Native American Mitochondrial Haplogroups

Today, what I’m sharing with you are my research notes.  If you follow my blogs, you’ll know that I have a fundamental, lifelong interest in Native American people and am mixed blood myself.  I feel that DNA is just one of the pieces of history that can be recovered and has a story to tell, along with early records, cultural artifacts and oral history.

In order to work with Native American DNA, and the various DNA projects that I co-administer, it’s necessary to keep a number of lists and spreadsheets.  This particular list was originally the first or earliest reference or references to a Native American mitochondrial (maternal line) haplogroup where it is identified as Native in academic papers.  I have since added other resources as I’ve come across them.

For those wondering why I’ve listed Mexican, this article speaks to the very high percentage of Native American mitochondrial DNA in the Mexican population.

Please note that while some of these haplogroups are found exclusively among Native American people, others are not and are also found in Europe and/or Asia.  In some cases, branches are exclusively Native.  In other cases, we are still sorting through the differences.  For haplogroups though to be only Native, I have put any other submission information, which is often from Siberia.

I have labeled the major founding haplogroups, as such.  This graphic from the paper, “Beringian Standstill and the Spread of Native American Founders” by Tamm et al, provided the first cumulative view of the mitochondrial Native founder population.

beringia map

Haplogroups A, B, C, D and X are known as Native American haplogroups, although not all subgroups in each main haplogroup are Native, so one has to be more specific.

Normally, you could presume that if haplogroup A2 is Native, for example, that A2a, downstream of A2, would also be Native, but that’s not always true.  For example, A4 is found in Asia.  A2 is a subset of A4, which you wouldn’t expect, and we believe that haplogroup A4a is actually Native.

The lists below are just that, lists.  If you want to see these in tree fashion, you can visit www.mtdnacommunity.org, click on Phylogeny, click on Expand All, then search on A4, for example.

mtdnacommunity a4

Please note that I am adding information from haplogroup projects at Family Tree DNA.  This information is self-reported and should only be utilized with confidence after confirming the accuracy of the information.

Please note that in earlier papers and projects, not all results may have been tested to the full sequence level, so results in base haplogroups, like A and B, for example, may well fall into subclades with additional testing.

The protocol and logic for adding the Anzick results for consideration, along with other evidence is discussed in this article.  In short, for the 12,500 year old Anzick specimen to match any currently living people at relatively high thresholds, meaning 5cM or over, the living individual would likely have to be heavily Native.  Most matches are from Mexico, Central America and South America.  Many mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are subgroups of known Native groups, but never before documented as Native.  Therefore, the protocol I followed for inclusion was any subgroup of haplogroups A, B, C, D, M or X.  Some individuals are unhappy that some haplogroups were among the Anzick results and that I have not removed them at their request, in particular, M23.  To arbitrarily remove a haplogroup listing would be a breach of the protocol I followed.  Research does not always provide what is expected.  I have includes links to notes where appropriate.

Roberta’s Native Mitochondrial DNA Notes

Haplogroup A

A

A1

A2

  • Native, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli
  • Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa
  • Mexican, Achilli, 2008
  • Eskimo – Volodko, 2008
  • Dogrib – Eskimo – Volodko, 2008
  • Apache – Volodko, 2008
  • Mexico and Central America – Eskimo – Volodko, 2008
  • Apache – Volodko, 2008
  • Ache and Guarani/Rio-das-Cobras and Katuana and Poturujara and Surui and Waiwai and Yanomama and Zoro – Fagundes 2008
  • Arsario and Cayapa – Tamm 2007
  • Kogui – Tamm 2007
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (192 A2s with no subgroup),
  • Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope – Raff 2015 –
  • Ancient remains from Lauricocha cave central Andean highlands – Fehren-Schmitz 2015
  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014
  • Chumash – Breschini and Haversat 2008
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

A2a and A2b

  • Paleo Eskimo, identified in only Siberia, Alaska and Natives from the American SW (Achilli 2013)
  • Raff 2015 – Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope

A2a

  • Aleut – 2008 Volodko
  • Eskimo – Volodko, 2008
  • Apache – Volodko – 2008
  • Siberian Eskimo, Chukchi, Dogrib, Innuit and Naukan – Dryomov, 2015
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 A2a)
  • Common among Eskimo, Na-Dene and the Chukchis in northeasternmost Siberia, Athabaskan in SW (Achilli 2013), circumpolar Siberia to Greenland, Apache 48%, Navajo 13%
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

A2ab

A2ad

A2ac

A2a1

A2a2

A2a3

A2a4

A2a5

A2ab

A2ac

A2ac1

A2ad

A2ae

A2af

A2af1a

A2af1a1

A2af1a2

A2af1b1

A2af2

A2ag

A2ah

A2ai

A2ak

A2al

A2am

A2ao1

A2ap

A2aq

A2b

A2b1

A2c

A2c-C64T

A2d

A2d1

A2d1a

A2d2

A2e

A2f

A2f1

A2f1a

A2f2

A2f3

A2g

A2g1

A2h

A2h1

A2i

A2j

A2j1

A2k

A2k1

A2l

A2m

A2n

A2p

A2p1

A2q

A2q1

A2r

A2r1

A2t

A2u

A2u1

A2u2

A2v

A2v1

A2v1a

A2v1b

A2w

A2w1

A2x

A2y

A2z

A2-C64T

A2-C64&-A189G

A2-C64T-T16111C!

A3

A4

A4a

  • Kumar 2011 – Siberian founder of A2, not found in Americas

A4a1

A4b

A4c

  • Siberian founder of A2, not found in Americas – Kumar 2011

A5

A5a

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 A5a)

A6

A7

A8

A9

A10

A11

A12

A13

Haplogroup B

B

B1

B2

  • Native, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, 2007 Tamm
  • Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa
  • Quecha and Ache and Gaviao and Guarani/Rio-das-Cobras and Kayapo-Dubemkokre and Katuena and Pomo and Waiwai and Xavante and Yanomama – Fagundes 2008
  • Mexican American – Kumar 2011
  • Cayapa and Coreguaje and Ngoebe and Waunana and Wayuu and Coreguaje – Tamm 2007
  • Pima – Ingman 2000
  • Native American – Mishmar 2003
  • Colombian and Mayan – Kivisild 2006
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Colombia – Hartman
  • Yaqui – FTDNA
  •  Shown with European and Mexican and South American entry in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 B2)
  • Aancient remains from Lauricocha cave central Andean highlands – Fehren-Schmitz 2015
  • Central Alaska from circa 11,500 before present – 2015, Tackney et al
  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 
  • Aymara, Atacameno, Mapuche, Tehuelche in Chile and Argentina, South America – de Saint Pierre, 2012
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

B2a

  • Found just to the south of A2a, widespread in SW and found in one Chippewa clan, one Tsimshian in Canada and tribes indigenous to the SW, Mexico, possibly Bella Coola and Ojibwa, evolved in North America – Achilli 2008 and 2013,
  • Found with Mexican entry and descended from Dorothee Metchiperouata b.c.1695 (Illinois) in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (14 B2a)
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

B2a1

B2a1a

B2a1a1

B2a1b

B2a2

B2a3

B2a4

B2a4a

B2a4a1

B2a5

B2b

B2b1

B2b2

B2b3

B2b3a

B2c

B2c1

B2c1a

B2c1b

B2c1c

B2c2

B2c2a

B2c2b

B2d

B2e

B2f

B2g

B2g1

B2g2

B2h

B2i2

B2i2a1a

B2i2b

B2i2b1

B2j

B2k

B2l

  • Peuhuenche, Mapuche, Huilliche, Mapuche ARG and Tehuelche Chile and Argentina, South America – de Saint Pierre, 2012

B2m

B2n

B2o

B2p

B2q

B2s

B2t

B2u

B2v

B2w

B2y

B2y1

B2-T16311C!

B4

B4a1a

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 B4a1a)

B4a