, outliving Margaretha by just under 10 months.

Michael died on April 9, 1727, in Heiningen, the same village where he was born, married, and baked during his lifetime.

Haag Michael burial

Burial: the 10th of April 1727, Michael Haag Coß from a stroke and was buried on Good Friday, when he had reached his 79th year and had been in respectable service for forty years; offering at his funeral.

There must be some significance to, “offering at his funeral.” Was this unusual, or special. Was this for the family or the church, in particular, relative to Good Friday? If an offering was normally taken, it probably wouldn’t have been mentioned, so I have to wonder why this was worth recording, remarkable in some way.

Death from strokes have been reported in many members of this family line. I wonder if there was an underlying issue or if Michael had heart disease or another ailment.

This record reveals a very interesting tidbit.

Koss or Cos

Michael’s father, Johannes, is noted as “Kos” several times in his own records:

Hanss Haga aka Koß as well as Hanss Haga, the smith’s son called Koss

Now, in his death record, we see that Michael himself is referred to as Coß as well. Is this Michael’s nickname, called after his father?

Tom and Chris, a Native German speaker, are uncertain what “Kos” means, although it seems to be a nickname or alternate name of some sort. Tom suggested perhaps a farm name, and Chris mentioned that a certain type of peasant farmer is known as a “kossat,” but that term is found more in eastern Germany, not in this region.

The location of the word “Koss” and “Cos” in the records is always positioned after the surname, which may be a second hint, although I don’t know what it’s hinting at.

Regardless of what Kos means, it tickles me to know that I’m seeing Michael’s nickname, and one that was his father’s as well. It must have been quite affectionately bestowed, bonding the two generations together, and likely brought Michael comfort and peace after his father’s death in 1678 when Michael was 29 years old. Cos likely brought a smile to his lips, after it stopped bringing a tear to his eye.

Village Life

German towns were generally arranged with farmhouses clustered into small villages that were often walled, or the houses themselves formed village walls in order to protect the residents who then walked into the fields. Farms in Germany were different than farms in the US, which were (and are) widely scattered.

The old portion of the village is the central squared area above, bordered by Hauptstrasse and Kirchstrasse, an area that includes portions of the old wall surrounding the church.

You can see photos of Heiningen, here, including the old wall and buildings dating from the time when Michael would have lived.

Even today, Heiningen isn’t large, although modern homes are built on the land that was once fields, between the old village center with its ancient market fountain and the local water source, a creek only a few hundred feet away. Michael and Margaretha likely made that trip to the stream, or to the central well, thousands and thousands of times. A baker can’t bake without water, and Michael would have baked every single day.

It’s certainly possible that Michael lived on the farm or in the house that his parents originally lived in as well, which might confer the “house name” along with the property. When Michael married, his father was called Koss, and when Michael died, he was referred to as Cos.

I wonder if other people in Heiningen were known by nicknames that might reflect their house or farm or something else. For that name to be recorded in the official church records, Cos must somehow have been a defining name, as either a nickname or perhaps even as an alternate surname. Perhaps Koss differentiated this Haag family from another, unrelated, family. I find neither Koss, Cos nor anything similar among the surnames listed in Heiningen.

I wonder if Michael’s 40 years of “respectable service” mentioned in the church death entry means that’s how long he served as a judge in the community. Forty years would date back to 1687, when Michael would have been 37 years old and had at least 6 children, with the 7th arriving that June.

By 1687, Michael would have been well-established within the community. Margaretha’s death entry mentioned that Michael was a baker and “oldest judge.”

A Good Friday Funeral

Haag Michael Good Friday

Michael was buried on Good Friday, known then as Holy Friday, the liturgical date commemorating Christ’s Crucifixion.

Generally, Lutheran churches, draped in black paraments, undertake a three hours devotion of some sort, from noon to 3, the time during which Christ suffered before death.

The Eucharist was received, and church services were often accentuated by special music such as St. Matthew Passion, written by Johann Sebastian Bach and first performed on Good Friday in 1727, the year Michael died. You can view the nearly 3-hour classical music performance by the Bach Society, here.

We learn more about Good Friday in the Lutheran Church, as follows:

In Lutheran tradition from the 16th to the 20th century, Good Friday was the most important religious holiday, and abstention from all worldly works was expected. During that time, Lutheranism had no restrictions on the celebration of the Eucharist on Good Friday; on the contrary, it was a prime day on which to receive the Eucharist.

The Good Friday liturgy appointed in Evangelical Lutheran Worship, the worship book of the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America, specifies a liturgy similar to the revised Roman Catholic liturgy. A rite for adoration of the crucified Christ includes the optional singing of the Solemn Reproaches in an updated and revised translation which eliminates some of the anti-Jewish overtones in previous versions. Many Lutheran churches have Good Friday services, such as the Three Hours’ Agony centered on the remembrance of the “Seven Last Words,” sayings of Jesus assembled from the four gospels, while others hold a liturgy that places an emphasis on the triumph of the cross, and a singular biblical account of the Passion narrative from the Gospel of John.

More recently, Lutheran liturgical practice has recaptured Good Friday as part of the larger sweep of the great Three Days: Maundy Thursday, Good Friday, and the Vigil of Easter. The Three Days remain one liturgy which celebrates the death and resurrection of Jesus. As part of the liturgy of the Three Days, Lutherans generally fast from the Eucharist on Good Friday. Rather, it is celebrated in remembrance of the Last Supper on Maundy Thursday and at the Vigil of Easter.

One practice among Lutheran churches is to celebrate a Tenebrae service on Good Friday, typically conducted in candlelight and consisting of a collection of passion accounts from the four gospels.

Haag Michael tenebrae

By Bhuck – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=6469502

Fifteen candles on a Tenebrae hearse at the Mainz Cathedral, where the candles are extinguished one by one during the course of the service.

Haag Michael candles

During the Lutheran Tenebrae service, there is a gradual dimming of the lights and extinguishing of the candles as the service progresses. Toward the end of the service, the central Christ candle, if present, is removed from the sanctuary.

A concluding Strepitus, or loud noise, typically made by slamming shut the Bible, is made, symbolizing the earthquake that took place, and the agony of creation, at the death of Christ.

Haag Michael church program

The front cover of a Lutheran Church Good Friday bulletin explains that extinguishing the candles represents abandonment and loneliness.

Along with observing a general Lenten fast, many Lutherans emphasize the importance of Good Friday as a day of fasting within the calendar. A Handbook for the Discipline of Lent recommends the Lutheran guideline to “Fast on Ash Wednesday and Good Friday with only one simple meal during the day, usually without meat.”

Candles

Candles seem to be an ever-present important theme in the life of the Haag family in Heiningen. Michael’s son, Hans, born in 1682, married Anna Hofschneider on February 2, 1706, the feast of Candlemas. During that celebration, candles to be used throughout the year for families and the church would be blessed.

The candles lit and extinguished on Good Friday, during the traditional church service, as well as for Michael’s funeral, would assuredly have been blessed that previous February at Candlemas. I wonder how the priest or minister tied Michael’s life and funeral service a sermon to Good Friday. Surely, he must have.

I wonder if Michael was buried in the churchyard before or after the Good Friday service?

I wonder if the funeral attendees, all of the village residents, were quite serene, in the spirit of both Michael and Christ’s deaths, or if they celebrated Michael’s life by eating hot cross buns sometime after 3 PM.

Personally, I’m voting for the latter.

Hot Cross Buns

Haag Michael hot cross buns

Given that Michael was a baker and taking into account my love for all things yeast (Michael would approve) – I have to include hot cross buns in Michael’s story.

For all I know, hot cross buns might have been baked in Germany when Michael was the village baker. Hot cross buns are certainly popular today, and an abundance of recipes are available, all making me hungry.

Hot cross buns, with a cross marked on top, are buns eaten on Good Friday at the end of Lent. They are sometimes made with fruit and spice, signifying the spices used to embalm Christ. In traditionally Christian countries, plain unleavened bread with no dairy products is eaten during Lent, to midday Good Friday. It’s no wonder these raised yeast buns are so widely enjoyed.

English folklore includes many protective superstitions surrounding hot cross buns. One theory is that the buns began in the 1300s at St. Albans Church in London, but no one really knows.

There is mention of hot cross buns being for sale for Good Friday by a London street crier in Poor Robin’s Almanac in 1733 and rules about when those scrumptious buns could and could not be sold dated to the 16th century. Seriously, bun regulations. They must have been absolutely wonderful to require rules.

Indeed, a tradition this wonderful would have migrated throughout Europe before long.

Somehow, it would only have been fitting for Michael Haag, Koss, the baker, to have his life celebrated at his funeral with warm and wonderful hot cross buns.

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Blanche of Castile, Queen of France (1188-1252), An Astute Matriarch – 52 Ancestors #283

You know, I think I like homeschooling.

Earlier this week, my daughter-in-law asked me if we descend from Blanche of Castile, because my 11-year-old granddaughter, Miss Sylvia, was working on a Medieval history assignment.

Yes, Sylvia, as a matter of fact, we are!

Of course, knowing she is descended from Blanche made the assignment much more personal and interesting.

Blanche relationship calculator.png

Blanche, also known as Blanca, is Sylvia’s 25th great-grandmother. Sylvia is also related to Blanche in multiple ways as well.

Of course, a 25th great grandmother means that Blanche is 27 generations back in Sylvia’s tree. That’s hard to imagine, but the good news is that once you connect with your “gateway ancestor,” royal pedigrees branching upstream of those gateway ancestors are well researched and publicly available for the compiling. Wikitree has a gateway ancestor list here, an Ancestry search here, and Geni, here.

Estes chart final Louis VIII

I had this beautiful pedigree chart created years ago. While this abbreviated pedigree doesn’t actually show Blanche herself, you can see the tiny black box around King Louis VIII, Blanche’s husband. As it turns out, Blanche ruled longer and had a more enduring effect on history that King Louis.

I’m not sure how Miss Sylvia selected Blanche for her report, but I can see Blanche’s likeness in Princess Sylvia.

sylvia princess

Meet Blanche

Blanche pedigree.png

Blanche was born on March 4th, 1188 in variously named castles located in Palencia and Valencia, Castile, to Alfonso VIII, King of Castile, and Eleanor Plantagenet of England. Truth be told, I don’t think anyone knows exactly where she was born, other than Castile.

Blanche Sagunto Castle.jpg

This fortified Sagunto Castle complex in Valencia, drawn in 1563, would be a good candidate for where a queen might bear a child, safe from invaders and protected.

Just like Sylvia, Blanche was born a princess.

Blanche San Francisco.jpg

The San Francisco Church in Palencia was built in the 1200s, possible in Blanche’s lifetime, and certainly reflecting the architectural styles that she would have found familiar.

Blanche manuscrpt.jpg

Blanche’s likeness is recorded in a stunningly beautiful illuminated manuscript created in Paris between 1227 and 1234.

The woman depicted in the manuscript may actually have been created to resemble Blanche, at least somewhat. Blanche’s husband, King Louis, died in 1226 and this manuscript, begun in 1227, may have been created to honor Blanche. Note that she appears beside a much younger monarch, likely her son, only a boy of age 13 in 1227, but the King nonetheless.

These illuminated pages, in residence at the Morgan Library and Museum, are bound in a brown, stamped leather case from about 1500, lettered: The Apocalypse: Illuminated Manuscript – 13th Century.

The provenance of these illuminated pages is listed as:

Executed in France, ca. 1227-1234 for Blanche of Castille and her son St. Louis, possibly as a gift to the Cathedral of Toledo, where the main portion of the manuscript now is; M.240 was removed from the Toledo portion by ca. 1400; binding dates from ca. 1500.

Blanche ruled the kingdom beginning in 1226, as regent, a noble who rules on behalf of the rightful monarch who cannot due to their age, absence, or other incapacity. In 1226, Blanche ruled on behalf of her son who was crowned as king at age 12 upon the death of his father.

This image, probably of Blanche, is part of a larger painting on the upper half of a manuscript page.

Blanche and Louis IX.png

Crowned queen, possibly Blanche of Castile, veiled in white, wearing vair-lined mantle, seated on throne of foliate type, raises hands toward crowned king, possibly Louis IX of France, beardless, holding bird surmounting fleur-de-lis scepter in right hand and round object, possibly seal matrix, in left hand, seated on throne.

Blanche’s husband, King Louis VIII, of France, died in 1226 when their son, Louis IX, the heir apparent, was but 12 years old. Blanche had him crowned as king within a month of Louis’s death, forced reluctant barons to swear allegiance, served as regent of the kingdom, ruling during her son’s minority, and exerting significant influence throughout her life. At the age of 38, Blanche was ruling the kingdom and would continue to do so for the next decade.

Blanche was no hands-off monarch. She raised an army, orchestrated surprise attacks, riding into battle herself shortly after her husband’s death, leading the army, literally. Blanche gathered wood to help keep her soldiers warm, building immense loyalty among the men. She was no ordinary woman, made of unflinching mettle, pardon the pun.

She simply figured out how to do what needed to be done, and did it.

The Life of an Astute Matriarch

Miss Sylvia’s titled her report about Blanche for Mrs. Peterson’s class, The Life of an Astute Matriarch.

Let’s let Sylvia tell Blanche’s story, with minor edits, hotlinks, and a couple of strategically placed comments by grandma.

“The question is not who’s going to let me, it’s who’s going to stop me,” – Marie Curie.

Yep, indeed, there’s certainly a lot of Blanche’s character in Sylvia!

Queen Blanche of Castile was honorably descended from a knowledgeable and regal European family. Blanche was headstrong, and religious. Blanche had an impenetrable bond with her husband, Louis VIII, and her son, Louis IX. One example is when Blanche died, her son was devastated. This Queen of Castile, continued controlling, capably till the day that she died.

Queen Blanche of Castile, who was born March 3, 1188, was born into Spanish, French, and English royalty. Bearing great responsibility, Blanche was the pious daughter of King Alphonso VIII of Castile and Princess Eleanor Plantagenet of England. Incredibly, her grandfather was (King) Henry II of England and her grandmother was the lovely Eleanor of Aquitaine. Also, her great-uncle was King John I of England. Because she was smart and strong willed, her grandmother favored Blanche over her older sister to be the future Queen of France. Around 11-12 years-old, Blanche was betrothed to Louis VIII of France, when he was 12-13 years-old. That was extremely young!

Don’t get any ideas, Sylvia!!!

After Blanche was unexpectantly affianced, her grandmother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, visited Spain and swept her away to France to meet her future husband. Remarkably, after a short betrothal, Blanche married Louis. This marriage was arranged by King John I of England, although Blanche would cherish her husband. Their marriage set in place a truce between England and France over land.

Blanche of Castile endured heart ailments after many years of ruling as regent. Because she was committed, she continued presiding over the court, while her son the King was imprisoned in the Holy Land.

In November of 1252, while her son was still in the Holy Land, on her way to the Abbey of the Lys, she suffered a heart attack. Tragically, when she returned to the Palace of the Louvre, she died, leaving her dutiful son to rule. Mourning the loss of his mother, King Louis IX did not speak for two days. While Blanche was buried at Maubuisson Abbey, which she intelligently helped create, her heart was taken to the Abbey of the Lys. She never saw her son.

Queen Blanche of Castile, who was married very young, was a wise and respected queen. Blanche and her husband, King Louis VIII, adored one another and had an immensely happy life together. Together, they maintained a truce between England and France, and they had thirteen children, five of who survived.

Blanche co-ruled with one of these children, Louis IX, future king of France. When Queen Blanche died her son was heartbroken. He was despondent. He was bitter. He was left to rule alone. He reacted this way because they ruled collaboratively together for most of Blanche’s reign.

Queen Blanche was a proud and dedicated matriarch of her family and kingdom.

Indeed, Sylvia, she was, and is an ancestor we can be mighty proud of.

What do you think, Sylvia? Would you be ready to rule a kingdom at age 12? King Louis IX learned how to rule from his strong mother, Queen Blanche who, herself, had married at the same age he became king.

Arranged Marriages

Arranged marriages in the Middle Ages were the norm, especially in Royal families. Children were married to spouses where political arrangements conferred benefits to the various royal families and kingdoms involved. For example, King John of England signed a treaty ceding the fiefs of Issoudun and Gracay along with other lands in exchange for his niece becoming the Queen of France.

Louis VIII and Blanche were married when she was 12 and he was 13 years old, On May 23, 1200. Their first child was born a few years later, in 1205, but died shortly thereafter.

While their marriage may have been happier than most arranged marriages of the time, Blanche suffered the grief of losing 7 of her 13 children, and not all as babies.

Coronation

Louis and Blanche wouldn’t become king and queen until they were 36 and 35, respectively.

Blanche Cathedral Reims

Cathedrale Notre-Dame de Reims, By Johan Bakker, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=38255047

King Louis VIII and Queen Blanche’s coronation was held on August 6, 1223, in the cathedral in Reims, above, as depicted in the painting below.

Blanche coronation Reims

Coronation of Louis VIII and Blanche of Castile at Reims in 1223, a miniature illuminated manuscript from the Grandes Chroniques de France, painted in the 1450s (Bibliothèque nationale)

Children

Blanche’s five surviving children read like a who’s who of Catholic Sainthood and European nobility.

Blanche Louis IX.jpg

  • Louis IX, King of France, 1214-1270, an extremely devout Catholic. Canonized in 1297 as Saint Louis, his feast day is celebrated on August 25th. Above, shown in the same illuminated manuscript as his mother. Louis IX sponsored France in both the disastrous 7th and 8th Crusades.  Louis had 13 children, 4 of whom died as infants or children, before Blanche’s death.

Blanche son Robert of Artois.jpg

  • Robert I “The Good”, Count of Artois, 1216-1250, one of the Knights Templar who died in the 7th Crusade in Al Mansurah, Egypt is also our ancestor. He had two children, both of whom lived to adulthood.

Blanche son Alphonse of Poiters.jpg

  • Alphonse, Count of Poitiers, 1220-1271, shown above, far left, taking an oath as Count of Toulouse. He served as regent of France after his mother’s death until his brother returned from the 7th Crusade. He took part in the 7th Crusade and died in the 8th. He had no heirs.
Blanche daughter Isabella

By © Marie-Lan Nguyen / Wikimedia Commons, CC BY 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3609986

  • Saint Isabelle, 1225-1270, whose statue is shown above, was two when her father died. She eventually founded a nunnery and although never actually becoming a nun, devoted her entire life to God, refusing to marry even after being betrothed. She was beatified in 1521 and canonized in 1696, her feast day celebrated February 26th.

Given that Isabelle never married nor had children, the mitochondrial DNA of Blanche of Castile did not descend to present-day through Blanche or any of her sisters.

Blanche son Charles of Naples.jpg

  • Charles of Naples, King of Sicily, also known as Charles of Anjou, 1226/27-1285. Charles may have been born after his father’s death in November of 1226 and was the first Capet to be named for Charlemagne, his 13th great-grandfather. Given that his mother was busy ruling the kingdom, as regent, he was primarily raised in the houses of his brothers. An unusual mixture, Charles was a politician, a strategist, a warrior, a King as well as an accomplished poet. Charles had 6 children, all of whom lived beyond Blanche’s death.

In total, Blanche had 21 grandchildren, 17 of whom outlived her.

1226

Think, for just a minute, about Blanch in November of 1226 when Louis VIII died a miserable death of dysentery.

Blanche turned 38 years old that March. She and Louis had celebrated their 26th wedding anniversary in May.

She had born 12 children and was pregnant for her 13th.

  • Blanche’s first child, Blanche, her namesake, was born in 1205 and died soon after. Blanche herself was only 17.
  • Philip was born on September 9, 1209, betrothed in 1215, as was the custom, and died before July 1218, not even 9 years old.
  • Alphonse and John were twins who were born and died on January 26, 1213.
  • Louis IX was born on April 25, 1214, and was the first of Blanche’s children to live past childhood. The eldest, he would succeed his father as king and was 12 when his father died.
  • Robert was born on September 25, 1216, and he too lived to adulthood.
  • Philip was born on February 20, 1218, and died in 1220, a toddler.
  • John was born on July 21, 1219, was betrothed in 1227 but died in 1232 at age 13, before his marriage. John would have been 7 years old when his father died in 1226.
  • Alphonse was born on November 11, 1220, and died in 1271. He married but had no children.
  • Philip Dagobert was born on February 20, 1222, and died in 1232. He would have been 4 years old when his father died.
  • Isabelle born in March 1224 would have been two and a half when her father died. She lived to adulthood but never married.
  • Etienne was born near the end of 1225 and died in early 1227, not long after Louis VIII died. I wonder if she died of dysentery too.
  • Charles was born in 1226 or 1227. Based on Etienne’s birth at the end of 1225, it’s likely that Charles was born about 18 months later, so perhaps in the first few months of 1227.

In November 1226, Blanche had buried 5 children, had a 12-year-old, a 10-year-old, a 7-year-old, a 6-year-old, a 4-year-old, a two and a half-year-old, a 1-year-old and was pregnant. Her husband was deathly ill with highly infectious dysentery, and others in the court probably were too. Etienne, the baby, may have died of the same disease not long after Louis.

Within a month of Louis’s death and funeral, Blanche made immediate arrangements to have her oldest child crowned king in order to avoid a dangerous lapse of power into which others with aspirations of control would attempt to insert themselves. Very shortly thereafter, Blanche buried baby Etienne and gave birth to Charles.

That would have broken any normal woman. Blanche, however, persevered.

Regent

Blanche twice ruled France as a regent. The first time, beginning in 1226 when King Louis VIII died and her son, Louis IX, was too young to rule the kingdom. Blanche ruled a second time in 1248 when King Louis IX set out on the 7th Crusade, against his mother’s wishes. Perhaps more accurately stated, Blanche was dead set against that endeavor. Was she politically savvy, or did she possess a mother’s intuition that things would go disastrously wrong?

Blanche ruled until her death in 1252, with Louis IX not hearing of his mother’s death until in the spring of 1253 after his release from captivity, along with his brothers.

Suffice it to say that Blanche did not die in peace.

One letter from Blanche still exists, penned in 1240 to her subjects, as follows.

Blanche, by the grace of God queen of France, to her beloved citizens and the whole community of Béziers, greetings and love.

That you bear sincere faith towards our [beloved] son the king and have done so in the past and will do so in the future, as we understand from the tenor of your letters and because our beloved, G. des Ormes, seneschal of Carcassonne much extols you, we thank you for your fidelity, in whose constancy we have hope and faith. We ask and request that you so persevere in the constancy of said fidelity and act so faithfully and virilely and give counsel and help to the people of that king our [beloved] son that you deserve to have our help and favor and his.

Enacted at Chateauneuf, A.D.1240, in the month of October.

Burial

In 1236 Blanche funded and founded the Abbaye de Maubuisson, which is where she was buried 16 years later.

Blanche tomb.jpg

This drawing of Blanche’s tomb is found in the Louvre, in Paris.

Blanche’s marble sarcophagus is held, today, in the St. Denis Cathedral in Paris.

The Maubuisson Abbey was decommissioned in 1786 by Louis XVI after the French Revolution, claiming that it had lost its religious function, consigning the abbey commissioned by his 16 times great-grandmother, along with her resting place, to ruin.

Blanche abbey de maubuisson.jpg

Soon, the abbey was used as a military hospital, then a stone quarry and part of a textile mill in the 1800s before being abandoned altogether. I wonder if those people during those years had any idea that a queen rested among them, or if they would have cared if they did. Perhaps by then, her tomb had been destroyed and her bones returned to dust.

Excavations in 1907 unearthed many precious objects that disappeared without a trace, leading to speculation that Blanche’s royally appointed grave had been discovered, and looted.

In 1947, the abbey was classified as a historical monument and in the 1980s, additional archaeological excavations were undertaken. Today, the abbey houses a Centre of Contemporary Arts and a project incubator lab devoted to architectural heritage, contemporary works, and natural history.

As was the custom of the time, Blanche’s heart was removed and sent to the royal abbey Notre-Dame du Lys, founded in 1244 by Louis IX and Blanche, and also now lying in a state of ruin, having been looted and destroyed during the French Revolution. Still, these ruins are somberly beautiful, and I can envision Blanche walking peacefully here.

Blanche and Sylvia

As Sylvia said, Blanche was indeed an astute matriarch, excelling on her own merits, despite being born to wealth and privilege. Blanche’s life was anything but easy and her immense responsibility weighed heavily on her heart.

I’m so pleased that Sylvia is interested in history and that our family has royal ancestors for her to research. I would have been a lot more interested in history in school had I realized that it was actually relevant to me.

Not only are our royal ancestors’ lives interesting, but they were also recorded and have been extensively researched, making the details of their lives available to us today. We gain a peek into their lives behind the veil of time and perspective into the history of the time in which they lived, a history which they helped shape.

Who were they?

Are we anything like them today?

We probably carry little or no “royal blood” in our veins descended from Blanche today, but then again, you never know. Royalty intermarried a great deal, perhaps providing us with multiple “doses.” Even if we didn’t inherit their DNA, and that’s not necessarily an assumption I’m entirely willing to make – because let’s face it – we had to obtain our DNA from SOME ancient ancestors, we might inherit some characteristics passed down culturally, generation to generation, through the ages.

I see several of Blanche’s best characteristics in Sylvia. Not only that, but I think they even look a bit alike.

I’ve been saving the absolute best for last. In addition to researching a medieval individual, Sylvia was also to dress like that person would have dressed.

Blanche Princess Sylvia.jpg

Behold, our very own Princess Sylvia, 25th great-granddaughter of Blanche of Castile, Queen of France.

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Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

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Johann Georg Haag (1682-1762), Baker – 52 Ancestors #281

As we move back in time in the records, I find more and more than people are listed in the church records by their diminutive names, not their official baptismal names. For example, Johannes Georg Haag is listed as Hanss Jerg, and even Haag is spelled in different ways. Haga and Hag being the most common.

My two friends, Tom and Chris have helped me immensely with my German families, Tom going so far as to write draft articles. Bless that man is all I can say. I could not do this without them.

Tom begins by explaining why he likes a particular German website.

Before going any further, I just have to say what a remarkable website genealogienetz.de is!  You can search for your surname of interest and hopefully find information that is perhaps not easily found in other websites. It is truly a go-to website for finding your German ancestors! Thanks to all who contribute to this website for the mutual benefit of others!  See below the beginning search page: http://meta.genealogy.net/

Tom and Chris both prefer Archion.de for obtaining German church records. Often they find the original records there. Of course, being German-language-challenged, I can’t use Archion. After locating the record, they search Ancestry so I can utilize the records. After they kindly translate for me, I can attach the records appropriately to my tree.

Below, you’ll find a family register for Hans Jerg Haag.

Haag register 1.pngHaag register 2.pngHaag register 3.png

Born in Heiningen

Our Hanss Jerg Haag, or more properly, Johann Georg Haag, was born in Heiningen (O.A. Göppingen), Württemberg, Germany on April 22, 1682 to Michael Hag and Margarethe Bechtold.

Haag 1682 baptism.jpg

Baptism: 22 April 1682

Child: Johann Georg

Parents: Michael Hag, occupation ? & Margaretha Bechtold(in).

Godparents: Joh(ann) Christoph Wolf? & Jacobina Traub(in)

Of course, I always wonder if the godparents are related, and how.

Tom cautions:

As you will note, the pages have degraded with time but for the most part the data can be culled, thankfully.

Because of this degradation with time, oftentimes the transcriptions are mis-transcribed.

Therefore, use the indices with caution and strive to manually search for your person of interest. He/she may easily be overlooked otherwise.

And that’s from Tom, who knows what he’s doing.

Haag Hoffschneider 1706 marriage.jpg

I also want to illustrate the difference that two copies of the same document can make. The above document is Hans George Haag’s marriage document from Ancestry and is the same as the one below, from Archion.de.

Haag Hoffschneider 1706 marriage 2.png

You can easily see why Tom and Chris both prefer Archion. The bad news is that Archion appears to be very restrictive about sharing documents since they charge by downloaded document.

Hanss Jerg Haag married Anna Hoffschneider on the Feast of the Purification, February 2, 1706, in Heiningen.

Hanss Jerg, son of Michael Haag(en), juror and baker here and Anna, daughter of Michael Hoffschneider, Sr., citizen from here.

I love the fact that through Hanss’s marriage record, we discover the occupation of his father – a baker. Hanss would become a baker too. What better way to apprentice organically while growing up than to spend time with your father.

Hanss and Anna were married on the Feast of the Purification, also known as Candlemas, a Christian Holy Day commemorating the presentation of Jesus at the Temple. In keeping with tradition, the young couple would have presented their candles at church to be blessed, then used them for the rest of the year.

Haag Candlemas.jpg

Children and a DNA Candidate

Hanss and Anna had a total of 8 children, but two died as infants. Six survived to marry.

Only two children were sons, and only one son lived to have children himself.

  • Johann Georg Haag, born September 13, 1718 in Heiningen; married Anna Catharina Frasch on 15 September 1744 in Heiningen. She died July 28, 1772 in Heiningen. Johann Georg married (2) Margaretha Schurr on June 29, 1773 in Heiningen. She was born December 11, 1740; and died March 22, 1806 in Heiningen. Johann Georg continued in the Haag family tradition of being a baker by profession. Johann George had 4 children, with two surviving to adulthood. His one surviving son was:
    • Johann Gottlieb Haag born May 2, 1774 and married in 1812 to Regina Barbara Linderich in Goppingen. They had 3 children, including one male who died in 1782 at 18 months of age from bloody dysentery.

Unfortunately, Hanss Y DNA line died out in this generation with no surviving males. However, if a Haag male descends from any of Johann Georg Haag’s brothers or other Haag male relatives to the current generation through all Haag male ancestors, they too would carry the Haag Y DNA signature.

I have a Y DNA testing scholarship for any male who descends through all males from a Haag male from this line. Just leave a comment or contact me. I’d love to hear from you. We can learn more about the Haag line’s past from Y DNA which provides us with a periscope view of the direct male line since the Y DNA is never mixed with any DNA from the wives.

Passing Over

Hanss lived to be an elderly man. I wonder how long he continued baking. Did he ever slow down or retire? Did his son gradually take over the business?

Haag 1762 death.png

Death: 4 June 1762 in the evening at 7 p.m. died Hanss Jerg Haag, Sr., baker, buried on the Feast of Trinity Sunday at the age of 80 years and 6 weeks.

Hanss died on Friday evening and was buried less than 2 days later. I’m guessing that his burial was immediately following the church services on Sunday while everyone was still at church. In June, one wouldn’t want to have waited very long.

I’m actually surprised that he wasn’t buried on Saturday. Maybe they waited for his family to arrive from neighbor hamlets, or perhaps everyone was coming to church anyway. Who doesn’t love the local baker in a village of a few hundred people? Everyone knew Hanss and was likely related in one way or another, so his funeral would have involved the entire populace anyway.

Hanss official cause of death is listed as “old age.” Eighty years was an amazing life span at that time. His wife, Anna outlived him by a year and a half. She was 83 at her death.

I have this vision of a wrinkled but smiling elderly German couple sitting around the hearth, with the smell of baking bread wafting through the air, of course, discussing whatever. Simply enjoying each other’s company.

A few months earlier, they celebrated their 56th wedding anniversary. I wonder if they were the oldest couple in the village.

St. Michael’s Church

Haag St. Michael's gate.jpg

The entrance to Michael’s Church is now as it was then, through a gate in the defensive wall surrounding the church and churchyard, which assuredly protected the graves of her parishoners.

It is through this gate that Hans’s casket would have been carried into the church before the service, then carried into the churchyard for burial. This time, the trip through the gate, inside the wall, was one way.

The original cross was hung inside this church in 1398. The carved crucifix and the octagonal baptismal font are original too – likely the exact same baptismal basin used to baptize Hanss George in front of the altar 80 years and 6 weeks earlier.

Haag St. Michael's church Heiningen.jpg

Hans probably joined his parents, grandparents and relatives, reaching back into time immemorial in the churchyard, barely visible today beside the church building.

Trinity Sunday

Given that everyone in the village would have attended Hanss’ funeral, I’m guessing the funeral was either held in conjunction with the Sunday services, or immediately after.

What was happening on the Feast of Trinity Sunday?

Trinity Sunday is the first Sunday after Pentecost and celebrates the Christian doctrine of the Trinity, meaning God the Father, God the Son and God the Holy Ghost.

Haag Trinity fresco.jpg

This fresco by Luca Rosetti da Orta, painted in 1738-1739 in the St. Gaudenzio Church at Ivrea (Torino) illustrates the concept, as does this later painting in the late 1800s, below, by Max Furst.

Haag Trinity painting.jpg

Bach composed several cantatas for Trinity Sunday in the early 1700s, of which four still exist. You can hear them here, here, here and here.

Just close your eyes and listen. Allow the music to transport you back to the day of Hans Jerg Haag’s funeral and the beautiful music that would have filled the church to celebrate a long life well-lived.

Perhaps after Hans’s funeral, the village gathered for a meal to celebrate his life, complete of course with fresh baked German breads.

German bread

By 3268zauber – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=4298187

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Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

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Katharina Haag (1716 – 1791), Six Week Headache – 52 Ancestors #280

Katharina (also spelled Catharina) Haag was baptized on April 25, 1716, in the Evangelical Protestant church in the small village of Heiningen, Germany, the daughter of Johann Georg (Hanss Jerg) Haag and Anna Hofschneider.

The Heiningen church records provide us with the baptism date. Generally, the birth would have occurred shortly before, perhaps a day or two.

Haag Katharina birth.png

The first three columns give us the baptism date, the child’s name, which, unusually, had no middle name, along with her parents’ names:

The 25th April, Catharina, Hanss Jerg Haag, baker and Anna, wife.

A lovely tidbit is that Catharina’s father was a baker. I’d wager that her home always smelled terrific as she was growing up. Perhaps she helped deliver fresh bread each morning to the residents in Heiningen as the sun rose over the nearby orchards, fields, and hills.

Haag Heiningen.jpg

The final column in the baptismal record shows that Catharina’s Godparents were Johannes Leyrer, innkeeper, and butcher; Elisabetha, legitimate wife of Jacob Kauderer, citizen and weaver. Often Godparents were relatives. In this small village, it’s likely that everyone was related to everyone else.

Catharina was confirmed in 1732 at the age of 16, as reported in the Heiningen local heritage book.

Haag book.png

Eleven years later, at the age of 27, on November 12, 1743, in her home parish of Heiningen, Katharina married Johann Jakob Lenz, a former military man from a village about 20 miles distant. Jakob’s first wife had died a few months earlier, in January, and their only child perished in the September prior.

Haag, Katharina marriage.png

Catharina and Jacob’s marriage took place in Heiningen, probably in the bride’s home church, shown in the painting with the steeple towering over the village. The church, of course, was the center of everything.

The marriage record tells us quite a bit:

Jacob Lenz, vinedresser in Beutelsbach, widower and Catharina, legitimate, unmarried daughter of Hanss Jerg Haag(en), citizen and baker here. 12 November 1743, the 22nd Sunday past Trinity.

Given that they were married on a Sunday, I wonder if the ceremony took place during the church service, or immediately after, perhaps. Did the entire congregation simply stay, and was there a meal for everyone in celebration?

Jacob was in the military as a grenadier until 1742 when he ”bought himself out,” not long after he married. Unfortunately, his child died in September 1742, followed by his first wife in January of 1743. Until this marriage record with Catharina, it was unclear what Jacob was doing for a living after the military.

Not surprisingly, Jakob returned home and resumed what appears to be the family, as well as the primary village occupation, that of a vinedresser. He had probably been raised tending the grapevines that produced grapes for wine every fall since he was a young tyke. Grapes were the main agricultural product of the hillsides of this region, and one way or another, every person participated in raising, trimming and harvesting the grapes, and wine production.

Jakob Lenz’s occupation was tied to the land, and specifically to the vineyards lining the hills around Beutelsbach – so it made sense that the newlywed couple established their home in Beutelsbach where Jacob could earn a living and support his soon-to-be family.

Katherina had never been married before, could read, and had always lived with her parents, according to local historian, Martin Goll’s notes from Beutelsbach, here.

Interestingly, an additional note reveals that Katharina, “in her single years, she was suffering from a headache for 6 weeks.”

This causes me to wonder about closed head injuries or strokes, as well as either meningitis, meningismus, or encephalitis – all diseases or injuries which would cause a severe protracted headache that would eventually resolve.

This headache was evidently memorable enough to be recorded in church notes regarding Katharina. This was clearly not trivial, and by the act of being written into the church notes, with a few strokes, “defined her” forever, as compared to other people. It’s one of the few personal things we know about her today.

Katharina departed Heiningen, and her family, at the time of her marriage, moving to Beutelsbach where she and Johann Jakob Lenz lived for the duration of their lives, sheltered beneath the vineyards which you can glimpse here and here.

Haag Beutelsbach vineyards.png

A Google search of “Beutelsbach vineyards” shows these beautiful photos of the vineyards, many taken in the fall as the leaves turn, all tended and manicured meticulously by hand. It’s among these sculpted hills that Katharina spent almost a half-century of her life and raised her children.

The newlyweds probably celebrated Christmas in their new home, where their first child was born in the middle of the next summer, on July 30, 1744.

Katharina may have had the opportunity to see her parents, siblings, and their families from time to time, but a distance of 20 miles at that time was nontrivial. Nothing like today where 20 miles is just a quick half-hour drive.

The ancient path from Beutelsbach to Heiningen meandered through the hills. The contemporary road crosses the hills, but it’s unclear whether this road was vintage. In other words, the distance between Beutelsbach and Heiningen could have been longer and more circuitous when Katharina was making that trip.

Had she ever visited Beutelsbach before she moved there with her new husband?

Haag Heiningen satellite.png

Four years younger than Johann Jakob, Katharina died at 75 years of age on May 21, 1791, in Beutelsbach, two years before Johann Jacob would pass. Her cause of death translates as “legacy of nature,” which I believe means something akin to old age.

Children

Katharina Haag and Johann Jakob Lenz had only four children, but collectively, they graced her with 30 grandchildren.

  1. Anna Lenz was born July 30, 1744, and died on January 31, 1810, both in Beutelsbach. Notes indicate that Anna “has been trained here and raised. Served a few years. Cause of death: inflammatory fever.”

Anna Lenz married Johann Jakob Birkenmayer on April 19, 1774, in Beutelsbach and had 8 children, including four daughters:

  • Maria Barbara Birkenmayer born in 1775
  • Anna Maria Birkenmayer 1777-1834
  • Catharina Birkenmayer 1779-1785
  • Magdalena Birkenmayer 1781-1867 (died in Schorndorf) and married Johann David Valentin Eisenberger.
  1. Johann Georg Lenz was born on September 27, 1745, and died on June 3, 1834, both in Beutelsbach. He married Anna Maria Birkenmayer (Birkenmaier) on September 22, 1772, in Beutelsbach and had four children, including Katharina and Johann Georg, the only two that lived to adulthood. His son, Johann Georg, died at age 25, but daughter Katharina married Joseph Lenz, her second cousin. Notes for Johann Georg Lenz state that he can read and write. He always lived with his parents and died of old age at age 89.

I can’t help but wonder if Johann George’s wife was the sibling of Anna Lenz’s husband, Johann Jakob Birkenmayer.

Haag Johann Georg 1745.png

This family register from the Beutelsbach church, above, shows Johann George Lentz and his wife, Anna Maria Birkenmaier.

  1. Jakob Lenz, my ancestor, was born on February 1, 1748, died on July 2, 1821, in Beutelsbach and married Maria Margaretha Gribler or Grubler on November 3, 1772, in Beutelsbach. They had 9 children, three of whom died as babies.
  2. Georg Friedrich Lenz was born on January 13, 1750, in Beutelsbach, married Christina Koch (died 1803) on April 16, 1776, and had 9 children. Notes for Georg Friedrich reveal that he was raised in Beutelsbach, and his occupation was a vinedresser, the same as his father, spending his life working in the vineyards. He married second to Anna Maria Kreiger on February 2, 1807, but had no children by this marriage.

Katharina had her last child in 1750, at age 34. This, in and of itself, is rather unusual. Most women had children for another 6-10 years until they were minimally 40. There are no children born to this couple and buried during this time.

Mitochondrial DNA

The descendants of Katharina’s daughter Anna Lentz through all females to the current generation (which can be males), are the only candidates to carry Katharina Haag’s mitochondrial DNA. Anna’s daughters are noted above.

Mitochondrial DNA is passed from mothers to both sexes of their children, but only females pass it on. Mitochondrial DNA, unlike autosomal DNA, is not halved in each generation, nor is it mixed with the DNA of the father. Mitochondrial DNA provides us with a glimpse far back in time – reaching back to Katharina’s mother’s mother’s mother’s direct line – and on back into the distant past.

If you descend from Katharina through all females to the current generation, I have a mitochondrial DNA testing scholarship for you. Just leave a comment or get in touch with me.

Who knows what discoveries await!

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Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Products and Services

Genealogy Research

Fun DNA Stuff

  • Celebrate DNA – customized DNA themed t-shirts, bags and other items

Pandemic Journal: The Influence of the Great Depression and How It’s Saving Us Right Now

The metamorphosis is now complete. I swear, I’ve now officially become my mother.

Mom doesn’t just “come out of my mouth” on occasion. No, I’ve become her – well except that I’ll never fit into her literal clothes. In spite of the fact that fudge was mother’s favorite food and she believed religiously in first, second and third dessert, she was rail thin. How is this fair?

My mother was a child of the “Great Depression,” except the only thing “great” about the Depression was its decade-long duration. Beginning with a stock market plummet in October of 1929, drought followed in 1930 throughout the agricultural heartland of America. Investors lost everything, jobs disappeared, farms were repossessed, banks failed and closed and people were terrified, with reason.

Depression migrant woman.jpg

This iconic 1936 photo taken by Dorothea Lange titled Migrant Mother shows a destitute pea picker in California. Florence Owens Thompson, age 32, mother of 7, hungry, dirty and not knowing where their next meal would come from represented the greatest fear that haunted all Americans. For many, it wasn’t just a fear, it was all too real.

The economic downturn which became the Depression began in the US, eventually encircling the globe. The Depression didn’t ease until the late 1930s and then was promptly followed by WWII which ushered in a slew of deprivations of its own including rationing.

1943 rationing poster

Mother was born in 1922 in a crossroads town in northern Indiana. She was all of 7 years old when the Depression hit. She, of course, couldn’t and wouldn’t understand all of the underpinnings. What she was acutely aware of was that her father lost the hardware business, her mother’s job, such as it was, was the only thing that stood between her family and abject poverty. Income was critically affected, almost non-existent, without enough for even essentials. Mom’s maternal grandmother, Eva Miller Ferverda, loaned her son, John Ferverda, money and forgave the debt upon her death in 1939.

To make matters worse, mother was critically in during that time with Rheumatic Fever. Her father and grandmother cared for her while her mother worked. There was just no other choice.

Money was tight, very tight – but unlike so many others, they did not lose their home, thanks primarily to Mom’s paternal grandmother. Mom and her parents didn’t live on a farm, but on the very edge of a small town, not even large enough for a stop light. The town stretched a couple blocks in either direction from the main crossroads of two state highways. Businesses consisted of my grandfather’s hardware store, before that business closed, and the Ford dealership which sold both vehicles and tractors. Mom’s father, John Ferverda, worked there after he lost the hardware store, until there were no sales so no need for a salesman.

I don’t think mother realized how much the Depression influenced her childhood and formed many of her personality traits. In turn, she passed them on to me – although I’ve struggled to break some of those ingrained habits for years. This past month, or really just the past couple of weeks, they’ve come roaring back with a vengeance – apparently having been lurking just below the surface.

Some of these “quirky behaviors” are actually quite useful. Others make me smile with nearly-forgotten memories. Perhaps you carry some of these hidden depression-era traits too.

Before Recycling Was a Thing

In the 1930s, there wasn’t “disposable” anything. Throwing something away was simply wasteful, heresy, and it was never, ever done – not until its original purpose and a few repurposed lives had been completed and there was literally, nothing left at all that was salvageable. Then, and only then, could it be thrown away. By then, “it” was unrecognizable.

Let’s take bread wrappers, for example – the disposable plastic bread bags that we take for granted today, throwing them away without even thinking, although I always have a twinge of guilt. That never happened at my house when I was growing up. We routinely saved plastic bread bags and reused them for storage.

When we had too many, Mom would crochet them into a rug to pad the floor standing at the kitchen sink or the ironing board. One year, Mom even found a pattern to crochet a Christmas wreath from bread bags. I kid you not.

This recycling before that word was even invented was normal in our house.

We seldom got new clothes. Most of our clothes were hand-me-downs from either someone directly or a second-hand store of some sort. Being gifted with new old clothes was wonderful and nothing to be ashamed of! After we initially acquired the clothes, they were “taken in” or “let out” to fit a child as they grew or were passed to another child in the family. The sign of a great piece of clothing was a HUGE SEAM ALLOWANCE.

When grocery items began to be sold in glass jars, those were never thrown away either. Jars sufficed for everything. In fact, I still have a glass jar upstairs with “old silverware” in it that belonged to Mom, and perhaps to her mother too. You never threw anything away because not only was it wasteful and irresponsible, you truly never knew when you or someone else would need that item. During the Depression, and after, you simply found a way to make do with what you had.

During that time, chickens, wild berry bushes and a large vegetable garden saved the family. Mother cleaned the chickens that were butchered and sold. She was paid a nickel for each clean chicken. For the entire rest of her life, she pretty much hated chicken, except for fried chicken, and she utterly despised cleaning the chicken. I think she viewed them as her murdered friends and not a commodity food source. I inherited that soft-hearted worldview too.

However, during the Depression, you ate whatever you were fortunate enough to have. Period. There was no expectation that you would actually LIKE what was served – that was a benefit. Today when I see kids refusing to eat something, I think to myself, “you have never truly been hungry.” That’s the blessing of course, as is having food at all.

At home, after clothes could no longer be salvaged and made into anything else, they were deposited into the “rag bag,” a coarse brown bag fashioned from rough upholstery material salvaged from an old couch. The rag bag hung on a hook on a door in the closet that led to the attic. Rags were quite useful – for cleaning, for turbans around your hair from time to time – and also to crochet into rugs. Yes, Mom made just about everything into rugs. It was the last salvage of the nearly unsalvageable.

If there was any cotton fabric in the rag bag that wasn’t entirely threadbare and had any color left in the fibers at all, it was a candidate to be used in a quilt. You could always tell the quilts from wealthier, meaning not poor, families because their quilts were actually planned with matching fabrics. Not ours. We had scrap quilts, made by patching things together, which I always loved and continue to love to this day. Scrap quilts are a storybook of history and we always talked about the “life story” of the piece of fabric we were sewing – the pieces of clothing the fabric used to be, who wore it, how it wound up in the rag bag and so forth. Some of those fabrics were decades and literally generations old. How I wish I had written those stories down – but they didn’t seem remarkable at the time. Everyone had a rag bag. We were just making small talk, after all.

Handkerchief quilt.jpg

This quilt, made originally during the Depression by my great-grandmother, Nora Kirsch, used on my grandmother and then mother’s bed, has been patched now using my grandmother’s handkerchiefs. It had literal holes, but the thought of cutting that quilt traumatized my kids, so like my ancestors, I found a way to preserve it, one more time. By the time one of my granddaughters inherits it, such as it is, it will be connected through 6 generations over more than a century.

Depression Culture

The Depression wasn’t just a defining event, it formed the culture in which my mother grew up. Frugality was ingrained by some combination of fear and guilt-induced obligation.

Eventually, I inherited the rag bag and used the items in that bag, along with the rag rugs, the bread bag Christmas wreath which eventually deteriorated and fell apart, along with decades worth of glass jars and things too “good” to throw away or pass on to someone else just yet. Of course, part of the “problem” was that as the economy improved, the need to obtain hand-me-down items from someone else to “set up housekeeping” was greatly diminished. Looking back, I’m not convinced that was a good thing, because I still have items from my mother and grandmother’s houses gifted to me when I moved to my first apartment. They aren’t “used,” simply accepted as second rate undesirables, but were and are cherished treasures infused with memories of a time, place and people long gone now.

You can take the child out of the Depression, but you can never take the Depression out of the child.

Those behaviors become generational. If you are the child of someone who lived through the Depression, I’m sure you have stories of your own just like these.

And just like me, those legendary stories might all have come rushing back during these past couple of weeks.

I used to think to myself when Mom did one of her “Depression Era” things that I understood. While I understood the genesis of the behavior, never until these past few weeks did I understand the fear that accompanied the scarcity and subsequent rationing that occurred during WWII.

The Depression hit Mom’s family with the same suddenness that the pandemic has struck our generation. We don’t know, as they didn’t know, what’s coming. How bad is bad? What businesses will be left? What will happen to all of those people? Can we hold on? For how long? How will we eat?

And what about toilet paper?

Toilet Paper

Toilet paper at that time consisted of the Sears catalog located strategically in the outhouse. I’m beginning to size up the different kinds of junk mail for “texture.” Obviously, something glossy isn’t good and neither is stiff and crunchy. Thank goodness I saved those old phone books – they look just about right! Mother would be proud!

Just 14 weeks ago, when this pandemic was still an illness in China that no one had heard about anyplace else in the world, my husband and I were leaving for a trip to Australia and New Zealand in the midst of their searing heat and bush fires. We purchased and took 4 boxes of face masks with us to protect ourselves from the smoke. We opened one box and put a couple of masks in our backpacks, but we never used any of them. I wanted to bring the masks home, because I am my mother’s daughter and we might need them someday.

However, I had purchased fabric and my bag was both full and heavy. My husband convinced me to leave the masks in the cabin. I told myself that the crew might need them to protect themselves from the bush fire smoke. I certainly hope someone got some use out of them and they didn’t just get thrown away. It pains me to even think about that – especially NOW that I desperately want those face masks.

Do you know how valuable 4 boxes of face masks would be? Not just monetarily, but for the medical professionals and others. It’s amazing now how valuable TP and face masks have become. We would have been RICH!

Mom’s vindicated. I’m vindicated. My husband is wearing a cloth mask instead of a stylish blue paper mask that we left behind😊 – and hopefully a crew member someplace is safer for those masks.

Ironically, I’m not sweating TP, because as a result of being raised by a Depression Era mother, I have years worth of lone socks that, in a pinch, will suffice as TP sock-mits. Just wipe and deposit in the washing machine. And NO, you cannot JUST THROW THEM AWAY, because you have no idea how long you might need them.

Before saying “ewwww” too loudly, remember when we used cloth diapers on babies because pampers didn’t yet exist? We washed those diapers every day and thought nothing of it.

I’ve also stopped using paper towels because who knows how long they will be manufactured. We might need paper towels for TP, you know, before we break out those orphan socks that I knew, just knew, I’d find a use for eventually if I just kept them long enough.

Soon enough, lone stray socks will be just as valuable as TP. Find yours now wherever they’ve been congregating for years, waiting for their new purpose in life redeployed as TP sock-warriors.

It’s All a Matter of Perspective

I’ve been sorting through things in the closets and put several items with rips in a bag in the laundry room already, but I’m trying NOT to call it a rag bag. I may last another day or two before I give in on that one.

Of course, jeans with rips are quite popular right now, so I’m wearing those again and am now quite the fashionista:) I even patched one of the jeans, strategically, with matching fabric from a face mask. A coordinated pandemic outfit! Everyone is going to want one!

Not only that, but I’ve sewn phone pockets onto my PJs and leggings. I’m referring to them as holsters for face-mask sewing warriors instead of PJ pockets. It’s all in perspective and marketing, right???

Phone Holster.jpg

Mother and grandmother would BOTH be so proud, I’m telling you.

But that’s not all…

Food

Another thing that has changed immensely in the last month is food.

Everyone likes to eat. My grandmother worked first for a chicken hatchery and then for the welfare office. In both cases, unlike other women of her era, she was not “at home” to cook, so she relied heavily on meals she would either make in advance or quickly in the evening.

I’m not quite sure why my grandfather didn’t cook when he wasn’t working during the Depression, but he didn’t and neither did my uncle. Back then, cooking was probably considered woman’s work. Mom began cooking as soon as she could reach the stove even though she was the youngest family member.

All things considered, it’s no wonder my grandmother was perpetually exasperated. Her husband lost the hardware store through no fault of his own, they were in debt, he next lost a sales job at the Ford dealership. She worked to support the entire family, AND performed all of the traditional “woman’s work” too.

No wonder she was chronically unhappy. While it wasn’t anyone’s “fault,” per se, it was still a fact that these unfortunate events had happened and for a decade, followed by a war, there was no way out except for sheer perseverance. That economic situation lasted for 15 or 16 years in total, almost a full generation – by which time my mother was grown, married and my brother had been born.

depression cookbook.jpg

One of the favorite things that churchwomen did to liven up mealtime and to raise money for the church and charities was to publish a church cookbook.

Depression cookbook church.jpg

True to form, the Methodist Church where my grandparents lived published a book in 1953 or 1954, and my grandmother is represented.

Depression fudge.jpg

I think I might have found the source of my Mom’s favorite fudge!

Unlike the other women who contributed their “best recipe,” probably determined by how quickly it disappeared at pot-lucks or funeral lunches at the church – my grandmother’s recipe was how to make something called “Master Mix.”

Depression master mix

click recipe pages to enlarge

Think of this as an early form of Bisquick which you made up in advance, dry, and used it as the base to make several dishes such as cookies, dumplings, pudding, griddle cakes and waffles.

Depression master mix 2.jpg

All of a sudden, we too are suddenly stuck at home, without necessarily ready access to a grocery store – and if we can visit, they may likely be out of a large number of items.

We’re consigned to a type of “food challenge” which could reasonably be called Pandemic Cooking. You use whatever you have available, forgotten in the far corners of your pantry, and find some way to create something that results in an edible dish.

Everyone is getting quite creative.

I though it would be interesting to take a look at that cookbook published before I was born to see what my grandmother contributed. Hey, maybe something looks good. That cookbook was published before the days of exact measurements, which lends itself very well to “make do” cooking.

Next, I checked Mom’s recipe box where I knew goodies lurked.

Mom’s Recipe Box

Like all women of Mom’s generation, she had a recipe box that was a virtual goldmine of wonderful comfort-food with many recipes, finally committed to cards, that had been passed down for generations. Most of the time, Mom didn’t even have to look at the recipe when making our favorite dishes. Both of us knew that fudge recipe by heart, I guarantee.

There are references throughout my mother’s recipe box to a “pinch of” something and instructions to work the dough “until it feels right.” I learned to cook this way and always have – much to Jim’s chagrin.

“How much of that did you put in?”

“I don’t know, enough but not too much. Till it looks right.”

Yep, I’m my mother’s daughter alright.

The transition to mother’s double seems to be complete, because I pulled a spaghetti sauce jar out of the trash earlier this week and washed it, thinking “we might need this.” You never know what might happen and how long the ramifications of the pandemic might last. Who knows, spaghetti jars might be just as valuable for barter as TP one day.

The good news is that there’s only one bread bag in the house right now, and it’s holding bread. At least presently. Plus, I can’t crochet. There’s that. Don’t ask how I know, but you can’t use bread bags in quilts. (If you figure out how, please, just don’t tell me – OK?!)

I am however, jealously saving even the smallest scraps of fabric from making protective facial masks for medical workers because I might need those remnants for a scrap quilt.

Now, if I can just find the lids to all of the orphan Tupperware, or is that too much to ask?

Throwback Cooking and You!

You’re probably finding yourself in the process of attempting to cook with whatever you have on hand too. You may discover items in the back of the pantry that are older than your children.

Mom, like her mother, worked her entire life – so her recipe box also contained a plethora of yummy recipes, many of which were also quick. Most of Mom’s recipes, however, cater to her sweet tooth. It wasn’t until I was digitizing and creating an index that I realized that the recipes for chocolate and sweets far, far outnumbered everything else – put together.

Don’t believe me – check it out for yourself by clicking on the link below to download a cookbook of sorts that I created from Mom’s Recipe Box. Please download and enjoy.

Mother’s Recipe Box

A few years ago, for a family Christmas gift, I scanned the recipes in Mom’s recipe box. Perhaps you’ll find some new recipes to try, or a dish that perhaps you’ll recognize from a long-ago church carry-in.

If you’re lucky, maybe you’ll find some comfort food from your childhood that you’ve forgotten about and you’ll have almost everything to make it!

Or, try Mom’s fudge!

Let me know if you find something fun here, or share a story.

By the time we exit out the other side of this pandemic, we’ll be cooking like our mothers and grandmothers, using whatever is on hand, not following any recipe exactly and “seasoning to taste.” 😊

Maybe this is a good time to scan your family recipes and document your memories. Seeing your ancestor’s handwriting and connecting with them as they survived trying times might just help you feel better.

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Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Products and Services

Genealogy Research

Fun DNA Stuff

  • Celebrate DNA – customized DNA themed t-shirts, bags and other items

Isabel (circa 1753 – 1840/1850), Wife of Michael McDowell – 52 Ancestors #278

We’ve gathered quite a bit of information about Michael McDowell, here, here and here, but not so about his wife, Isabel. It appears that Isabel lived to be at least 87 years old and possibly as old as 97 years. That’s amazing, even today – but especially remarkable at a time when there were no antibiotics and childbirth carried the threat of death every year and a half for 20 or 25 years of a woman’s life.

Not to mention that Isabel appears to have crossed the mountains moving to a new home twice in her life, once when she was about 30 and again another quarter century later. Not an easy trip under the best of circumstances and the best of circumstances probably didn’t exist.

Isabel, spelled Isbell, is only mentioned one time – ever. If it was not for the deed that she signed with her husband, Michael, on February 16, 1793 in Wilkes County, North Carolina, selling their 75 acres of land on the Blackwater River in Franklin County, Virginia – we wouldn’t even know her name.

Michael McDowell Blackwater 1793 sale

Isbel signed with an X, three times, indicating that she could not read or write – and neither could Michael who signed with an X as well.

We don’t really know, positively, that Isbel, or Isabel, was Michael’s wife before or after that time.

We presume, and that’s a really dangerous word in genealogy, that Isabel was the mother of Michael’s children – including Mary McDowell, Michael’s daughter, born about 1785 in Wilkes County, 8 years before “Isbell” signed that deed.

We don’t find the name Isabel, by any spelling, among any of the children of Michael’s known children. But then again, we don’t know who all of Michael’s children were, nor do we know who all of his grandchildren were.

What we do know is that Michael was born about 1747, according to his Revolutionary War Pension application, and began having children when he lived in Bedford County, Virginia.

Who did Michael marry? We have no idea. Marriage records exist during that time in Bedford County, but Michael isn’t there. Of course, those records may be incomplete, but there’s no McDowell and no Isabel or Isbel.

Michael’s son, Edward was born possibly as early as 1773, but likely in either 1774 or 1775, which tells us that Isabel was probably born around 1753, assuming she was Michael’s only wife and the mother of all of his children.

When Edward was young, Isabel spent time alone in their cabin, without Michael at home. I hope she had other family members nearby.

Michael fought in the Revolutionary War in parts of 1777, 1778 and 1779. Michael reveals in his pension application that he initially marched to the lead mines and built a fort, taking at least 6 months, probably beginning about April 1777. After returning home, he was summoned again and “joined with some neighbors and friends with the citizens of the country calling themselves spies, to protect women and children from the skelping knife of the savage.”

Michael marched off to war at least 2 additional times, coming home in-between.

During the many months that Michael was gone, Isabel would have had to function alone on the frontier – not knowing if she would ever see her husband again.

It’s likely that Isabel was pregnant and probably had a second or perhaps even a third child during Michael’s 3 tours of duty. One of those children may have been their son, also named Michael, and other children may have not survived.

Whether Michael was present at home or not, life had to go on.

Isabel was responsible for cultivating the fields, planting seeds or tobacco plants, depending on what they were growing, tending animals and harvesting crops if necessary – not to mention taking care of toddlers. There was no “good time” for Michael to be gone – nor was Isabel ever safe.

Michael did eventually return home. Isabel must have been incredibly relieved. Finally, they could actually begin to plan their lives without the spectre of war constantly hanging over their heads.

On September 24, 1783, Michael bought 75 acres of land on the north side of the Blackwater River in Bedford County where they were living according to the tax list of 1782.

In 1783, Michael owned 2 horses and 4 cows, but in 1784, he was no longer on the tax list of Bedford County. We do find a Michael McDowell in Botetourt County, but then he’s gone from there too.

Michael is absent for a couple of years, but on February 4, 1786, Michael McDowell bought 161 acres of land from John Hall Sr. in Wilkes County, North Carolina characterized as “the plantation where Michael McDowell now lives.”

We know Michael was already living on this land at that time, but we don’t know how long he had been there.

Michael and Isabel didn’t sell their land in Virginia until 1793 from Wilkes County, when Isabel signed as his wife. Were they unsure about staying in Wilkes County? By the time they sold their Virginia land, they had been landowners in Wilkes County for at least 7 years and possibly as long as 9.

About Those Halls

I almost hate to say this, but I’ve wondered for some time if Isabel was a Hall. This is speculation, so please, please do NOT run over to your tree and add Hall as her surname.

It’s equally as likely that Michael married Isabel who was not a Hall in Bedford County, Virginia and was married to her for his entire life. Still, I feel compelled to at least look at Michael’s relationship with the Halls and the possibility that Isabel was, herself, a Hall.

Michael is heavily involved with the Hall family in Wilkes County. The Halls began entering land in 1778 on Mulberry Creek. Wilkes County Genealogy Society writes about the Hall family, here. WeRelate provides information about the family of Thomas Hall of Colonial Virginia, here.

Not only does Michael McDowell purchase land from the Halls, he fights with them as well.

No one fights as much as people who are related.

On January 24, 1786, Michael McDowell, along with Owen Hall posts a bastardy bond for William Profit who was charged with begetting a bastard child on Ann Hooper or Hoper. Both Michael and Owen signed with an X.

In November 1786, Michael is referred to in a deed between Owen and Robert Hall for 156 acres on Andrew Vannoy’s line, Mickel (sic) McDowell’s corner and the line between Hall and McDowell.” This confirms that they are neighbors.

In 1787 on the tax list, Michael has in his household 1 white male age 21-60, 2 males under 21 or over 60 and one white female. The man 21-60 would be Michael himself. There are only two children, both males?

  • If Edward was born in 1773, where are the children born between 1773 and 1787? That’s 15 years and only two surviving children? Isabel would have born in approximately 1753 or earlier if Edward was born in 1773.
  • If James McDowell who witnessed a deed in 1801 is the son of Michael and Isabel, he would have been born about 1779, so that would be the a second male.
  • Son John was born about 1782 or 1783, possibly in Virginia which would be a third male.
  • Son Michael witnesses a deed in 1799, so he would have been born before 1778, a fourth male.

According to these calculations, there should have been 4 sons living with Michael and Isabel in 1787. Where are the other boys?

In 1787, Michael is in court for a trespass case brought by the state. The same jury is ordered to hear Michael’s case as is hearing one between Owen Hall and John Hall Senior and wife, a “case for words” found in favor of Owen. The court then moved Michael’s case to the civil docket and finds him guilty as charged. Those cases seem to be connected.

Did the Hall family come from Bedford County, or an adjacent county? Where were they before Wilkes? There are Halls in Bedford County, but that certainly doesn’t mean they are the same Hall family.

However, in a letter dated 1782 from Henry Innes of Bedford County, Virginia to Ralph Smith of “The Pocket,” he says, “There is a large bull in this neighborhood which was formerly the property of Hezekiah Hall.” The 1782 Bedford County tax list includes both Owen and Hezekiah Hall as well as John Hall Jr. and Sr., two Williams and a Robert Hall. In 1773, we first discover Owen Hall on the Pittsylvania County, Virginia Tax list, so he appears to be about the same age as Michael McDowell.

That’s VERY interesting.

Michael McDowell’s’ father, also named Michael, spent time in Halifax County, adjacent Pittsylvania as well, but at least 20 years before Owen was found in Pittsylvania County.

It’s also possible that Michael was a widower when he moved to Wilkes County, or became a widower shortly thereafter?

By April 1785 in Wilkes County, Owen Hall was selling land to John Shephard on Mulberry Creek that runs with the lines of Owen Hall and Jesse Hall.

In 1790, Michael McDowell continued his involvement with Owen Hall when the state prosecuted Michael McDowell, Owen Hall and William Abshers who on July 20, 1790 “did beat, wound and ill treat Betty Wooten.”

Wow. I can’t help but wonder if they had been drinking. I also wonder what Isabel had to say to Michael. I sure hope she wasn’t on the receiving end of that kind of treatment.

Wooten Creek is a small creek feeding into Mulberry Creek near where the Hall, Absher, Vannoy and McDowell families lived, just south of Hall Mountain.

Isabel Hall Mountain.png

In the 1790 census, Owen Hall was Michael McDowell’s neighbor and probably about 40 years old. Robert Hall was Michael’s neighbor on the other side, probably about the same age. John, Jesse and William Hall live a few houses away.

Michael McDowell in the census has 1 male over 16, 4 males under 16 and 2 females. This tells us they have 4 sons and one daughter.

In July 1792, the court granted Michael McDowell permission to rebuild his mill. I wish they had told us what happened, but I’m guessing a fire. It would have had to be either fire, flood or tornado.

We know there was an arson in the neighborhood in 1789 when John Roberts burned the cabin of Braddock Harris and his wife Rachel Hickerson. The Hickerson family lived slightly south on Mulberry Creek. Arsons did happen, and it’s certainly possible. It seems the entire neighborhood was feuding during this timeframe, judging from the court cases.

On July 23, 1792, a deed was executed between Owen Hall and Robert Hall for 115 pounds, 156 acres adjacent Andrew Vannoy’s line, Michael McDowell’s corner, line between Hall and Michael McDowell including the land Owen Hall bought of John Hall Sr., witness Jacob McGrady, signed Owen X Hall, page 269.

I wish I knew if John Hall Sr. was Owen’s father, but there are no clues.

In February 1793, Michael McDowell and Isabel sold their land in Virginia. Perhaps they needed the money to pay bills given that their mill was out of commission. Or maybe they needed the funds to rebuild the mill. Note that today on Mulberry Creek, very near this location, we find Halls Mills.

In 1799, Michael sold his land to the local preacher, Jacob McGrady who lived just north of Hall Mountain and whose wife was Amiah, reportedly born about 1760 in Bedford County, Virginia, daughter of Owen Hall. Michael signed the deed but Isabel is glaringly absent. The property is located on Mulberry Creek, abuts Robert Hall’s line and is witnessed by Michael and Edward McDowell as well as Robert Hall. However, no mill is mentioned.

It’s difficult to deduce much about the relationship between the McDowell family and the Halls since they are clearly neighbors. Specifically, it looks like Michael is literally surrounded by Hall men.

Following that 1799 sale, Michael officially owned no land. How did the family earn a living? In 1799, Michael is shown with 200 acres but there are no deeds. Perhaps he was renting or we have an unrecorded deed.

In the 1800 census, Michael was 53 years old, Isabel is apparently still alive, even though her signature was absent on the 1799 deed, given that a female over age 45 is living in the household. Additionally, they have 2 males age 0-10, 1 female 10-16 and 2 females 0-10. It looks like the older sons have left the nest, but we don’t know where they are.

On November 23, 1805, a deed of conveyance occurs between Owen Hall, Russell Co., VA, and Robert Hall, 60 pounds for 156 acres, Andrew Vannoy line, Michael McDowell corner, marked line between Hall and McDowell, Witness William Abshire, Hezekiah Hall and James Quyth (?) Signed Owen Hall, page 287

Owen Hall moved north too, apparently.

December 5, 1805, a deed between Robert Hall and John Abshire, 150 pounds, 156 acres, Andrew Vannoy line, Michael McDowells corner marked line between said Hall and McDowell. Wit Jacob McGrady, William McGrady and Owen X McGrady. Signed Robert x Hall

Claiborne County, Tennessee

In 1809, Mary McDowell married William Harrell, the neighbor’s son. Harrell was spelled Harrold at the time and the family lived on Harrold Mountain, just to the east. Within the year, Michael, and presumably Isabel, along with most of their children left for Claiborne County, Tennessee. Mary McDowell and William Harrell moved with Michael too.

A younger Michael McDowell, presumably Michael’s son, stayed in Wilkes County, but the rest of the McDowell family left for the Powell River on the border of Claiborne County, Tennessee and Lee County, Virginia.

As Michael and Isabel packed up the wagon to set out over those mountains for Tennessee, Michael would have been 63 years of age and Isabel wasn’t far behind. Given that four children were born between 1790 and 1800, we can infer that Isabel would have had her last child about 1797 or 1798, suggesting she was born about 1754 which is in line with Edward McDowell having been born about 1773.

After arriving in Claiborne County, Michael McDowell settled on land named Slanting Misery. I’ve always wondered why they chose that land, because it truly was slanted and miserable, both. Or maybe it was meant to be tongue-in-cheek. They were certainly used to mountains from living in Wilkes County, so maybe Slanting Misery simply felt like home.

Slanting misery panorama

The 1810 census is missing, but the 1810 tax list in Lee County, Virginia, on the Powell River, shows Michael and two of his sons.

Four year later, in 1814, Michael begins claiming and amassing land in Claiborne County, just across the border from Lee County, beside his son-in-law, William Harrell who was married to his daughter, Mary McDowell.

Sons John and William McDowell live beside and claim land adjacent Michael as well.

Unfortunately, the 1820 census is lost too, but in 1830, a female is living with Michael, age 70-80, so born 1750-1760. That surely looks like Isabel.

In 1840, a female age 80-90 is living with Mary and William Herrell and it appears that Michael may have been living with the rather unfriendly preacher, Nathan McDowell.

It’s worth noting that two McDowell males, Nathan S. McDowell and John P. McDowell, clearly with ties to Michael McDowell based on deeds transferred to them “for love” are probably too young to be children of Michael and Isabel. It’s possible that these males were grandchildren of Michael and Isabel, especially given that we don’t have a full accounting of their children.

Children

In summary, the children attributed to Michael and Isabel are as follows:

  • Michael McDowell born between 1774-1778, either dead or gone from Wilkes County by 1820. (I’m confident of this relationship, but Michael is not confirmed as Michael’s son.)
  • Edward McDowell born possibly as early as 1773 or as late as 1780 (confirmed)
  • John McDowell born 1782 or 1783 (confirmed)
  • Mary McDowell born 1787 (confirmed)
  • Luke McDowell born circa 1792 (confirmed)
  • William McDowell born circa 1795 (confident, but not genetically confirmed)
  • Daughter born between 1790-1800 (no further information)
  • Daughter born between 1790-1800 (no further information)

Nathan and John P. McDowell are unlikely to be Isabel’s children, although it’s not impossible, given that Isabel was born about 1753 or possibly slightly earlier. If born in 1753, Isabel would have been 44 in 1797 and 49 in 1802.

There are two sons born between 1790 and 1800 as well – one of which could be Nathan.

Based on their transactions and activities, Nathan and John P. certainly appear to be related to the family in some fashion. I’m betting on grandsons, possibly through son Michael who stayed in North Carolina. A persistent rumor exists that the son, Michael McDowell, died on September 3, 1823 in Stokes County and is buried in Winston-Salem. A Billion Graves entry shows us a stone that says the Michael who died was in the 42nd year of his age, which would put his birth in 1781. I’m not convinced that this Michael is the Michael who was the son of Michael McDowell of Wilkes County, but it is a possibility..

  • Nathan S. McDowell born 1797 could be Isabel’s son or possibly a grandson or related in some other way. Nathan did not live close to Michael, roughly 20 miles away, and had no children, so this can never be proven genetically one way or another.
  • John P. McDowell born about 1802 is probably not Isabel’s son, especially since John born about 1782 is proven to be Michael’s son. John P. is probably a grandson or related in some other way.

Without documentation that doesn’t exist today, we’ll never know for sure.

DNA

Mary McDowell’s mitochondrial DNA is haplogroup U5b2b1a1, inherited directly from her mother’s matrilineal line. Of course, we’re presuming here that since Mary was born in 1785 in North Carolina that indeed she is the daughter of Isabel McDowell whose birth surname is unknown.

U5b2b1a1 is found mostly in the British Isles, although with some mutations, also in Scandinavia and central Europe.

Given that we first find Isabel in (probably) Bedford County, Virginia, it’s likely that she either descended from the Scotch-Irish population, Germanic settlers or from colonial English stock. We need more testers before we can draw any conclusions, although there are matches to a few families in this region in the right timeframe.

Isabel Mito map.png

We find Mary’s earliest known ancestor migration map matches scattered across the rather traditional migration path, so nothing unusual here.

Autosomal DNA

I was really hoping to find a smoking gun, or maybe a smoking Hall in my own DNA matches that might suggest that Isabel was a Hall.

I have neither ThruLines nor Theories of Family Relativity that suggest Halls, although Isabel is 6 generations back in my tree.

Looking to sift out more information, I used two wonderful tools which were both inconclusive.

First, I ran the Genetic Affairs cluster analysis along with tree reconstruction and didn’t find anything suggestive of a Hall connection. I was hoping for a fortuitous tree reconstruction, but it was not to be had unfortunately.

I then utilized DNAGedcom.com’s service that obtains the direct line ancestors in the trees of my matches, and indeed I do have a significant number of DNA matches with Hall ancestors out of Wilkes County.

The problem, of course, is that the Hall family remained in Wilkes and were neighbors of my family members with the following surnames:

  • McDowell
  • Herrell/Harrold/Herrald
  • McNiel
  • Shepherd
  • Hickerson
  • Vannoy

It’s very likely that I share a different line with these people who have Hall in their trees. In fact, I do share multiple ancestors with two of the most promising matches. This what happens when everyone stays up on that mountain and marries their neighbors. Within a generation or two, everyone is related to everyone else, and the neighbors are marrying are their cousins because everyone is a cousin.

Unfortunately, what this means is that for autosomal testing, I would really need to find a group of people who descend from Hall ancestors from this same line BEFORE they migrated to Wilkes, and who don’t share a different line with me.

Colonial Virginia is a tough nut to crack in this type of situation, especially this far back in time. Isabel would have been born in the early 1750s and many Virginia counties have experienced record loss of one kind of another. Unfortunately, there is no recorded marriage for Michael McDowell, nor a will that leaves anything to Isabel or any Michael McDowell from a father-in-law – so we’re out of luck unless something turns up one day in a previously buried record.

Or of course, if the right person just happens to DNA test, that could turn the tide as well😊

Hope springs eternal.

If you descend from Michael McDowell and Isabel or the Hall line, please be sure you’re in all of the databases (Family Tree DNA, Ancestry, MyHeritage, GedMatch and 23andMe). It’s not just who you match, but who your matches also match. The power of the newer tools is found in groups of matches that descend from the same ancestral couple – and each vendor has unique matches and tools that other vendors don’t have.

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Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Products and Services

Genealogy Research

Fun DNA Stuff

  • Celebrate DNA – customized DNA themed t-shirts, bags and other items

Down Under: Christchurch, New Zealand – 52 Ancestors #277

This is the third article of a multi-part series about my trip to Australia and New Zealand. You can read about Australia, here, and Tasmania, here.

My Phone Becomes My Camera

I’ve received numerous questions about what camera I’m using. It’s my iPhone 11 Pro. I have a love-hate relationship with this phone.

For years, I’ve carried my phone plus a “real” 35 mm digital camera. I love the quality of the digital camera, but it has drawbacks.

  • No ability to upload directly to social media
  • Must upload to laptop or similar device
  • Heavy
  • Bulky
  • Not quick to take photo by the time you turn it on and get it ready

What I really want is a high-quality, small, lightweight camera with cellular and the convenience of my phone. If they can make one of those, I’m all in.

Wait, that’s almost my phone.

My iPhone needed to be replaced this past fall, so an iPhone 11 Pro was the way to go. The 11 Pro had 3 built in cameras – not one camera with a digital zoom which is not the same as a real SLR zoom.

Once I started using the 11 Pro, I never looked back.

However, it has downsides too:

  • No capability for telephoto and those types of lenses
  • Resolution not the quality of the 35 mm digital

However, a significant upside is that:

  • It’s not heavy
  • I’m carrying it anyway
  • Small footprint
  • Cellular and ability to upload directly onto social media
  • On screen editing

After this trip, I may never carry the 35 mm again, BUT, I’m very, very angry with Apple right now.

They just up and decided to invent a new file type – HEIC.

Never heard of it, right? Well, not only had I never heard of it, I didn’t realize I had 3400+ photos in that format. Apple made it the default file type in the 11 Pro. You may not care about this, because you can upload to Facebook and Instagram.

You’ll care a lot if you upload your photos on to a Windows PC and do anything, or try to do anything. If you’re a blogger, guess what – unsupported file type.

This means that you have to convert each file to .jpg format. There is no good way. You can read more here.

Now I have more than 3400 files of my own, plus Jim’s that I cannot use for my blog without an extra two steps for every single picture, nor can I drop them into a word document or share them with someone with an Android phone. Nothing NADA.

I HATE THIS!

I feel like Apple is holding my pictures hostage, trying to make me stay within the Apple family of products. It won’t surprise you to discover that you can upload to a MAC without any apparent problem. I can’t vouch for that, because I haven’t tried. I do know that I’ve now invested 3 days in something I shouldn’t have had to do at all.

Had I any idea, I would either have used the 35mm, or I would have purchased the older iPhone 10, hoping that by the time I needed to upgrade the next time, Windows and WordPress (my blogging platform) will both have figured out how to deal with Apple’s frustrating HEIC file format.

I did discover after I returned home that you can change that option in your phone by accessing: Settings> Camera> Formats and changing it back to .jpg. Photos will take more space on your phone. Frankly, that’s the least of my concerns.

I did find free tools online such as https://freetoolonline.com/heic-to-jpg.html. Some tools convert your first couple photos for free, or individual conversions for free one by one, but I have 3400 to convert. I’m always at least somewhat suspicious of what “free tools” are doing, because there has to be some motivation for someone to do something – and there is a lot of motivation for people to find ways to creep into our computer systems. What better way than helping us salvage our photos from an intrusive file format that we don’t discover until it’s too late.

This is probably more than you ever wanted to know. Hopefully it can save someone from these same issues. Unfortunately, it was part of this experience.

New Zealand

The South Island is the larger of the two major islands that comprise New Zealand. The North Island is smaller but has a larger population today. The South Island was more heavily populated at one point due to a gold rush in the 1860s.

All of New Zealand was the land of the Māori people before European colonization. The Māori arrived from Polynesia sometime between 1250 and 1300, settling on the islands and developing a distinctive culture.

In 1840, the Māori agreed in the Treaty of Waitangi to British sovereignty.

Nearly all locations have an English name and an equivalent Māori name as well. In fact, New Zealand itself is called Aotearoa in Māori, translated as “land of the long white cloud.”.

European settlement of New Zealand began in 1823. Today, the Queen of England is still the monarch, with a Governor General appointed.

Wellington is the capital, although Auckland is the largest city. The Ross Dependency is New Zealand’s territorial claim in Antarctica where it operates the Scott Base research facility.

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Our ship stopped first to visit Christchurch, then Wellington, Napier, Tauranga and finally, Auckland.

The Dogs Pole

The first thing I encountered after we docked in Lyttelton Harbour, the cruise ship gateway to Christchurch, is a mystery that has yet to be solved. Maybe one of my Kiwi followers can educate us all.

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The Dogs Pole. Notice that the Dogs Pole is entirely fenced, so the dogs can’t possibly get to the dogs pole to do what dogs do on poles. It’s also plural, not possessive.

One of my New Zealand friends suggested it might be an acknowledgement of the Antarctic expeditions that begin here. You can read more about those here.

Here, in 1957 dogs are helping to unload the Endeavor after a mishap in Lyttleton Harbour

Or maybe it’s an inside joke meant to baffle tourists and make people scratch their heads.

Harbour Cruising

This day dawned cloudy and cold. The weather in Australia and New Zealand can vary by a season in a day. How is it possible to be 120 degrees in Australia at the same time it’s cold in neighboring New Zealand?

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We set out on a catamaran for some serious whale, dolphin and penguin watching – or at least we hoped to.

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Sometimes on these types of adventures, you get really lucky, and sometimes you don’t.

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That’s the dolphin. As in, the only dolphin.

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This is as close as we got to a dolphin – on the boat.

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The scenery, however, was stunning.

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My normal perch on these kinds of adventures is right up front. You can’t photograph what you can’t see.

It was so cold and extremely windy that I had to go in and out.

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I had a sweatshirt with me, and a light windbreaker for rain – but nothing more. I don’t even want to admit this to you, but I bought a thinsulate jacket. Hard to believe it was 120 degrees just a couple days earlier and I had been sweating to death.

We’re calling that jacket a souvenir. I actually do really like it.

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We were told that you can often see penguins and seals in these caves and rocky outcrops along the waterline, but we didn’t.

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I look at caves partly submerged in water and wonder if there are human remains there from hundreds or even thousands of years ago, and if we could obtain their DNA.

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The whitewash is bird poo. Jim saw a couple of birds happily perching above one of the caves.

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There they are!

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This area is known as Banks Peninsula, but today was not our lucky day. Not even many birds.

So much for that.

Christchurch, New Zealand

You may recall that Christchurch was devastated by a violent earthquake in February of 2011, causing massive damage to the central portion of Christchurch. Aftershocks continued for months, with smaller quakes continuing to this day.

Not only did buildings fall and sustain structural damage, but the soil liquified in Christchurch.

One might expect that the damage from this quake would be repaired 9 year later, but that’s not the case, at least not uniformly. Most of the structures that need to be removed have been, but not all. Rebuilding in some areas has simply not occurred.

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The older timber buildings, like the ones painted blue, yellow and green fared better than either taller structures, or ones made of brick or stone.

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The Cathedral midtown is still in a state of disrepair and indecision.

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At first, I thought these were gravestones, until I looked closer and realized it is the remains of a building, with a window in the wall for pedestrians.

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There are many, many simply vacant spaces – in a sort of timeless limbo.

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Battles over what to preserve in its current state, tear down or restore continue.

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The Catholic church of the Blessed Sacrament waits on its verdict.

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The church is fenced off to protect the church, residents and visitors.

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We can see how the basilica used to look.

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Parishioners of this church are already worshipping in another location, but the debate about whether to repair, restore or tear down this historic building continues. A decision was made in August 2019 by the Bishop to demolish the building, but not everyone is convinced that the decision is final.

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Murals grace the walls of many buildings. Parking lots sprung up where buildings used to be.

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Like other cities, art is everyplace.

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Sometimes I wasn’t sure exactly what the art depicted.

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These chairs were painted white and roped off, so I’m presuming you’re not supposed to sit down.

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This mural, which I think is actually a construction barricade, reminds me of a quilt pattern. Hmmm, maybe for my New Zealand quilt?

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Look closely. These triangles actually hold images of New Zealand.

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If you watch carefully, you can see graffiti art in several places.

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Parks abound.

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It felt just lovely to walk in the warmth and sunshine knowing how cold it was back home.

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Let’s Go Punting!!!

Our plan for the afternoon is to go punting on the River Avon.

Don’t know what punting is? Neither did I.

Punting is an Edwardian activity wherein a person with a very large stick pushes you along in a boat on the River Avon. Think of gondolas in Vienna, but different.

It’s best if I just show you.

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Adjacent the botanical gardens and museum, we walked to those green and white striped buildings in the distance where the boats are housed.

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Christchurch residents and visitors have been punting for a long time.

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The punters of yesteryear wore these jackets and hats, and so did ours today.

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Each boat has a punter standing at the rear.

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There is only one female punter.

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Thankfully, the temperature had warmed up after we left the coast and the sun came out.

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It morphed into a glorious day.

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Jim and I sat at the rear of our boat, just in front of our punter. Taking selfies of places where we’re having fun has become a bit of a ritual, along with the obligatory trip leaving and returning picture.

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Our punter seemed to be having a great time too. His smile was infectious.

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The punter had to duck as we slipped beneath the bridge.

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There are flowers everyplace along the water.

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The botanical gardens line the river.

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Kayakers paddle among the flat-bottom punting boats.

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Wildlife enjoys the sunshine too.

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Willow trees love water. Not sure if this is a willow, but it certainly looks similar.

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Trees overreach the water forming green archways.

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The ducks enjoy napping along the waterway.

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Some things are universal.

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Back at the boat sheds, we disembarked.

After our punting adventure, we still had an hour before catching the bus, so we decided to go for a walk.

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The University of Canterbury campus was just across the street.

University of Canterbury

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The architecture here is very reminiscent of England.

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I would have loved to sit in the sidewalk cafe, but it wasn’t open.

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This building reminds be a great deal of the University of Cambridge.

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The entryway leads to central common areas.

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Students gather inside in the piazza.

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Construction repair from the earthquake 9 years ago.

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Modern art intertwined with the classic buildings such as this wrought iron fence in front of the University of Canterbury at the market area.

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The farmer’s market is parked in the lot reserved for the University during weekdays.

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We found Paua shell hair barrettes and a polished and sealed shell in the open-air shops surrounding the farmer’s market. I would like to have found Paua pearls, but they are rather rare and our time was limited. If you’d like to view stunning jewelry, just google “Paua pearls.”

We found Paua shells later on the beach, but you aren’t allowed to take those off of the cruise ship, so we couldn’t bring them home.

Headed Back to the Coastline

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New Zealand has been dry too, as you can see from the color of the foliage.

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Leaving Christchurch, a tunnel under the mountain connects the city with the coast.

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The harbor is stunningly beautiful as we drive along the coast on the way back to the ship.

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Back in our cabin, we see the pilot boat approaching. Pilot boats carry captains who are specialists in navigating the local waters.

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The local pilot assists the cruise ship’s Captain navigate the harbor. The pilot boat motors alongside until the ship passes the dangerous area.

Then, the pilot boat pulls up as close as possible to the water-level door, but not bumping the cruise liner, while the pilot waits for the perfect moment and jumps, yes jumps, from the open door to the deck of the pilot boat, even if it’s slippery and wet. One mis-judgement or misstep and the pilot is either possibly injured and miserably wet, or worse, crushed between the two boats. If that’s not the definition of nerve-wracking, I don’t know what is. First time I saw this, I couldn’t believe my eyes and my heart leaped into my throat.

Next port, Wellington.

 

Sarah Rash (1748-1829), Church Founder and Grandmother of Nearly 100 – 52 Ancestors #276

While we have very few records about Sarah, directly, during her lifetime, we do know a substantial amount due to the Shepherd Bible that begins with her birth.

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Sarah’s Birth

The Bible says that Sarah Shepherd, formerly Sarah Rash, daughter of Joseph and Mary Rash was born in Spotsylvania County Virginia State 23rd of April, Annoque Domini 1748, and is now the espoused wife of Robert Shepherd, aforesaid.

Thank goodness the family recorded this information because I don’t think we would have ever made this discovery any other way.

We don’t have any information about Sarah’s life in Spotsylvania County before her marriage to Robert Shepperd by the parson of the church, James Mcrae on October 1st, 1765. “The church” at that time in America would be the Anglican church. Everybody was required to attend, on pain of being fined for one’s absence.

Sarah was only just over 17 years old when she married Robert who was an “older man” at the advanced age of 26. At least he would be able to provide for his forthcoming family.

The Bible record goes on to tell us that Joseph and Sarah had several children. Given their first child’s birth date, they set about beginning their family right away.

The following children were reported to have been born in Spotsylvania County.

  • Elizabeth Shepherd, born July 23, 1766
  • James Shepherd, born March 8, 1768
  • Ann Shepherd, born March 8, 1770
  • Possibly space for a child that died
  • Mary Shepherd, born January 17, 1773
  • Agnes Shepherd, born February 8, 1775

The Bible states that the following children were born on the Reddies River in Wilkes County, NC – but I suspect either the year or location of Rhoda’s birth is in error, given that the Bible also says, in 2 places, that they departed for Wilkes County in December 1777, fully 9 months after Rhoda was born.

  • Rhoda Shepherd, born March 23, 1777
  • John Shepherd born August 26, 1779
  • Sally Shepherd born February 27, 1782 (Also noted in different writing, Sarah written in above Sally, Wm Judd’s mother, died November 1858)*
  • Possibly space for one child that died
  • Fanny Shepherd, born February 13 ,1785
  • Rebekah Shepherd, born September 26, 1787

*Note that the Bible descended through the Judd family to the person who owned it in 1991.

It looks like Sarah buried two, maybe three babies. It’s obvious that only the children that survived were recorded in the Bible. What is less obvious is when the Bible was written, or by whom. I wish the Bible front pages had been included as well, because the date that the Bible was printed might lend understanding to the provenance of the Bible itself.

Neither Robert nor Sarah could write, based on the fact that they only signed with Xs, so it obviously was not them who made those Bible entries. We know that schools existed in Wilkes County, so it’s possible that this Bible was the Bible of one of their children, possibly Sarah who married William Judd. However, it’s also possible that the minister or someone else who could write made these entries. Ot’s also quite possible that this information was written into THIS Bible years after those births and Robert’s death occurred.

Deaths

Robert Shepherd’s death is recorded, but Sarah’s is not, and neither are the deaths of any of the other children or grandchildren. Not even the two sons what we know died before their father’s death.

In the margins on the death page, we find the calculations for figuring the age at death of Robert. This strongly suggests that the 1817 entry was made at the time Robert died.

He was born in 1739 and died in 1817, so was just under 78 years of age.

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Now that we know what was going on with the margin dates, what other clues can we find?

The calculation above Robert’s is for someone else who died in 1817 but was born in 1777. Was that Rhoda? Apparently not, given that she had children born after 1817. Who could that have been?

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In the top margin are two additional calculations.

Sarah was born in 1748, and even though her death is not recorded in this Bible, I suspect strongly that she died in 1829 at age 81.

I’m confused by the calculation on the left, because no matter how I calculate this, it looks incorrect. My best guess is that someone was trying to “calculate how old Daddy would have been” when Sarah died.

We have no signatures of Sarah on deeds during Robert’s lifetime, nor other records, save one, so we have to infer what was happening in her life at that point based on what we know about Robert and their children.

Moving

In 1775, Sarah and Robert were celebrating their 10th anniversary with 5 children. An unwelcome intruder at their 10th anniversary was the outbreak of the Revolutionary War. What a frightening prospect. Perhaps after putting the kids to bed, they had time to sit beside the fire and talk about what the future might hold.

They needed to make important, life-altering decisions. Today we know they survived, but at that time, the future was uncertain and their family was young and vulnerable. One wrong decision or even a bad-luck turn of events and they might not survive, or they might lose their land or a million other bad things might happen during a war – an uprising no less – and the colonists were on the “mutinying” side. If the insurrection was “put down,” it had the potential to be quite violent and bloody. What was “right” and what was prudent?

The Revolutionary War was descending upon them. Times were uncertain. In July 1776, North Carolina would confiscate the King’s lands and make that land available to claim. Much land lay vacant in Wilkes County, just sitting there for the taking and building a cabin. Should they leave Virginia?

Virginia and North Carolina were both leading the way out of monarchy and into a democracy, forming a Bill of Rights. Yet, Robert and Sarah couldn’t be certain how this would unfold in the future. How would this chapter of history end? Which side would they be on? It was a gamble either way.

In November of 1775, Robert’s brother John Shepherd sold his land and the following November, in 1776, Robert Shepherd sold his land in Spotsylvania County.

The Bible tells us that the family removed from Spotsylvania County on December 7, 1777, 13 months later. I can’t help but wonder if they actually left in December 1776. Where would they have lived and how would they have earned a living for more than a year without land? They were certainly planning for this move for several months.

They set out in December, after the fall crops were harvested with the spring crops yet to be planted after their arrival in their new home. Sarah would probably have gone by the cemetery one last time to say a final goodbye to the child she most likely had and buried in the spring of 1772 in a now-forgotten place on the North Anna River, perhaps near a tract of land called Elk Neck, close to where her parents lived.

Sarah’s father, Joseph Rash died about 1767, so perhaps Sarah’s child would rest under the watchful eye of her father, buried side by side.

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The North Anna River runs for almost 100 miles today, with present day Spotsylvania County being further north. At that time, Spotsylvania County was the western frontier and encompassed this entire area.

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This 1776 map shows the North Anna.

Regardless of whether they left in 1776 or 1777, as the Bible says, they set out for Wilkes County, North Carolina, probably in a slow wagon train with family members and neighbors. Had they selected Wilkes County as their destination before they left, and if so, how and why?

Reddies River

Sarah Rash and Robert Shepherd had settled on the Reddies River in Wilkes County, North Carolina by April 24, 1778 when Robert made a land entry for 200 acres of land near the ford of Reddis River bordering his brother, John’s line. George McNiel also accompanied the two brothers from Spotsylvania County. George McNiel either was or became a minister of the Baptist faith.

The Shepherd’s would build a meeting house on John’s land no later than 1783. The congregation met sometimes at Robert and Sarah’s house while a new meeting house was being built in 1797 and 1798. They then attended the new Reddies River Baptist Church until their deaths.

On the surface, Robert and Sarah’s lives appear to be fairly mundane and bucolic. They moved to the new frontier, claimed land, built a cabin, had children and lived happily ever after. Or that’s how it would seem on the surface. However, by reading the church minutes and filling in some blanks, that’s not exactly how life along the Reddies River unfolded.

Robert Shepherd and Sarah Rash had 10 known children, meaning 10 children who were recorded in the Bible. We don’t know if they had additional children who died at birth or very young and were not recorded, but it would seem so based on the birth dates and gaps between the known children.

As with mothers of that time and place, much of Sarah’s life was devoted to being pregnant, giving birth to and caring for her children – in addition of course to spinning, weaving cloth, making clothes, cooking, churning butter and pretty much anything else that needed to be done.

What do we know about Sarah’s children? Let’s look a brief summary of each child’s life to peek into Sarah’s activities.

Who Were Sarah’s Children

Elizabeth Shepherd, my ancestor and their first-born arrived on July 23, 1766, married William McNiel sometime prior to 1784 and died after 1830 in Claiborne County, Tennessee. Elizabeth and William moved from Wilkes County to Claiborne County about 1811. After their marriage, and before 1810 when they sold land on the Lewis Fork, they had moved to neighboring Ashe County which was formed in 1799. They are never found in the Reddies River Church minutes, which is a good indication that they had moved to Ashe County before 1798. In 1799, William McNiel received a land grant on the South Fork of the New River, so it’s safe to assume that Elizabeth and William had moved several miles west of Robert and Sarah’s homestead.

So Sarah’s firstborn child lived somewhat close, moved back and then removed far away where it’s unlikely that Sarah ever saw her or those grandchildren again.

James Shepherd, Sarah’s second-born child arrived on March 8, 1768 and died sometime between 1800 and 1810 without marrying. I have always wondered if this child had a disability of some sort. It’s unusual for a man in his 30s or 40s to never marry or purchase land.

It’s certain that James’ death weighted heavily on Sarah’s heart, especially if he was a child with special needs.

Nancy Ann Shepherd, their third child was born March 8, 1770, exactly two years to the day after her brother’s birth. Nancy married William McQueary in 1787 in Wilkes County and they are definitely found in the church minutes. William is shown in the census in Wilkes County in 1810, but not 1820. They moved to Pulaski County, Kentucky, apparently before 1820, where Nancy died on July 12 in either 1833 or 1835. The Reddies River church minutes shed a lot of light on their lives.

From reading the church minutes, as a mother, I can assure you that Sarah worried about Nancy.

It’s likely that a child was born to Robert and Sarah and died between daughters Nancy and Mary, probably in 1772. This would be the child that Sarah left behind when the family moved to Wilkes County, buried in a grave, probably near to her father. Leaving the grave of a child behind is difficult, even though that makes no logical sense. It may be a mother thing.

Mary, also known as Polly Shepherd, the fourth recorded child was born on January 17, 1773 and married James McNiel about 1790, brother to William McNiel who had married Mary’s eldest sister a few years earlier. They too moved to Ashe County initially, but in 1802, Mary’s father, Robert, sold land to the young couple. Mary and James were close to Mary’s parents, as Sarah requested that James administer Robert Shepherd’s estate at his death in 1817. I’m surprised that we don’t find Mary and James in the church minutes, but they are absent. I suspect that perhaps they lived closer to the Lewis Fork Church where George McNiel, James’ father, was the minister until George’s death in about 1805. Reddies River and Lewis Fork Church shared both a minister and a moderator for many years, so clearly they were closely affiliated as sister-churches.

Sarah was clearly very close to this couple. I wonder if this is why Robert sold them land, to entice them back to the Reddies River. Once back, they never left.

Agnes Shepherd, the fifth child was born on February 9, 1775 and married Thomas Irwin in 1791 or 1792. They had a dozen children and moved to Russell County, Kentucky in 1829 where he died in 1853 and Agnes in 1856. They too are found in the church records.

Since this couple didn’t remove until after Sarah’s presumed death, she would have been close to these grandkids.

Rhoda Shepherd was born sixth on March 23, 1777. There is some discrepancy about whether she was actually born in Virginia or North Carolina. She married John Judd and in 1827 or 1828 moved to Ohio where they become Mormon, then moved on to Wayne County, Indiana where John died in 1838. Rhoda moved on west, living on the DesMoines River in Iowa when her daughter Margaret married Eller Stoker in 1839. John Judd was very active in the Reddies River church, appointed as a Wilkes County Justice in 1816, and is regularly found in the court minutes.

Sarah would have been Rhoda and family regularly at church as well as in the community. It looks like Rhoda and John waited until Sarah’s death to move on.

John Shepherd, the seventh child was born on April 26, 1779 in Wilkes County. He married Mary Kilby on October 13, 1802, but probably died a few weeks later in December. In any case, his death occurred before Mary became pregnant. In January, Mary requested bond as John’s administrator. I surely wonder what befell John.

We don’t know what caused John’s death, but his untimely death right after his marriage when he had so much to live for has tragedy written all over it.

A child was likely born to Sarah Rash Shepherd and died in 1781. Was this the first grave in what would become the Deep Ford Hill cemetery?

Sarah, known as Sally Shepherd, the eighth recorded child, was born on August 27, 1782 in Wilkes County. She married William Judd about 1802, brother of John Judd who married her sister. In 1805, Robert Shepherd sold land to the young couple who eventually had 10 children. In 1829, they removed to Wayne County, Indiana, then to Madison County, Indiana, and on to Newtown, Sullivan County, Missouri where Sarah died in November 1858. The Shepherd Bible descended through this line.

It appears that Sarah lived with this couple for the last dozen years of her life.

It’s likely that another child was born to Sarah Rash Shepherd and died in 1784. Another tiny wooden casket. Another funeral.

Frances, known as Fanny Shepherd, Sarah’s ninth child, was born on February 13, 1785 and married Larkin Pumphrey about 1803. They had 9 children and removed to Pulaski County, Kentucky between 1814 and 1816. By 1830, the family was in Fayette County, Indiana with 7 children where I lose Frances’s trail. She and Larkin are found in the Reddies River church minutes.

Larkin had some challenges that are revealed in the church minutes as well, and I can assure you that Sarah worried about Fanny. She may even have had a “chat” with Larkin at some point.

Rebecca Shepherd, the eighth and last child was born on September 26, 1787 when Sarah was 39 years old. Rebecca married Amos Harmon in 1806, having 13 children. They moved to Richmond, Indiana between 1826 and 1831, then about 1835 on to Somonauk, DeKalb County, Illinois as one of the first settlers where Rebekah died in 1836.

Rebecca may have left Wilkes County before her mother’s death, or she may have postponed that decision until after Sarah passed over. It would have been very difficult for Sarah to say goodbye, forever, to yet another child as approached and then passed her 80th birthday.

It’s possible that additional children were born to Sarah after Rebecca and subsequently  died. In 1789, when the next child would have been born, Sarah would have been 41 and could have potentially had one or two more children.

The Reddies River Church

Robert and Sarah, along with some of their children are listed in 1798 among the founding members of the Reddies River Church. Note that Robert’s brother, John’s wife, was also named Sarah. Robert Shepherd and Sarah Rash did not own a slave in 1798, so Grace belonged to John and Sarah Shepherd.

Shepherd Reddies River 1798 charter membership

Two of Sarah’s daughters, both married to the McNiel brothers, were already living in what would become Ashe County by 1798 so they are obvously not founding members of the Reddies River Church.

Daugher Nancy McQueary and husband William McQueary are both listed as church members.

Daughter Agnes Irwin is listed too, but where is her husband, Thomas Irwin?

Sarah’s son, James Shepherd, is listed, but would perish soon after. I surely wish those church minutes would have recorded deaths.

Children, meaning those undersage, seems to be omitted.

The church minutes reflect the principles of their Baptist faith when founding this church along with the Shepherd family’s continued involvement with the fledgling church over the years. What we don’t know is why the group abandoned the Deep Ford Church, reportedly at the top of Deep Ford Hill, although I’m not at all convinced that it wasn’t at the bottom of that hill, at or near the actual “Deep Ford” of Reddies River, probably on John Shepherd’s land.

The congregation left both the building and the name behind. Did the church burn perhaps, or was it something else? If so, what?

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After this initial formation, Robert is next mentioned on December 1, 1800 when two members (not Robert) came forward to confess that they had drank too much. Not only that, but Lewis Fork Church where George McNiel was minister sent Reddis River a letter stating that no pastor should have to care for more than one church because the other churches were destitute for a pastor. Reddies River Church members would pray about this and look to the Lord for a Minister and Deacon.

By this point in time, George McNiel whose family had journeyed with the Shepherd family from Spotsylvania County was 80 or perhaps even slightly older. He was no young man to be preaching every Sunday in a different church and ridng horseback between them in all types of weather, in addition to being the County Register of Deeds.

Church on the first Saturday of January 1801 was to take place at Robert Shepherd’s, but “fell through” on account of bad weather. They met the first Saturday in February instead. Today, church services are typically held on Sunday and weekly, not monthly.

The transporation to and from church, based on the church location and their land, could have taken an entire day using a farm wagon pulled by the horses.

On April 18th, the church members again met at Robert Shepherd’s and “at a call meeting after divine service opend a door for admision and received Thos Irwin by expereance.”

This was daughter, Agnes’s husband, now brought into the fold. He wasn’t on the original list because he had not yet joined the church.

This does make me wonder if Robert had a home more substantial than the typical log cabin. Assuming that the church membership didn’t dwindle from the original 23, and people brought their children along, Robert and Sarah’s house would have had to be large enough to hold at least 50 people, if not substantially more. Or, perhaps they met in the barn – but surely not during the winter months. Those would have been short services, indeed.

In May of 1801, “brother Robert Shepherd’s sister Sarah Jinnings joined by letter,” which means she had been a member in good standing of another church.

This tells us that at least 3 of Robert’s siblings wound up in Wilkes County.

The same day, “Brother Thomas Irwin was baptised but Ben Darnald refused to be baptised.” Why would one “confess their sins” before the entire congregation, but then refuse baptism? This is a bit confusing. A great deal of pressure was likely leveraged against Ben.

The Darnell’s lived “up the mountain” near the Vannoy family. In 1787, Benjamin and Joseph Darnell, born in 1780 according to court records, orphans of John Darnell and Rachel Vannoy were bound to Andrew Vannoy to learn to farm.

In August 1801, it was stated in the church minutes that Brother John Judd would attend the association in the room of brother Robert Shepherd. I wonder why Robert couldn’t attend and where the association met.

On December 5th, the church met at Robert Shepherd’s house and “concluded it was necessary to have a stock laid up for the expense of the church and that brother Robert Shepherd and brother John Shepherd were to receive produce and turn it into money and keep the money in their hands until called for by the church.”

I have to laugh, because I clearly know what is meant, but I can’t help but imagine Robert magically “turning produce into money.” Other than paying the minister, I wonder why the church at that time needed money.

On February 6, 1802, church met at Robert Shepherd’s again, and the minutes reflect an ongoing close alliance with Lewis Fork Church.

In 1803, Larkin Pumphrey and his wife joined the church, but left permanently in 1814. Larkin of course was married to Fanny Shepherd in 1803 so they joined about the time they married. Joining a church as “man and wife” instead of as someone’s child who was “brought to church” was probably a rite of passage. Besides that, you got to be called, “Mrs. Pumphrey” or “Sister Pumphrey” instead of “just” Fanny Shepherd.

On January 3, 1803, the church appointed both Robert and John Shepherd to “sight Brother Larkin Pumphrey to come to meeting.” Larkin came forward at the next meeting and “gave satisfaction for some misconduct.” In 1811 he was again repremanded about “his fighting” which may be a clue about his issue in 1803.

This entry in January the same year that Larkin and Fanny married causes me to wonder if Robert and Sarah may have had some misgivings about this marriage.

Saturday, February 5th, 1803 was apparently quite the day.

Rash 1803.png

Two of Sarah’s son-in-laws were called to answer for their behavior – having rude company and allowing dancing in one’s house. IMAGINE!! This must have been scandalous!

Two church services later, on April 2, 1803, John Pumphrey was brought before the church for profane swearing. William McQuary and brother Robert Shepherd were nominated to “stand in the place of deacons,” giving them until next December to look for a deacon.

Also in April, Rhody and John Judd “tuck letters of dismission,” meaning they were joining a church elsewhere which can sometimes signal a move.

Did Sarah feel a bit like she was trying to herd cats, keeping her kids in line with the church’s view of how life was supposed to be led, and trying to keep her sons-in-law out of trouble too?

On July 2nd, Robert Shepherd was chosen to “stand in that place of a Deacon.”

In December 1803, William Judd (no mention of wife) petitioned for dismissal.

In February 1804, Larkin Pumphrey and Fanny “took letters” meaning they were leaving the church and moving their membership elsewhere.

This could well signal a rift in the family.

On July 1, 1804, Robert Shepherd along with Thomas Johnson and John McQueary were chosen as delegates to the association. Knowing the name of the association would give us insight into where Robert traveled and how long Sarah might have been tending the homeplace by herself.

Perhaps her children or sons-in-law looked in on her and helped when necessary.

In the book, History of North Carolina Baptists by George William Paschal, he states that Flat Rock Church assisted Deep Ford or Reddies River church with its constitution. In 1792, the Reddies River church was a member of the Yadkin Association which met at the “Deep Ford on Ready’s River, Wilkes County,” but by 1801 they were in the Mountain Association of which the author finds no mention. However, the Brushy Mountain Association is mentioned multiple times.

On Saturday, February 2, 1808, sister Phebe Shepherd, a member of Brier Creek Church confessed that she was not in fellowship this church nor could she take a seat with them. The church appointed Robert Shepherd and Brother Johnson to request her “to come to our next meeting and tell the cause…”

In March 1808, Rhody and John Judd joined the church again by letter.

Amos Harmon joined the church in 1808 as well, and left in 1830.

In June 1808 the church decided that the male members would pay 1.00 each to pay brother James Parson to “attend them onst a month yearly.” It’s odd, today, to think of a church only meeting 12 times per year.

On Saturday, January 1809, William McQueary was drinking to much again and was excluded. John Judd was made a deacon and Robert Shepherd “shall be the Elder of the church the church appointed him to be the man.” An elder is similar to a Deacon who can sometimes function as a pastor as well. Elders participate in the “presbytery” which denoted their ordination council.

In November 1808, Amos Harmon was appointed to “site” William McQuary to come to the next meeting. Apparently the church had requested William’s appearance and he had not complied. “A rumer was about has come forrod…allegation laid into the church against William McQuary for his drinking two much referred till next meeting.”

In February, 1809, “Robert Shepherd was chargd to the work of the Eldership.”

Rash 1809.png

The “Imposition of Hands” is more typically called the “laying on of hands” today, and it part of the ritual of ordination, the act of giving a blessing or healing. Does this mean that John Judd was something akin to a “lay minister?”

Agnes and Thomas Irwin had apparently left and came back, joining by letter in 1809.

This was a big day for the family. Were old rifts being healed or was this just normal expansion and shrinkage?

In March of 1810, Larkin Pumphrey was acknowledged into their Christian Fellowship.

In June of 1810, Nancy McQuary was sited to come to the next meeting to explain why she had not been attending monthly meetings. The next month, she came forward and gave satisfaction. Clearly, if she had simply been ill or pregnant, everyone would have already known that, so something else was going on. I wonder if this had something to do with William’s drinking. I surely hope she was not being abused.

In February 1811, Larkin Pumphrey came forward to talk to the church about his fighting. The next month, he was received into Christian fellowship. In August, he is summoned again but in September gave satisfaction for his fighting. It seems that Larkin had a chronic “fighting problem,” which maked me wonder if he had a chronic alcohol problem too.

In October of 1811, William Judd is vistiing the church at Old Fields on behalf of this church.

In November 1812, Agnes and Thomas Irwin received a letter and left the church but were back again in November of 1813.

On the second Saturday of December, Thomas Irwin was to “site” Amos Harmon, his wife’s sister’s husband to come to meeting “to answer to some things about his conduct at Muster,” but the church acquitted him.

This tells us, at least, that the men did attend muster. I wonder when that practice stopped.

In January 1813, a report was taken up against Amos Harmon and referred to next meeting, but in January 1814, “the affair of Amos Harmon taken up,” the church acquitted him. I wish they had told us more.

Sally Judd joined the church in September 1813 by baptism. She was about 31 years of age and the fact that she had not previously joined the church was probably weighing heavily on the minds of both of her parents.

In 1814, William Judd along with his brother John, Thomas Johnson and Amos Harmon were to determine if a member should be excluded or not.

In October 1815, Amos Harmon was excluded from the church, “concerning his loos way of living” but joined again by acknowledgement in August 1816. I surely would like to know what was considered “loose living” by this church at that time. It could have been allowing rude people to visit or dancing, or something much worse.

In June 1816, a rukus was caused by an allegation against Thomas Johnson by John Judd that Johnson had “moved his fence to stop up George Taylor’s pasway with a wagon.”

This smells very much of local high drama! You immediately know there’s a whole lot more to this story.

In August 1817, Thomas Irwin along with William and John Judd are called upon for a contribution of 25 cents each.

In October 1817, Thomas Irwin is once again to “site Amos Harmon to meeting to answer for some of his misconduct and different reports that is out in the world against him.” He was excluded from the church.

In November of 1817, “a reference from the last meeting was taken up concerning Amos Harmon and for refusing to hear the church and his disorderly way of living in many cases the church has excluded him from thee Christian fellowship.”

In March of 1818, the affair of Noah Vannoy was taken up and Thomas Irwin and John Judd were “to site him to come to our church meeting.”

In September of 1818, three members were sent to “investigate the matter at William Judd’s on Reddies River.” I would surely love to know what that “matter” was.

In 1821, some major issue involving Noah Vannoy and the Lewis Fork church needed to be unraveled, taking several months apparently. William and John Judd were both involved attempting to straighten this out. The Vannoy family lived in this area and intermarried with the McNiel family as well other neighbors.

The last mention of William Judd is in August 1825 when the church is indebted to him for covering the meeting house $1.20. John Judd on the same day was allocated money for the association.

In November 1827, John Judd came forward with acknowledgement for some misconduct but the chruch forgave him. Given his long unmarred active church involvement, I wonder if this was another man by the same name and not the husband of Rhoda Shepherd. In July of 1826, John was still a delegate attending meetings on behalf of the church. In June 1828, John is cited to church again for misconduct. I wonder what happened.

Sally Shepherd was married to William Judd, who became a deacon in February 1828, about a year before Sarah Rash Shepherd would have passed. It appears that she was living with this couple and they did wind up with the Shepherd Bible.

Rash 1829.png

John Judd was excluded in 1829 and his wife’s sister applies for letters of dismissal that same day. It sounds like drama of some sort occurred. It was about this time that Rhoda and John left for greener pastures in Ohio, then Indiana and Iowa where they converted to the Mormon faith along the way. There’s surely much more to this story too, especially considering his many years of active church service.

In December 1829, the matter of Amos Harmon was referred to the next meeting. At the following meeting in January 1830, the church “took up the reference of Amos Harmon and left as they found him.”

The notes show that Agness Irwin left the church in 1829.

In January 1830 Rebecca Harmon was “received by experience at an evening meeting at Aaron Churches.” She was also baptized.

On the second Saturday of March 1830, the church “dismissed Rebecca Harmon by letter.” A note of March 22nd says they dismissed Sally, Fanny and Rachel Harmon by letter.” This family too was headed north.

In October 1830, the church dismissed Fanny Judd by letter.

In November 1831, Fanny Judd returned her letter of dismissal.

In Feburary of 1837, Fanny Judd was dismissed by letter.

With this last entry, the half century of the Shepherd family’s involvement in the Deep Ford Church that transitioned to Reddies River Church drew silently to a close.

Robert and Sarah were long gone, and their children’s families, for the most part, had moved on too.

The Families

It seems that life on the Reddies River was anything but mundane. The church notes reveal the “sins” of various family members, at least according to the standards of the place and time in which they lived. It’s their various “falls from grace” that lend a face of humanity to these people who clearly struggled, just like people today.

I’ve attempted to document each of Sarah’s children and grandchildren, with the lines who carry Sarah Rash Shepherd’s mitochondrial DNA bolded. Sarah passed her mitochondrial DNA to both sexes of her children, but only daughter’s pass it on to future generations. You can read more about how DNA works, here.

If you are or know of an individual, male or female in the current generation, who descends from Sarah through all females, I have a free mitochondrial DNA testing scholarship waiting for you.

Sarah’s mitochondrial DNA can help us break through her brick wall. We have her mother’s name, but nothing more about her matrilineal ancestry.

The absolutely wonderful news is that Sarah had several daughters who each had several daughters, which increases the likelihood that someone who descends from Sarah Rash through all females to the current generation, which can be male, either has tested their mitochondrial DNA, or is willing to test.

Sarah’s Descendants

Sarah had an incredible number of descendants in just the first couple of generations. Some have slipped our grasp – perhaps their family line knows more.

Elizabeth Shepherd, Sarah’s oldest child born in 1766 was the first to marry. She tied the knot with a neighbor boy, William McNiel, the son of the preacher, George McNiel in either 1783 or perhaps early 1784, probably in the Deep Ford Meeting House. Elizabeth married at the same age her mother, Sarah had, 17 or 18. Reverend George McNiel, her father-in-law, likely officiated. The families were neighbors as well, so the entire valley probably attended.

Sarah became a grandmother in October of 1784 at the age of 36. Sarah had grandchildren older than her youngest children who weren’t born until 1785 and 1787.

However, 1784 may have been a sorrowful year for Sarah, because it looks like she buried another child of her own in February or March, probably in the now destroyed Deep Ford Hill Cemetery where these modular homes sit today.

Shepherd Deep Ford HIll Cemetery

By the time Sarah’s namesake granddaughter was born in October, Sarah was pregnant again with Fannie who would be born 4 months later. Perhaps Elizabeth was trying to make her mother feel better by naming her firstborn child, Sarah, after her grieving mother.

In the 1790 census, William McNiel, married to daughter Elizabeth Shepherd, lives 10 houses away from Robert and Sarah with 1 male over 16, 1 under 16 and 3 females.

Sometime before 1800, before the membership roster of the Reddies River Church was assembled in 1798, Elizabeth and William would move to neighboring Ashe County.

Elizabeth would bless her mother with 9 more living grandchildren, 10 in total, plus probably 2 more that died, added to the tiny graves in the family cemetery.

Elizabeth Shepherd and William McNiel moved to Claiborne County, Tennessee in about 1811 or 1812, so Sarah would never have known her grandchildren born after that time. That must have been one tearful goodbye, with Robert and Sarah watching their eldest pull away in a wagon, knowing they would never see her again.

Elizabeth wasn’t there to lay her father to rest 5 or 6 years later in 1817, nor her mother, probably in 1829. That sorrowful news would have arrived months later by letter.

Elizabeth died in Claiborne County sometime between 1830 and 1840, between age 64 and 74, perhaps not long after her mother’s death.

Elizabeth had 10 children including 4 daughters who lived to adulthood:

  • Sarah “Sallie” McNiel born August 26, 1784 married Joel Fairchild and died January 2, 1861 in Hancock County, TN. She had 5 children including:
    • Fannie Fairchild born about 1822, died about 1868
    • Elizabeth Fairchild born 1820-1825 who married Samuel McCullough, having daughters:
      • Sarah McCullough, born 1852
      • Elizabeth McCullough born 1864
      • Susan McCullough born in 1867
      • Cordia McCullough born in 1870
    • George McNiel born Sept. 21, 1786 in Wilkes County and died July 20, 1870 in Claiborne County, TN. He married Nancy Baker, having 10 children, then Matilda Yeary having 3 more children.
    • Lois McNiel born about 1786, married Elijah Vannoy and removed to Claiborne County, Tennessee about 1811 or 1812. She died in the 1830s, having had 10 children including daughters:
      • Permelia Vannoy born Feb. 21, 1810, married John Elijah Baker in 1838 and died in Washington County, Arkansas February 5, 1900. She had four known children, all daughters:
        • Luana or Luanda Baker born about 1836
        • Rachel Baker born about 1837, died March 25, 1925 in Springfield, Missouri. She married Larkin Brewer and had two daughters who died as children.
        • Sirena Baker born 1839 married Samuel P. Jones and died in 1862. She had daughters Mary Jones 1857-1913, Permelia Jones 1860-1907, Alice Jones, 1868-1945, Virginia Jones 1870-1831, Flora Jones 1875-1936, Leticia Jones born in 1877.
        • Nancy Jane Baker born in 1845.
      • Mary Vannoy born about 1815 married Isaac Gowin
      • Elizabeth Vannoy born about 1817 married Elisha Bishop, died after 1880 and had two known children, including one daughter:
        • Levina Ann Bishop (1843-1925) who appears to not have had children.
      • Nancy Vannoy born June 19, 1820 married George Loughmiller, died April 29, 1896 in Washington County, Arkansas. She had 8 children, including 6 daughters:
        • Mermelia Loughmiller 1839
        • Mary T. Loughmiller 1843-1946 married John H. Jones and had daughters Laura Myrtle Jones (1872-1930) and Permilia E. Jones born in 1876.
        • Elizabeth Loughmiller 1848
        • Sarah E. Loughmiller 1850
        • Martha “Marty” Loughmiller 1852
        • Lydia Loughmiller 1853 who may have died before 1870
      • Sarah “Sally” Elizabeth Vannoy born Oct. 17, 1821, married Joseph C. Adams and died October 14, 1892. They had 6 children, including 3 daughters:
        • Nancy Jane Adams (1849-1922) who married Franklin J. Skaggs and died in Huntsville, Arkansas. She had 9 children including three daughters, Ann Skaggs born in January 1875 married Thaddeus Brackston Jones and had daughter, Annie Jones born in 1908. Daughter Shadric C. Skaggs was born in December 1889 in Madison County, Arkansas. Daughter Lyda Mae Skaggs (1894-1969) married George Everett Clark.
        • Rebecca Elizabeth Adams born in 1853, married William Leroy Throckmartin Bee Boren. She had 9 children including three daughters. Julia Boren 1872-1945 married Randy Clinton Bolinger and had a daughter, Ruby Bolinger. Mary Lou Boren (1876-1950) married Andrew Jackson Hamilton and had daughters Elisa Hamilton, Cecil Hamilton and Gladys Hamilton. Laura Boren 1886-1990 married 4 times and may have had one daughter. Daughter Sally Ada Boren (1892-1978) married Earnest Welcome Hart and had two daughters, Lillie Hart and Irene Hart.
        • Margaret Ann Adams 1857-1923 married John Ward and died n Oregon. She had 9 children including two daughters, Mary Jane Ward born in 1881 and Sarah Emma Ward born in 1887 or 1888.
      • Angeline Vannoy born about 1825 married Sterling Nunn in 1949 and died before October of 1850, probably in childbirth.
      • Lucinda J. Vannoy was born March 15, 1828, married Col. Joseph Campbell in 1886 with a prenuptial contract and died April 2, 1919 in Washington County, Arkansas.
    • Niel S. McNiel born about 1792 in Wilkes County, died September 10, 1839 in Claiborne County and married Elly Ramsey. They had 3 children, two girls and a boy.
    • Mary McNiel born about 1792 in Wilkes County, married Robert Campbell in 1817 in Claiborne County, TN and died on August 10, 1874 in Bradley County, TN. She had at least one child, a son, but it’s unclear whether she had other children, although it’s certainly probable.
    • Nancy McNiel born March 22, 1794, married Alexander Campbell and died on November 30, 1839 near Sneedville, TN. She had three sons.
    • John McNiel born July 1, 1803, married Elizabeth Campbell, sister to Alexander and Robert, and died on October 8, 1883. They had 8 children.
    • Betty (probably Elizabeth) McNiel born 1800-1810 and may have married Andrew McClary.
    • Jesse McNiel born 1806, married Bettie Campbell and died in 1890 in Claiborne County.
    • William McNiel, Jr., born 1810-1815 married Nancy Gilbert.

James Shepherd is the next child in birth order, born in 1768 who should have married sometime around 1790, or after.

The 1790 census shows Robert Shepherd with a total of 2, 1 and 7, meaning 2 males over 16, 1 under 16, and 7 females. This tells us that James is still living and residing with his parents in 1790 at 22 years of age. Not terribly unusual

In 1798, a James Shepherd appears with Robert and Sarah on the list of Reddies River Church charter members. This James could potentially be Robert’s brother James, but I doubt that because there is no wife listed with James, and the only charter members are 20 or so neighbors who live very close by.

In the 1800 census, Robert reports 2 males 16-25, 1 male 45 and over, one female 10-15, 2 females 16-25 and one female 45 and over. This tells us that James is still living at home at 32 years of age and confirms that he was born between 1775 and 1784.

The 1810 census shows no children living at home. No James Shepherd shows up elsewhere, and no records referencing James are found, so it’s presumed that James died between 1800 and 1810, between the ages of 32 and 42. James is probably buried in the Deep Ford Cemetery too. Given that he never married, owned land or lived away from his parents, I can’t help but wonder if he was somehow disabled.

By 1790, another of Sarah’s daughters had also married.

Nancy Ann Shepherd, born in March 1770 married William McQueary on February 11, 1787, just a month before her 17th birthday. They lived in Wilkes County in 1800 and 1810, but then removed to Pulaski County Kentucky where she died July 12, 1833 or 1835, depending on which version of the story you believe.

Nancy had 12 children with William, including William McQueary Jr., shown below:

I have not documented Nancy’s children thoroughly, but according to the 1800 and 1810 census, it appears that she had at least 7 daughters and 3 sons, including:

  • John McQuery
  • Allen McQuery
  • Pleasant McQuery
  • Jesse McQuery
Rash William McQuery

William McQuery

  • William McQuery
  • Humphrey McQuery
  • Mary Polly McQueary 1789-1813 who may have married William Cash
  • Sarah McQueary 1802-1877
  • Rebecca McQueary 1804-1870
  • Nancy McQueary 1807-1852
  • Elizabeth Betty McQueary 1813-after 1870, married Wilson “Willis” Owens and had 9 children, including 5 daughters
    • Mary Owens born 1838
    • Paulina Jane Owens (1840-1866) married Mason Compton Miller
      • Emily J. Miller born 1864
    • Sarah Emily Owens, born 1841, married Edwin Shivel, had 4 daughters:
      • Catherine Shivel born 1862
      • Elizabeth Shivel born 1864
      • Emma Shivel born 1867
      • Manah Emily Shivel born 1869
    • Nancy Owens born Mar 23, 1843
    • Lucy Owens born July 31, 1853

Mary “Polly” Shepherd born in 1773 married James McNiel sometime around 1790. They lived in Ashe County for a while, but moving back to Reddies River where Robert Sheppard sold them land in 1802. Mary died June 7, 1869.

James NcNiel and Mary were clearly close to her parents, Sarah and Robert, as James was the administrator of Robert’s estate in 1817 when he passed away, at the request of Sarah.

Mary “Polly” Shepherd McNiel had 9 children beginning in about 1792, with the last one born in 1814. She probably buried 3 or 4 children, judging from their birth dates.

  • Larkin McNeil
  • John McNeill (1796-1877), married Rachel Eller and had 4 children, including at least one son.
  • Frances “Fanny” McNeil (1798-1856) married Simeon Eller in 1817 and then Isaac Brown in 1851. She had several children, with at least one daughter, America, and possibly more:
    • America Elizabeth Eller (1841-1903) married William Richard Whittington and had three daughters:
      • Nora Caroline Whittington (1864-1956)
      • Dora Whittington born in 1872
      • Almeda Whittington (1875-1938)
    • Mary Ann “Polly” Eller (1820-1894) married Allen A. “Squire” Whittington and had daughters:
      • Emily Caroline Whittington (1841-1910)
      • Nancy Elvira Whittington (1843-1931)
    • George McNeil
    • William McNeil
    • Oliver McNeil, born in 1805 and married Delilah Eller. They had 7 children.
    • Nancy McNeil (1812-1880) married Edward J. Dancy in 1836 and had at least 3 children:
      • Mary Dancy (1837-1893) married James Calvin McNiel and had 8 children including 2 daughters:
        • Eda Elizabeth McNiel (1865-1924)
        • Julia Emma (1869-1948)
      • James Dancy born1839
      • Amelia Dancy (1841-1861) married Joseph Nichols and had one daughter:
        • Anna Elizabeth Nichols (1861-1935) married Calvin Columbus Church and had at least one son
      • Rebecca McNeil (1813-1878) married John Humphrey Vannoy in 1833 and had 12 children, including 4 daughters:
        • Mary Ann Vannoy (1841-1888) married James Phillips and had 6 children including two daughters:
          • Laura Rebecca Phillips (1874-1955) married
          • Nancy Myrtle Phillips (1877-1911) married Joseph Franklin Blackburn and had daughters Loretta Blackburn, Ina Blackburn and Dollie M. Blackburn
        • Nancy Louisa Vannoy (1847-1929) married James Madison Eller and had 8 children including one daughter who survived and had children:
          • Rebecca Eller (1878- ) married Zollie Church and had 3 daughters, Estelle Irene Church (1901-1991), Beatrice Teresa Church 1904-1985), Florence Mae Church (1906-1992)
        • Carolina Vannoy (born 1851)
        • Frances Matilda Vannoy (1854-1925) married James Wilburn Hardin and had 9 children, but only 1 daughter who had daughters:
          • Hattie Mae Hardin (1875-1953) married George Maxner and had daughters, Kate Maxner, Lucille Maxner and Edith Maxner
        • Eli McNeil (1812-1881), married Fannie Eller, moved to Ashe County and had 10 children.

Agnes Shepherd born in 1775 married Thomas Irwin about 1791. She and Thomas had 12 children beginning with Elijah born in 1792 or 1793. In 1810, Thomas was granted land on the Reddies River. In 1829, they removed to Russell County, Kentucky where Agnes died on March 18, 1856.

  • Elijah Irwin (1792-1878) married Elizabeth Goodman and had 6 children.
  • Thomas P. Irwin
Rash Alley Irwin

Alley Irwin

  • Alley Irwin (1797-1879) married Larkin Shepherd her first cousin once removed, son of Robert’s brother, John Shepherd. Alley’s children might really have carried a “Shepherd” look. They had 11 children, including 5 daughters:
    • Lucinda Shepherd (1821-1867) married Nathan Weaver and had 3 children, including daughter:
      • Martha Weaver (1849-1894) married Lewis Dobson Williams and had daughters Lula Elizabeth Williams (1881-1929), Mary Frances Williams (1875-1958), Effie Clyde Williams (1886-1930) and Ruth Dell Williams (1892-1919). Martha had several female grandchildren.
    • Rebecca Shepherd (1824-1879) married Joshua T. Coffey and had 9 children, including 3 daughters who may have had female children.
      • Adeline Coffey born 1844 married Aldred Wyatt
      • Matilda Coffey born 1846 married Isham Patrick
      • Alice Coffey born 1852
    • Sarah Shepherd (1831-1862) married Rev. John Ennis Pierce and had 5 children including 2 daughters:
      • Martha Carolina Pierce (1853-1948) married Banjamin Azmon and had 4 daughters: Edith Azmon, Mary C. Azmon, Ellen Azmon and Julia Azmon
      • Mary Saphronia Pierce (1857-1928) married Leonard Bynum Church and had daughter Julie Church.
    • Martha Shepherd (1842, twin to Mary, died 1916) married John Edward Fouts (died 1862) with whom she had one son, and then George Washington Phillips with whom she had 4 children, including 4 daughters:
      • Elizabeth Phillips (1871-1952 married Cicero Nathan DeBord and had daughters Tena Ada Debord (1893-1968), Phoebe Ruth Debord (1895-1932), Mary Bertha Debord (1897-1983), Myrtle Debord born about 1905 married a Brown and lived in Darlington, MD.
    • Mary Shepherd (1842, twin to Martha, died 1908) married William Harrison Brown and had no children.

You can read more about Alley’s family, including photos of her children, here.

  • Squire Irwin moved to Russell County, KY.
  • Nancy Isabelle Irwin (1798-1857) married John Thomas Jennings in 1819 and died in Russell County, KY in 1857. They had 10 children including no daughters:
  • Andrew Irwin born about 1799 married Lucy Wyatt in 1828 and moved to Russell County, KY.
  • William Irwin born about 1800 and died before 1824.
  • Sally Irwin born about 1803, married John Shepherd in 1824 and died in 1831 in Wilkes County. John and the children moved to Kentucky in about 1829 according to Brodrick Shepherd, taking their 3 children:
    • Lynville Shepherd 1827-1880
    • Elizabeth Shepherd (1829-1860)
    • Nancy Shepherd born about 1831
  • Robert Irwin born about 1810 married Sally Lutteral in 1838 in Russell County, KY and in 1853, married Ann Vannoy. He died in 1872 in Russell County.
  • Larkin Irwin born about 1812 died in the 1840s leaving 4 small children in Russell County, KY.
Rash Franklin Irwin

Franklin Irwin

  • Franklin Irwin (above) born about 1814, married Elizabeth Spencer about 1840 in Russell County, KY. Brodrick Shepherd reports that he and 7 of 8 children moved to Indiana after the Civil War where he remarried to Mary Stewart.

Rhoda Shepherd born in 1777 married John Judd about 1790. In 1800, Robert Shepherd sold two pieces of land to John. Eventually, Rhoda and John moved to Centerville, Wayne County, Indiana in about 1829 and Rhoda died after 1839. They had 9 known children.

  • William Judd (1808-1881) married Malinda Jane Troxell
  • John Judd (1825-1889) married Jane Brown
  • Robert Allen Judd (1810-1896) married Hester Ann Burns
  • Sarah Judd (1813-1890) married Thomas Oler and had 8 children, including 3 daughters that survived to adulthood:
    • Margaret Oler (1840-1918) married Joseph Morrison and had 9 children including 4 daughters that lived to adulthood:
      • Sarah Alice Morrison (1866-1953)
      • Bertha May Morrison (1874-1952)
      • Caroline (Carrie) Athelia Morrison (1877-1963)
      • Essie Leona Morrison (1883-1961)
    • Martha Oler (1843-1911) married Peter Chenoweth and had 4 children including 2 daughters:
      • Sarah Olive Chenoweth (1865-1939)
      • Eva Chenoweth (1862-1923)
    • Lydia Ann Oler (1842-1895) married Rufus Williams and had one daughter:
      • Jennie W. Williams (1880-1977)
    • Thomas Judd (1815-1890) married Margaret Oler
    • Tabitha Judd (1803-1847) married David Eller and had 7 children, including 3 daughters:
      • Clarissa Eller (1829-1889) married William C Marion and had 7 children including 3 daughters who lived to adulthood:
        • Priscilla Marion (1850-1923) married Melville Whitmore and had 4 children, including daughters Viola Whitmore (1871-1934), Minnie Whitmore (1879-1954) and Clara Winifred Whitmore (1881-1966)
        • Collitta Marion (1855-1911) married Jacob Sirdoreus and had 9 children including daughters Bessie Maud Sirdoreus (1887-1979), Annie Mae Sirdoreus (1892-1974) and Cora Belle Sirdoreus (1895-1994)
        • Emma M. Marion (1863-1932) who married John Riley Sirdoreus and had 8 children including daughters Nora Sirdoreus (1878-1933), Rosa Sirdoreus born in 1880 and Edna Mae Sirdoreus (1893-1968)
      • Mary Eller (1820-1897) married Claiborne C. Tinsley and had 6 children, including daughter:
        • Mary Jane Tinsley (1847-1917) married James Allen Eller and had daughter Myrtle Lillian Eller born in 1885 who married John Pickerel and had daughter Verle Irene Pickerel (1884-1956)
      • Elizabeth Eller (1827-1897)
      • Martha Eller born in 1839
    • Mary Judd
Rash Margaret Judd

Margaret Judd

  • Margaret Judd (1822-1886) married Eller Stoker and had 8 children, including 6 daughters:
    • Orson Hyde Stoker (1843-1908)
    • David Allen Stoker (1844-1929)
    • Lavina Stoker (1846-1916) married William Spears and had three daughters:
      • Myrtle L. Spears (1878-1925) married Frank Wilson and had 9 children including daughters Gladys O. Wilson, Myrtle Wilson, Shirley W. Wilson, Crystle B. Wilson, Olive M. Wilson, Lynn B. Wilson, Ordie D, Wilson and Bernice B. Wilson
      • Eva S. Spears (1884-1969) married Charles P. Meadows and had a son
      • Cora Ethel Spears (1887-1960) married John William Meadows and had a son
    • Michael Eller Stoker (1849-1929)
    • Mary Elizabeth Stoker (1850-1936) was born and died in Pottattamie County, Iowa and married William Sheen. They had 3 daughters:
      • Elsie May Sheen (1887-1978)
      • Gestie Hezel Sheen (1889-1981)
      • Maude Lillie (1892-1972)
    • Margaret Calpernia Stoker (1854-1934) married Joseph George Spears and had 4 children, three of which were daughters:
      • Elva Spears (1972-1955)
      • Sarah Alice Spears (1874-1960)
      • Emily Caroline Spears (1877-1950)
    • Lucretia Stoker (1855-1914) married William Heileman and had two children, including one daughter:
      • Minnie Heileman born February 1880, married Louis B. Smith and had one son.
    • Melanda Stoker, reported to have died as a child
  • Elizabeth Judd (1817-1886) married Alvin Winegar and had 10 children including 6 daughters:
    • John Alvin Winegar (1838-1914)
    • Samuel Thomas Winegar (1840-1921)
    • Lucinda Winegar (1843-1844)
    • Alvin Judd Winegar (1846-1893)
    • Mary Winegar (1848-1848)
    • William Winegar (1849-1902)
    • Margaret Ann Winegar (1851-1906) married Peter Howell and had 8 children including 4 daughters:
      • Margaret Ann Howell (1871-1947) married Charles Henry Brown and had daughters Ruby Lilia Brown, Margaret Pearl Brown, Rosamond Mary Brown and Ethelyn Howell Brown.
      • May Howell born 1876
      • Mary Sterling Howell born (1879-1928) married Hugh Tierney
      • Sarah Howell (1881-1916) married Parley White and had two sons
    • Louisa Winegar (1853-1941) married Zadock C. Mitchell and had 8 children including 4 daughters
      • Florence Mitchell born in 1883
      • Mary Lavina Mitchell (1885-1978)
      • Ellis Mitchell born in 1888
      • Viola Mitchell (1892-1966)
    • Sarah Elizabeth Winegar (1856-1924) married Alexander Brown and had 4 sons

John Shepherd born in 1779 married Mary Kilby on October 13, 1802 at 23 years of age but died before January 31, 1803 when Mary requested bond as administrator. The had no children. On January 12, 1804, Mary married Jesse Vannoy. John was probably buried in the Deep Ford Cemetery as well.

There were two other John Shepherd’s living in Wilkes at the time, but John, Robert’s brother died in 1810, having been married to Sarah. Their son, John, married Sally Ervine in 1824.

John’s death must have been crushing for Robert and Sarah, to lose both of their sons within a few years, between 1800 and 1810. It’s unfortunate that his death date and cause was not recorded in the family Bible.

Sarah “Sally” Shepherd born in 1782 married about 1802 to William M. Judd, brother of John Judd who married her sister. In 1805, Robert Shepherd sold William 100 acres. Sarah and William had 10 children beginning in 1803. In 1829, they removed to Wayne County, Indiana, then to Madison County, then finally to Newtown, Sullivan County, Missouri where Sarah died in November 1858 and is buried in the Howard Cemetery. Sally appears to be the owner of the Shepherd Bible.

Sarah and John had 10 children:

  • Perry Judd (1803-1844)
  • John Judd born (1806-1840)
  • Jeremiah Judd (1808-1867)
  • James Judd (1811-1854)
  • Larkin Judd (1813-1856)
  • William Judd (1815-1911)
  • Andrew Jackson Judd (1818-1854)
  • Linville Judd (1821-1858) married Sarah Muse, then Mary Collier and had 5 children.
  • Mary Margaret Judd (September 25, 1823-1924) married Jesse Tucker and had 10 children who lived to adulthood, including 4 daughters:
    • William A. Tucker born 1838
    • Linville Tucker (1839-1922)
    • Ferril Tucker born 1841
    • Sarah Louise Tucker (1844-1905) married Joseph Lacount Brackett and had 10 children including daughters:
      • Annie Brackett (1861-1904)
      • Mary Amelia Brackett (1874-1943)
      • Sarah F. Brackett (1879-1947)
      • Albina Brackett (1882-1918)
    • Amelia Tucker (1846-1921) married James Milton Pigg and had 10 children, including 4 daughters who lived to adulthood;
      • Sarah Elizabeth Pigg (1867-1925)
      • Margaret Lorena Rene Pigg (1879-1960)
      • Elsie May Anne Pigg (1884-1975)
      • Minnie Cedalia Pigg (1887-1939)
    • Jeremiah Tucker (1848-1924)
    • Nancy W. Tucker (1851-1940) married Jesse Lewis Pigg and had 8 children including 4 daughters that lived to adulthood:
      • Mary Ann Pigg (1871-1949)
      • Charlotte Lottie Ellen Pigg (1876-1930)
      • Malecta Frances Pigg (1879-1968)
      • Ida Mariah Pigg (1883-1968)
    • Mary Ann “Polly” Tucker (1852-1936)
    • Jesse Tucker (1856-1933)
    • John William Tucker (1863-1919)
  • Sarah Elizabeth Judd (March 29, 1827-about 1883 Henry County, Indiana) married Eli Trueblood, no known children

Frances, “Fannie” Shepherd born in 1785 married Larkin Pumphrey about 1803. They had 9 children and they too removed to Pulaski County, Kentucky between 1814 and 1816, before Robert Shepherd died in 1817. By 1830, they were in Fayette County, Indiana and had 8 known children, including 3 daughters:

  • Eli Pumphrey born April 23, 1806 in Wilkes County and died May 18, 1882 in Decatur, Indiana.
  • Martha Pumphrey born 1808.
  • John A. Pumphrey born about 1812 in Wilkes County and died in 1872 in Tipton, Indiana.
  • Delphia Matilda Pumphrey born in 1814 in Wilkes County and married Samuel Smith in Union County, Indiana, having one son.
  • Jackson Pumphrey born about 1816 in Pulaski County, KY.
  • Sarah Pumphrey born about 1819 in Pulaski County, KY and died n 1891 in Decatur, Indiana. She married Samuel Milton Burney had had 9 children, which included 5 daughters:
    • Malinda J. Burney (1840-1917) married Barney Markle and had 3 children, including 2 daughters:
      • Almira Markel (1867-1932)
      • Maude Pearl Markle born in 1874
    • Ann Burney born about 1853
    • Inas Burney born about 1855
    • Famson Burney born about 1859
    • Mary Tamson Burney (1862-1943) married Edwin Austin Jackson and had 2 sons
  • Joseph M. Pumphrey born about 1821 in Pulaski County, Ky and died in 1866 in Tipton, Indiana.
  • Andrew J. Pumphrey born about 1828 in Pulaski County, KY and died in 1875 in Decatur, Indiana.

Rebekah Shepherd born in 1787 married Amos Harmon on June 2, 1806. They had 13 children, moving with them to Richmond, Wayne County, Indiana between 1826 and 1831, then about 1835 on to become one of only 2 or 3 early settlers in Somonauk, DeKalb County, Illinois where Rebekah died on September 22, 1836 and is buried in the Oak Ridge, Cemetery.

  • Sarah Harmon (1809-1881) married Conway Rhodes in 1833 and had three sons:
    • James Rhodes died as a baby
    • Anthony Rhodes born in 1836 married Anne.
    • John M. Rhodes born in 1838, married Sarah Price.
  • Rachel Harmon (1811-1899) married William Poplin in 1831 in Tazewell Co., Illinois. The is buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery near her mother. Rachel had 6 children:
    • Sarah Poplin (1832-1834)
    • Harriet Poplin (1836-1887), married Herbert C. Cotton and had two children, one of which was a daughter:
      • Eva Cotton
    • Mary A. Poplin (1838-1839)
    • Rebecca C. Poplin, born in 1840, married John V. Henry in 1865
    • Francis E. Poplin was born in 1842, married Charles V. Stevens in 1862 and had 2 children:
      • F. Stevens
      • Ida Stevens
    • Jesse F. Poplin born about 1845 died after 1910
  • Fanny Harmon (1812-1836) married William Alloway in 1831. She died in DeKalf County, Illinois and is buried in Somonauk, Illinois
  • John Harmon (1813-1837)
  • Anthony Harmon (1814-1892) married Elizabeth Wilcox and had 6 children
  • George Harmon was born about 1815
  • Mary Ann Harmon (1817-1897) married Major Dennis and had 4 children. She died in 1897 in St. Louis, Missouri.
    • Waitstill Dennis (1843-1906) married Joseph Baker and had 2 children, including one daughter
      • Mattie Baker born 1870
    • Shepherd Dennis (1844-1870)
    • Rebeca Dennis (1847-1911) married Charles S. Lewis in 1865, died in Joplin, MO and had one daughter who died unmarried
    • William Allison Dennis (1852-1913)
  • Amelia Elizabeth Harmon (1819-1905) married Michael Been Ward in DeKalb County, Illinois but moved to Walla Walla, Washington. Not only was Amelia a female county commissioner, something unheard of at that time, but as such she attended the 1885 World’s Fair. President Rutherford B. Hayes stayed with the family when visiting the area. She had one child:
    • Augusta Ward (1843-1920) who married Raymond R. Rees and had 4 children, including 3 daughters:
      • Eleanor Rees (1869-1880)
      • Elma L. Rees (1870-1939) and married Harry H. Turner
      • Lora A. Rees ((1875-1941) married Paul Compton.
    • Amos P. Harmon (1821-1897) married Mary, died in Amador County, CA and had 5 children.
    • Nancy Malinda Harmon married Daniel Beem in 1842 in DeKalb Co., Illinois and died in 1905 in Amador County, CA. They had 7 children:
      • Unknown
      • Unknown
      • Benjamin Beem
      • Elizabeth Beem married a Reed
      • Sarah M. Beem (1848-1850)
      • William Edward Been (1861-1891)
      • Isabella Beem (1864-1944)
    • David E. Harmon (1825-1902) married Mary Jane Norton and had 4 children:
      • Imogene Harmon born in 1865 in Ohio
      • May Harmon born in 1869 in Ohio
      • Charles Harmon died young
      • James A. Harmon
    • William Harmon (1826-1845)
    • James A. Harmon was born in 1831 in Richmond County, Indiana and died in 1910 in Shelby County, Iowa. He married twice and had both of his children by first wife, Miriam E. Hummell:
      • Alfred L. Harmon born in 1872 in Shelby County, Iowa
      • Henry E. Harmon born in 1873 in Shelby County

Cousin Brodrick Shepherd provides additional information about Sarah Rash Shepherd’s descendants, here.

After the Kids Left Home

Sarah’s children slowly left home. The census along with family histories helps to rebuild the progression of these families.

Child 1800 Census 1810 Census 1820 Census 1830 Census
Elizabeth Shepherd b 1766 married William McNiel c 1782 Ashe County, NC Wilkes County, NC Claiborne Co., TN Claiborne Co., TN
James Shepherd b 1789 Home Presumed dead Presumed dead Presumed dead
Nancy Ann Shepherd b 1770 married William McQueary 1787 Wilkes Wilkes Pulaski Co., KY Pulaski Co., KY
Mary Polly Shepherd b 1773 married James McNiel c 1790 Ashe County Wilkes Wilkes, 1 female over 45 which would be Mary herself Wilkes
Agnes Shepherd b 1775 married Thomas Irwin c 1791 Wilkes Missing on census, Wilkes land grant in 1810 Missing Russell Co., KY
Rhoda Shepherd b 1777 married John Judd c 1790 Wilkes Wilkes Wilkes, but no female over 45 Wayne Co., Indiana
John Shepherd b 1779 Home with parents Died 1803 Deceased Deceased
Sarah Shepherd b 1782 married William Judd c 1802 Home Wilkes Wilkes, female over 45, probably Sarah Rash Shepherd Wayne County, Indiana
Fannie Shepherd b 1785 married Larkin Pumphrey c 1803 Home Wilkes Pulaski Co., KY Pulaski Co., KY
Rebekah Shepherd b 1787 married Amos Harmon 1806 Home Wilkes Wilkes, no female over 45 Richmond, Wayne Co., Indiana

In 1790, only two of Sarah’s daughters had married, and they lived nearby. The census tells us that a total of 7 females lived in the Robert Shepherd household.

By 1800, both of Sarah’s sons would have been strapping young men and good help on the farm. Three of her daughters were still living at home too.

In 1803, as the children grew up and married, Sarah and Robert apparently needed additional help, so they took two orphan boys, William and John Adkins, who apparently would have turned 21 about 1809. In any case, they are not with Robert in the 1810 census. In 1809, about the time the boys would have turned 21 and been released from their indenture, Robert bought two slaves.

By 1810, the landscape had changed.

Slaves Rachel and Jerry, probably Rachel’s son, purchased in 1809, live with Sarah and Robert until after Robert’s death in 1817. I must say, the purchase of slaves saddened me, and I hope they were treated as family.

Both of Sarah’s sons were presumed dead. John, we know for sure died in 1803, but James simply disappears entirely between 1800 and 1810.

All of Sarah’s daughters are married. Elizabeth and William McNiel moved to neighboring Ashe County, but then moved back again as did Mary and James McNiel. By 1810, Sarah had a passel of grandkids running around, and her daughters all lived nearby. With 8 daughters married and each having children every couple years, that meant that a new baby arrived every 3 months or so in someone’s cabin.

Just as assuredly as the stork arrived, death visited too, and the family would make their way to the church and the cemetery with a small wooden box riding on the wagon. There were probably already several graves in a row by the time Robert joined them in 1817, and even more when Sarah was laid to rest about 1829.

In 1817, Robert crossed over that great divide without a will, meaning that legally, Sarah was entitled to one third of his property and assets as her widow’s share. If he had made a will, he could have left her more.

Sarah’s petition to the court after Robert’s death declining her right to administer his estate in favor of her son-in-law, James McNiel is the only actual documentary evidence of Sarah in Wilkes County, aside from her name on the 1798 Reddies River church list of founding members.

Rash Sally Shepherd signature.png

Sarah’s signature with an X confirms that she cannot read and write. We may not have her actual signature, but we have her mark, which was the signature she was able to make.

In the fall of 1817, enough food and supplies were laid out from Robert’s estate to provide for Sarah “and family” for a year, as was the custom, although the only family living with her, as far as we know, were the slaves, Rachel and Jerry.

Robert Sheperd estate widow allotment

In 1818, Robert’s estate, including the remaining 122 acres of land, Rachel and Jerry, was sold. There is no record of purchasers or the amount of the sale. At this point, Sarah would have had to live with one of her children.

In 1820, several of Elizabeth’s children had moved on to more promising locations. Both sons were dead, Elizabeth and William McNiel moved to Claiborne County, TN about 1811 or 1812, Nancy Ann and William McQuery were in Pulaski County, KY, as were Fannie and Larkin Pumphrey. I can’t find Agnes and Thomas Irwin in the census although one Thomas Irwin purchases land in 1819.

That leaves Rhoda and John Judd, Sarah and William Judd, Mary Polly and James McNiel along with Rebekah and Amos Harmon in Wilkes County in 1820.

Of those families, only Sarah and William Judd have an “extra” female over the age of 45 living with them in the 1820 census, so I suspect strongly that Sarah spent the last dozen years of her life living with her namesake daughter, Sarah, who went by the nickname of Sally. That’s also the family who passed the Shepherd Bible from generation to generation, so this makes sense.

Ironically, Sarah and William Judd left for Wayne County, Indiana in 1829 or 1830, before the census – right after the time I suspect that Sarah died.

Perhaps Sarah’s death is what freed them to go.

By 1830, the year after Sarah’s presumed death, based on the Bible margin calculations, another 3 of Sarah’s daughters and their families pulled up stakes and left, leaving only Mary Polly Shepherd and James McNiel in Wilkes County.

The rest of Sarah’s children would be strewn across 4 states and 6 counties, like dandelion seeds drifting on the wind.

Lots of Grandchildren

Of Sarah’s 10 living children, her two sons didn’t survive to give her grandchildren. The 8 daughters combined blessed Sarah with 84 known grandchildren, and probably at least another 10 or 11 that died young. With nearly 100 grandchildren, or maybe even more, I wonder if Sarah could remember their names or who belonged to which parent. Holidays and picnics must have been interesting – and huge!

I can’t help but wonder if everyone got along.

While some of these grandchildren were born after their respective mothers left Wilkes County, so would never have known their grandmother, Sarah, many were raised right there along the Reddies River, on land that originally belonged to Robert and Sarah. Sarah was able to watch those grandkids and their children run barefoot through the freshly plowed fields, just as she had watched her own children blossom and thrive in the fertile valley at the base of Deep Ford Hill.

I’d wager that Sarah sat with their smiling faces gathered around her by the fireplace on chilly evenings as she told them stories about Spotsylvania County and their wagon-train adventures, in the midst of the war with the Tories, on the way to their haven on the Reddies River, a place that became the Shepherd sanctuary high up in the Blue Ridge Mountains.

This three and a half mile stretch of road and river, from the Reddies River church to the Deep Ford Cemetery is where Sarah lived for half a century. She would have known every bend in the river and mountain ridge by heart.

Rash Wilkes aerial.png

Legend:

  • Red star – Reddies River Church established in 1798
  • Blue star – known location of Robert Shepherd original land
  • Green star – approximate location of the Deep Ford of the Reddies River, owned by Robert’s brother, John Shepherd
  • Purple star – possible location of the Deep Ford Meeting House, although I suspect it may have been at the base of the Deep Ford Hill, near the green star in the cleared fields
  • Yellow star – Deep Ford Hill Cemetery, now destroyed

It was for life in this valley that Sarah and Robert had risked it all, pulling up stakes and moving hundreds of miles away from everything and everyone they had ever known.

Sarah’s husband, Robert, contributed a horse and feed to the Revolutionary War effort, and her oldest daughter’s husband, William McNiel fought at the Battle of Brandywine. By the time Sarah was telling those stories, 30 years and a world later, nestled in a snug cabin along the Reddies River, that had all happened “long ago” and were distant memories from a place “far, far, away.”

rash children

Many locations where Sarah’s children were found, in addtion to Wilkes County, the red star.

Another quarter century later, Sarah’s grandchildren and great-grandchildren would be scattered to the winds too, many moving north and westward with the rapidly advancing frontier line, and facing yet another war that would tear at the seams of a frayed nation.

Thankfully, Robert and Sarah had given them a firm foundation on which to build, both a country and their lives.

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I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

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OMG, Mary Tan Hai is Found – 52 Ancestors #275

Late last night, the son of my mother’s dance partner, Mary Tan Hai, reached out to me after googling his mother’s name during the time she danced in Chicago and found my 52 ancestors article about Mary and mother dancing together during WWII.

Except, her name really wasn’t Mary Tan Hai. It was changed from something I never knew until last night to protect her from being sent to a concentration camp during the war.

If you recall, I wrote about my mother’s professional ballet and tap dancing career during WWII, here. Mother’s dance troupe partner and good friend, Mary, was Japanese. Her family was interred in the Japanese Detention Camps here in the US. Mary couldn’t communicate with them or her Japanese identity would be discovered and she would be sent away too.

In order to protect Mary, they changed her name and the dancers protected her within the troupe. Mary “became” Chinese. There was no record in the troupe of her Japanese origins, just in case. I don’t know if mother ever knew Mary’s true name.

My mother was born in 1922. After Mom’s fiancé was killed in action, she left the troupe and eventually lost track of Mary, but never forgot her best friend and roommate. She talked about Mary and wondered what happened to her. I presumed when I wrote the article about Mom’s dancing career that Mary had long-ago passed. I searched, but I couldn’t find anything about Mary Tan Hai anyplace. Now I know that’s because that wasn’t her real name.

I was wrong. Mary wasn’t deceased.

Mary’s family is “gathered round her”, her son wrote me last night, as she prepares to pass over. Mary and Mom will reunite soon. Oh, the stories they’ll have to tell. The hugs they’ll share!

Even though I’m at RootsTech today, I quickly found a table on the Expo Hall floor, downloaded the photos from my own blog to my laptop, colorized the photos at MyHeritage, downloaded them and mailed the newly-alive colorized photos to Mary’s son.

A few hour later, I receive a lovely gift in return that I never imagined. Mary, as it turned out, had a photo album with pictures of mother I had never seen. I am forever grateful. After I sort through what I received, I’ll be publishing that information soon.

I’m so glad to know that Mary married, to a serviceman it turned out, had a family and a long, wonderful life. Perhaps Mary can still enjoy these photos, and if not, I know, based on the thank you note that her family is.

Thank you so much MyHeritage for providing this AMAZING tool to allow us to connect and share and remember. For everyone who is interested in colorizing photos, the first 10 are free for people without a MyHeritage subscription, and unlimited free colorization of photos if you do have a subscription. I’ve provided instructions here.

Now, take a look at these beautiful colorized photos!

Mother, Mary Tan Hai and troope

Mother is middle row right. Mary is back row right, just above Mom.

Mother, Mary Tan Hai and troope colorized

Mother and Mary Tan Hai

Mother and Mary Tan Hai colorized

Mary Tan Hai

Mary Tan Hai colorized

Mary Tan Hai gazebo

Mary Tan Hai gazebo colorized

Mother, Mary Tan Hai lawn

Mother, Mary Tan Hai lawn colorized

Mary Tan Hai well

Mary Tan Hai well colorized

Mom, Mary Tan Hai peeking

Mom, Mary Tan Hai peeking colorized

Update: Mary’s beautiful obituary can be found here. Thank you to her family for the notification.

______________________________________________________________

Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Products and Services

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Down Under: Tasmania – 52 Ancestors #273

This is part 2 of a multi-part series about my trip down under to Australia and New Zealand. You can read part one about my adventures in Sydney, outside Melbourne and in the Blue Mountains of Australia, here.

This trip was very different from past journeys, in part because we traveled over the holidays. We discussed this with family members first, but the kids are grown and the cruise line, Viking, included free airfare, but on just this one departure date. Clearly, lots of people hesitate to be gone for the holidays and Viking wanted to fill the cabins. For us, the free airfare made the trip affordable and our adult children were incredibly flexible. It also meant that we would spend New Year’s Eve someplace very unique😊

In this article, I’ll be sharing an unexpected New Year’s Eve treat, the absolutely amazing UnZoo, the penal colony at Port Arthur and a stunning drive along the Tasmanian coastline.

And of course, because it’s me, we had a crisis.

Come on along…

Tasmania

Tasmania is an island state of Australia. Separated from the mainland during the last ice age about 10,000 years ago. Tasmania is mostly volcanic – and beautiful.

Tasmania map.png

We departed from Melbourne and would be putting into the port of Hobart, the capital of Tasmania after a day at sea.

Tasmania aerial.png

From Hobart, we traveled by bus to the Tasmanian Devil UnZoo and on to Port Arthur, the site of one of the original Penal Colonies.

But before reaching Tasmania, we celebrated New Year’s Eve!!!

New Year’s Eve

This was a New Year’s Eve like no other, in more ways than one.

Jim and I had been anticipating New Year’s Eve shipboard. We’re not big celebrators at home, and we knew, just knew, that Viking would host a bang-up party.

What we didn’t know, of course, is how rough the seas would be.

I don’t do well with motion, and the remedy for that is to take Dramamine and go to bed.

The remedy does not involve either food or alcohol. And NEVER alcohol in combination with Dramamine. Not only that, but alcohol makes normally stable people unstable, and with the ship rocking to and fro, I needed every shred of stability I could muster.

Additionally, I was still affected by jet lag. It gets better gradually over a few days, but for me, jet lag means I’m sleepy just about all the time that I’m supposed to be awake, and wide awake when I’m supposed to be asleep. My body just screams, “I’m confused.”

Indeed, Viking scheduled a New Year’s Eve party from 9 – 12:15. Yes, you read that right. It ended at 12:15. Fifteen minutes after midnight.

I had to laugh, because Viking does attract many retired people, but really, we’re not THAT old. Why I remember New Year’s Eve’s that I was only getting started at 12:15, but I digress.

While Jim and I were trying to decide if we were going to sleep or going to party, the Cruise Director invited passengers to the atrium to a Chocolate Tasting.

OK, there’s no question. I’m going to that – rolling seas and Dramamine or not! Chocolate is going to be the death of me yet. I already tripped and fell once in the pursuit of chocolate and ancestors, but I was NOT going to miss this event.

Tasmania Chocolate Tasting.png

Believe me, the title “Chocolate Tasting” was significantly understated.

The chefs had outdone themselves and created an entire edible chocolate art display, plus buffet.

This event was so popular that they had to rope off the area and a line formed quite some time before the grand opening, or in this case, grand un-roping.

It seems that everyone loves chocolate.

Chocolate

Tasmania chocolate table.png

I slipped in while they were setting up to grab a few shots. This was before the serving trays arrived that held the beautifully decorated and arranged goodies for the guests.

Tasmania musicians.png

Musicians were scattered throughout the public areas of the ship. Music may calm wild beasts but I’m not so sure about people being restrained from chocolate.

When they *finally* opened the Chocolate Tasting buffet, it was immediately swamped with eager guests.

Tasmania chocolate served.png

It seems that everyone wanted a photo before the trays were empty. I’m sure you’ve heard the saying that you eat twice, first with your eyes. Truth! And this was a smorgasbord.

Tasmania chocolate variety.png

There an amazing variety of delectable goodies. I learned that those pastel cookies are French macaroons. Who knew?

Tasmania barrier reef.png

Isn’t this just beautiful?

Tasmania chocolate fountain.png

There were two very popular chocolate dipping fountains, off to the side, one white chocolate (yes, I know that’s not really a thing) and one “regular” chocolate. As you can see, the tray was empty but held fruit and marshmallows. Nothing remained empty very long.

Tasmania edible decorations.png

The decorations like the “plants” and that loopy ribbon-looking artistic expression on the left are edible.

Tasmania chocolate theme.png

The theme was Australia, of course. Just look at those native flowers and pots with “bark.”

Tasmania chocolate fish.png

The “barrier reef” with the chocolate fish. Everything was edible, but no one could bring themselves to eat the display itself.

Tasmania chocolate fires.png

The bushfires were present on everyone’s mind.

Tasmania chocolate tree.png

This chocolate Christmas tree looks like laser-cut scrollwork. I wonder how they did that.

Tasmania chocolate buffet.png

Very pastel for chocolate. Look at those beautiful lacy butterflies. I bet they worked all day on this. I wonder if the chefs were disappointed that people didn’t eat the decorations themselves, of if they would have been hurt if they had. Maybe that was the crews treat later.

Tasmania New Year's Eve sunset.png

After falling into a chocolate food coma, we went to our cabin and watched the sun set.

Tomorrow would be an early morning, waking up in Hobart, capitol city of Tasmania.

I probably don’t need to tell you that we never made it to the party.

Never make the mistake of laying down on a cruise ship. The motion will rock you right to sleep.

Tasmania

New Year’s Day dawned bright and beautiful. Happy 2020! I had never welcomed a new year in another country, let alone another hemisphere on a landmass half way around the world.

Tasmania Harbour

click to enlarge

After docking, we climbed aboard the bus to head for the UnZoo, and then on to the Penal Colony, first driving through the city of Hobart.

Tasmania is known for its wool production and exports, both historically and today.

Tasmania woolstore.png

One of my favorite things about cruising is that you’re always by the sea.

Tasmania coast

click to enlarge

The entire journey today would be along the beautiful Tasmanian coastline in the golden rays of sunshine.

Tasmania coast bay 2.png

Before long, we arrived at the UnZoo.

The UnZoo

That the heck is an Unzoo? Well, it’s the reverse of a zoo.

The animals aren’t caged for human entertainment. The animals live in their natural habitat, without fences, and the humans are guided through that habitat and (minimally) restricted for everyone’s protection, when necessary. Kind of an immersion experience in a native botanical garden that the animals enjoy too.

I have always been very concerned about the ethical aspects of zoos – and I absolutely love not only the concept of an UnZoo, but the UnZoo itself.

We visited the Tasmanian Devil UnZoo whose mission is to save the Tasmania Devils. The Tasmanian Devil, a carnivorous marsupial, was named by the original colonists due to its ferocious voice and aggressive nature. They may be small, but they don’t know it, or sound small. Extinct on the Australian mainland today, they are found only on Tasmania, and may become extinct there soon.

You can hear and see the Devils in a YouTube video here. That voice!

Additionally, the UnZoo serves as a wildlife sanctuary, hospital and preserve for other native Tasmanian species as well.

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You may have heard that the Tasmanian Devils are urgently threatened with a rare form of facial cancer, DFTD or Devil Facial Tumour Disease, a fatal, transmittable cancer.

The bad news is that DFTD is one of only three forms of contagious cancers in the world and more than 80% of the Devils are infected today. The good news is that the location of the UnZoo has allowed a fence to be built across the neck of the peninsula to protect the Devils on the peninsula, none of whom are infected. In other words, the cancer has not spread there – yet.

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To give you an idea of the lay of the land, Hobart is on the left, above, the UnZoo is the red pin, and the fence spans the small neck of land at Dunalley pointed to by the red arrow. If this fence and alarm system fails, the Tasmanian Devil will likely become extinct.

The UnZoo admissions provide funding for building and alarming the fence along with caring for the animals. You can contribute, here.

The guides at the UnZoo are extremely committed to the animals under their stewardship.

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The animals come to know the guides quite well. As a retired wildlife rehabilitator, I can assure you that even though we attempt not to form bonds with the critters, we do – and they do with us as well.

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While the birds in the aviary at Healesville, outside Melbourne, had been reclusive, that’s not the case here for these unconfined birds.

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Look up! Birds are everyplace.

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A little birdseed helped encourage this friendly parrot.

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Jim was quite taken by surprise. There was no birdseed on his head, so the attraction must have been something else. You can see both Jim and the bird are quite pleased.

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Educational signs are posted in many places, helping visitors get to know the animals, along with discussing the history, challenges and surrounding habitat.

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People walk along the paths. This border is not to keep the Tasmanian Devil in, but to keep the people out of the Devil’s habitat and to keep everyone safe.

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I had a difficult time getting a good picture of that Devil.

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In another area, the boardwalk is separated from the animal’s area by plexiglass. This little Devil came right up and took a look at us.

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As it turned out, he was a bottle raised orphan after his mother was killed on the road.

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After reaching adulthood, he failed in the breeding program. Let’s just say he got too excited and accidentally hurt the females, so he is experiencing an early retirement, at least from planned breeding anyway. What goes on in the bush stays in the bush though – and he’s not telling.

Lots of human imprinting means he’s quite docile, at least for a Tazmanian Devil, and although he isn’t confined in any way, it’s unlikely he’ll ever leave the general area. As a rehabilitator, I had wild, released, animals that hung around nearby for years, without being fed or encouraged. One swan even came and pecked on the sliding glass door with his beak to get help once when his mate was injured.

One of the UnZoo initiatives, aside from preventing the spread of disease is to care for orphaned animals, help the injured recover and sustain a wild breeding Devil population.

Sadly, sometimes they pass on.

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Devils that have died at the UnZoo are buried here.

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If you look at their “tombstones,” you’ll notice that some of them appear to have lived quite long lives. Freddie, for example, 1991-2007. These may be fictitious dates, because Devils typically don’t live more than 7 years in the wild, although it’s well-known that captive animals with care often live longer than wild animals.

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I have to wonder what is special about Erpol’s genetics. I’m suspecting that it might have something to do with the facial tumors. I sent the UnZoo a query about this but haven’t heard back from the right person.

Interestingly, there is little genetic diversity in the remaining Devils due to various past population bottlenecks where few Devils were left alive. Unfortunately, the immune system of the Devils today can’t recognize the tumor cells as foreign due to a mutation shared by all known Devils.

Devils aren’t the only animals at the UnZoo.

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This Wallaby hopped across the path in front of us.

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These particular Wallabies are called Pademelons. Numbering in the millions, they live in the scrub and eat grass. There are no fences, so these critters are free to come and go.

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Umm, excuse me….

The person had no idea these hopeful birds were creeping up behind him.

Next, it was my turn to be surprised. The guide told us that if we walked into this field, stood very quietly, and did not approach any of the animals, that the kangaroos might, just might, come out to see us.

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A group of kangaroos is called a mob, and they tend to be quite skittish. A gust of wind that startles one of them precipitates a mass high speed exit of the entire mob.

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You have no idea how thrilled I was. Note the joey in the pouch of the Mom in the middle.

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Kangaroos are extremely powerful creatures. When fighting during breeding season, males kick to kill each other and can disembowel with their back legs and claws. Notice the length of their claws in the following pictures.

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“Hey, hi, who are you?”

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This doesn’t look very comfortable for either mom or baby, but it clearly works and keeps the baby safe. The guide mentioned that for the mother, especially when it’s desperately hot, like the days when it rose to 122 degrees, the Joey is like a hot water bottle up against her abdomen. The Joey probably feels the same way too.

Joey’s stay in the pouch entirely for about 9 months and continue to nurse for about 18 months, much like human children, well except for the pouch. The mother can have 3 dependent Joeys at once. One as an embryo developing, one in the pouch like this guy, and one still suckling outside the pouch. You can read more, here.

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Our guide explained we were not to approach any animals, but that IF a kangaroo approached you, that you could slowly reach out and scratch its head. If the kangaroo liked that, and approved of you, it might expose its chest to you as well, which they enjoy having scratched. Kind of like dogs.

They also enjoy kangaroo kibble.

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Jim said this was literally the highlight of his trip.

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“Wait, wait, I wasn’t finished…”

The kangaroo literally reached out and gently pulled Jim’s hand back towards her – like our cats do at home.

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“Hey, no one’s looking are they??? Shhhh, don’t tell”

This kangaroo stealthily snuck up behind the guide and oh so quietly slipped its head into the bucket pilfering a snack.

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I was standing off to the side when the Mama kangaroo with the Joey hopped up to me. I was very surprised since mothers are typically very reserved when their young are involved. I didn’t have any food in my hand either, at least not yet.

I offered to pet and scratch her, although I fully expected her to retreat. She didn’t and scratching seemed to be exactly what she wanted. She seemed a bit shy around more than one person at a time.

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Look at the length of those toenails. Just sayin’!!!

We had quite the scratch-fest. Not only did Mama let me scratch her head, then her chest, she twisted around so I could scratch her back, AND THEN SHE RAISED UP AND LET ME PET HER JOEY!!!

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The Joey seems to love his little Joey-sized scratches too.

This might well have been the highlight of my trip – although there were so many amazing experiences.

Just call me the kangaroo whisperer.

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Surprisingly, Mama wasn’t interested in food though. Nursing an older Joey requires lots of calories.

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As soon as they realized I had treats, the other kangaroos wanted snacks.

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Then Mama changed her mind. I could have stayed right here all day.

Sadly, it was time to head for the gift shop and to say goodbye to the animals at the UnZoo.

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This shy Devil watched from a distance as we arrived, and he watched us leave too. I think he’s the unofficial guard.

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Tasmanian Devils at the UnZoo even create art. I would have purchased this if it had been for sale in the gift shop, but it was hanging in the gardens. It looks like batik fabric and where else could you find something this unique?

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Even the floor in the gift shop is devilishly cute.

Next, we headed for the penal colony at Port Arthur.

Port Arthur

Port Arthur was the harshest of the penal colonies in Australia. I have to tell you that this was difficult for me. The buildings are beautiful, but the history is dark, horribly dark. I give the Tasmanians a lot of credit for not sweeping it under the proverbial carpet and instead, using this location and history as a learning experience.

While whalers had been using the Tasmania’s islands since 1798, it wasn’t until 1803 that a military outpost of 49 people was established here. Of those 49, many were convicts; 21 males and 3 females.

Eventually, 75,000 convicts would arrive in Tasmania, one fourth of the total sent to Australia from the British Isles. Many of their crimes were menial.

A database of 132,000 of the known 160,000 convicts transported to Australia can be found here. Tasmanian convict records are online in several locations. Check your surnames, even if you don’t have Australian ancestors. You never know who you might find, or from where. The key to solving a long family mystery might be waiting in the convict records.

A New Zealand cousin was responsible for breaking down our Speaks family brick wall, allowing us to find the location in England. Don’t make assumptions that Australian and New Zealand records or DNA matches are irrelevant to you. They may be exactly what you need!

Non-convict settlers began arriving near Port Arthur in about 1820, lured by land and free convict labor.

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Using convict labor meant that convicted men, not animals, pulled plows. Generally convict women were servants.

Established in 1830, from 1833 to 1853, the Port Arthur penal colony was the destination for the hardest of convicted British criminals – secondary offenders, rebellious people from other penal colonies and sadly, those with mental health issues.

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Click to enlarge, photo By JJ Harrison (https://www.jjharrison.com.au/) – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=5185333

Surrounded almost entirely by (supposedly) shark-infested waters, escape was not possible. One man tried, disguising himself in a kangaroo skin, up until the hungry guards attempted to shoot the kangaroo for extra rations. Luckily for him, they were poor shots. He threw off the kangaroo skin and surrendered.

The isthmus of Eaglehawk, the only possible escape route was fenced, guarded by soldiers, man-traps and literally, intentionally half-starved dogs chained every few feet as sentinels.

Let us just say that not only was the most severe physical punishment and torture used on the convicts, but the concept of psychological punishment and torture was developed and perfected here.

Some men murdered others simply to be put out of their eternal misery; confinement under horrific circumstances with no hope of reprieve or release – ever.

I found the cruelty terribly disturbing, with inmates being whipped long past becoming unconscious, repeatedly, then hooded and confined in total darkness and silence for days and weeks on end. It’s no wonder that beside the prison, a building known simply as “the asylum” was built because the minds of many did not survive the incessant torture. They were literally “driven mad.”

You’ll forgive me if I simply could not take a picture of that building.

The 1646 or more convicts who died here were interred on the Isle of the Dead, right off shore in the bay, but only 180 graves of prison staff or military personnel are marked. The prisoners are interred in anonymous burials, graves dug by other convicts that would, soon enough, sleep there themselves – probably much more peacefully than they lived. For most of them, death was probably a welcome release.

Port Arthur was closed in 1877, the buildings abandoned.

All of these buildings were built with the labor of the men who were confined in them, including, ironically, the church.

I’ll not say more.

I will let these photos speak for themselves in silence – beginning with our arrival.

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Tasmania Port Arthur church

By D. Gordon E. Robertson – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=9752214

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Tasmania Port Arthur cemetery

By Star reborn – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=9653430

Lunch in The Asylum

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Lunch that day was served in “The Asylum,” of all places, and included a Tasmanian beer if you were interested. I drink very little, but this is very good beer and was quite welcome, as I was more than a little uncomfortable in The Asylum. I could literally feel the agony of those long-forgotten people. Not surprisingly, Port Arthur and The Asylum are reported to be heavily haunted with ghost tours reporting screams still emanating from cells, and more.

Thank goodness, I found a beautiful flower to focus on, and not the brutality that had occurred in the recesses of this building for many decades. How many lives lost? How many minds lost? What kind of human could inflict that level of torture on another sentient being? Death would have been far more humane.

Why is it that humans feel that torture of other humans, or animals for that matter, is ever justified or acceptable? As the guide said, all of this was meant to grind you down into submission and subservience, and to deter others, but sometimes the cogs ground too far.

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Color and beauty, for me, is always a welcome salve.

The Coastline

I was grateful to leave, something many of the convicts were never able to do.

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Heading back towards Hobart, the coastline was beautiful and relaxing.

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We stopped for a short walk and to take pictures of this stunning vista.

I know these are weeds of some sort, but I prefer to think of them as wildflowers. A weed is a flower growing in a place where you didn’t plant it and don’t want it to grow.

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Our trip back towards Hobart took us through a farm that I believe incorporated a golf course with a “country” lodge.

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These ranches are massive, mostly free-range farms encompassing thousands to tens of thousands of acres supporting sheep, goats and cattle, and in this case, a golf course too. The mountains, seen in the distance, are never far.

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This tractor looks familiar and reminds me of growing up.

I can’t tell you how many times I walked to the house because the tractor got mired down someplace in the mud or ran out of fuel. My Dad would just look at me as I walked from the field to the barn, shake his head and chuckle, surveying the scene over my shoulder to determine just how much trouble it was going to be to retrieve the tractor this time😊

Some things seem to be the same world over.

Tasmania ship

click to enlarge

Look, I do believe that’s our ship, waiting for us.

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On the waterfront in the dock area, near the passenger terminal today, the IXL Jams building stands as testament to a company of that name formed in 1891, specializing in jams, of course. The local legend says that someone told the founder to name the building, so he decided on IXL, as in “I excel.” Is that true? I couldn’t confirm, but it’s a cute story.

Inside the terminal, we found a maker’s market, although they were getting ready to close for the day.

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We were just in time and I thoroughly enjoyed perusing these goods. No fabric though, or t-shirts.

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I bought beautiful zippered change purses with helixes. What, you don’t think that those decorations are really helixes?

Kami and Joey approve!

Rough Seas

Now might be a good time to mention that the seas around Tasmania and New Zealand’s South Island are considered to be some of the roughest in the world. We had two sea days between Tasmania and our next port, Dunedin, in New Zealand.

Had I known those seas had that reputation, I would not have booked this cruise. Maybe it’s a good thing I didn’t know, because I survived, and the cruise was amazing. But it was not without challenges.

It’s also a good thing I had unlimited amounts of Dramamine and Viking has room service for food.

So, what do you do on a ship at sea for 2 days?

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At our age, you eat.

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You find food that looks like state shapes. Think of this as adult I-spy. This is the lower peninsula of Michigan.

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You drink. In my case, coffee and tea. Adult beverages flowed freely.

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You find more food art on the ship.

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This looks good enough to eat.

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OK, now I’m hungry. That’s no problem, because there’s food everyplace.

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The cafeteria is open for all meals, but theme restaurants, like Manfredi’s Italian restaurant require reservations but there is no extra cost. This is the BEST tiramisu I’ve EVER eaten, and their steak is legendary.

Jim went to a cooking class with the chef where he learned how to make the Tiramusu and received the recipe. I’d share with you, except that would be copyright violation, I’m sure.

Can’t make up your mind about dessert? No problem. Have 3😊

You can also swim or immerse yourself in the hot tub, go to the spa, sit poolside for high tea, watch movies in your room or in the outside theater, attend a wide variety of cultural talks – or all of the above.

As a special treat, you can go to the Viking Orion’s 3D planetarium, don 3D glasses and enjoy specially filmed movies about sea life, space or the aurora borealis. We enjoyed all three, but then we’re space and science geeks.

You cannot be bored.

You can, however, have a crisis.

The Crisis

By this time, we were about a week into the trip of a lifetime. We departed on Christmas Day and this was New Year’s, a week later.

When I pack, I make lists.

The most important things on that list are my meds, phone, credit cards, and my technology if I’m presenting. If I’m going overseas, add passport and visa to that. Everything else can be replaced if need be.

You know what’s coming next don’t you.

I obviously have my passport and Visa, or I wouldn’t have been IN Australia. I had my phone or you would have already heard about that, and I’ve already mentioned my computer. I would gladly use Jim’s credit cards if mine were missing😊

That only leaves one thing.

Yep, meds.

I use a 7-day reminder pill box. When I went to refill for the 2nd week, I had every med in the Rx vials, except one.

OMG HOW DID THIS HAPPEN?

Not that how mattered at that point, because the issue was the same regardless.

I only take 2 meds that I can’t do without – and the one missing was, of course, one of those.

I had a full-fledged crisis on my hands.

I asked my daughter back home to check, and sure enough, the vial was sitting right on the counter, so it wasn’t buried in the luggage or lost someplace – although by that time I had already frantically torn everything apart.

Maybe, just maybe, the ship’s medical department had something that would work.

Nope – but they contacted “someone” on shore. We were dealing with a US prescription, that I couldn’t prove was prescribed for me, a Norwegian ship, New Zealand laws and a ship’s medical staff from ??? licensed in ???.

What are the chances this is going to work out well?

The nurse told me that at the next port, Dunedin, I might have to go to the doctor to get a prescription written by a physician IN New Zealand. They didn’t know for sure, but they were contacting the proper people onshore and would let me know soon.

The hours dragged by.

No news.

I worried. I worked on my computer and wrote a blog post. Thank goodness for wonderful wifi.

Fortunately, I had a couple spare doses in my purse, so I wasn’t out entirely, but would be in another 2 days.

The Viking shore agent was working with pharmacies to try to get my meds.

Finally, news came that the agent “thought” they would have my meds the morning we got into port at Dunedin. If not, then I’d get to visit the doctor instead of going on a shore excursion, which is not the adventure I intended to have. Regardless, I was grateful for any resolution to this problem.

I was so MAD AT MYSELF, not to mention my husband who assured me he put the vials in the bag, multiple times. I could kick myself for not checking.

However, at least there was a solution and the rest of the trip would be just fine.

I took Dramamine and went to bed. The seas were rougher than ever. I just wanted to go to sleep. Something, probably the deck furniture, crashed into the railing on the neighbor cabin’s balcony, jarring me awake. It was going to be a long night.

By the time we woke up in the morning, we should be docked in Dunedin.

NOT Dunedin

I went to bed feeling much better about the situation. One way or another, everything would work out.

I woke up, anxious for docking so I could stop worrying about the medication. We should already have been in port, but sometimes schedules are beyond the control of the captain. Mother Nature has a mind of her own and interferes, as do port schedules and berth availability. I could feel the ship rocking, being tossed around roughly. We weren’t in port.

I slid the door open and stepped outside on the small balcony.

The ship was still sailing and port was nowhere in sight. I turned on the TV to see how much further we had to go on the map. It appeared that we were beyond the port – but those maps aren’t exact by any means. We interpreted this to mean that we would be in port shortly.

We got dressed and headed to the cafeteria for breakfast, ready to leave for shore excursions, or the doctor, whichever our aadventure for the day turned out to be, as soon as we docked.

During breakfast, the Captain began speaking over the intercom and informed us that, indeed, we were NOT going to Dunedin after all, because the seas were too rough and the ship couldn’t dock safely.

Rats!

Wait!

OH NOOOOooooo – my meds are supposed to be waiting in Dunedin!!!!

Now what?

Back to medical, but the door of the medical department was closed and locked. Uh-oh.

Bless those customer service agents on the ship, because they are amazing.

After several phone calls, the word was that Viking would “try” to have the med shipped from Dunedin to Christchurch – but the problem was that we were only to be in Christchurch for a day. The meds would likely arrive after we left. This wasn’t going to work, and unless we got meds in Christchurch, I would be out entirely.

To make matters worse, we were now relaying messages between me, the customer service agent(s) including a supervisor, the medical department personnel and two port agents in two different locations. Not to mention a pharmacy and who knows who else was involved.

Lord have Mercy – this is never going to work. Disaster is written all over this scenario.

The customer service agent told me that “someone” would call me in my room as soon as they knew something. There were a lot of anonymous someones and somethings in this equation.

Passengers were informed that the ship would be docking that evening in Lyttleton, the more distant of two ports where cruise ships dock whose passengers are headed for Christchurch – not in Christchurch itself, further complicating an already complex Rubik’s Cube.

So off I went to deal with another rough day at sea, worrying and waiting for a phone call.

Minutes stretched to hours.

No news.

Maybe I have new MyHeritage triangulated segments or SmartMatches.

No news.

Maybe I have new bucketed matches at Family Tree DNA.

Still no news.

Maybe I have new shakey leaf hints. Nope.

Is that phone EVER going to ring???

I spent the day writing and reviewing a business plan with a jeweler I had met with in Melbourne, Australia to discuss a DNA jewelry line. (No, I didn’t mention that little detail😊)

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The seas were still rough and the sky was grey. I was feeling blue.

Would we even be able to dock? Lyttleton was said to be as difficult as Dunedin, snugged into a U-shaped bowl of mountains.

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Yay!!! Docked at Lyttleton

I have never been so glad to see land!

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We’re here! What a relief!

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Lyttleton is beautifully tucked into a lovely harbor, but at that moment, I was pretty much oblivious to the beauty and awash in relief.

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What I really cared about is that we had indeed managed to thread that needle and were moored to the dock.

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I did manage to notice this very unusual tower as we sailed into the harbor. That ball would drop at a specific time, allowing navigators on ships docked in the harbour to set their clocks appropriately. Hence, the saying, “you’re on the ball.”

It’s now called Timeball Station, originally constructed in 1876 but rebuilt in 2018.

You can see the tower on the hill just above the point of the bow of the ship in the photo above.

Where Are the Meds?

Not wanting to be a pest, I had *only* called customer service 3 times that day at sea. They were supposed to let me know something about the plan, but I never heard back.

I was trying my best not to be “that person” any more than I already was. After all, they were trying to help me.

It might be possible to see a physician that evening, if I had to, so that I didn’t miss the following day at Christchurch. Fingers crossed!

The very minute we docked, I was standing at the customer service desk. The customer service agent took one look at me, knew what I wanted and called the nurse’s cell phone, who said that she was literally in line to be the first off the boat to retrieve the med from the port agent who was waiting at the end of the gangplank.

GLORY BE!!!!!

Five minutes later, I had my meds in my hot little hands.

I need to say this right here and now.

Viking and the staff was amazing!!!

The nurse and the customer service agents went WAY, WAY above and beyond to help me. Never, not once did they make me feel as stupid as I was already feeling.

And yes, it did cost something – but only $45 for the port agent’s efforts which included the cost of the med, which is far, far less than a medical emergency or ruined vacation. I was completely at their mercy.

I am eternally grateful. I LOVE VIKING! They did not have to make my problem their problem, but they did and solved it.

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I learned a valuable lesson.

Never, ever again will I leave without physically checking my meds one last time myself. That’s probably a good precaution anyway – four eyes are better than two. We were actually very fortunate, all things considered. All it takes is one misstep to cause an awful mess.

After 3 rough days at sea, a missed port and a crisis averted, we were finally connected to solid land and looking forward to touring wonderful New Zealand. Trust me, we wouldn’t be disappointed.

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Tomorrow promises to be a GREAT day!

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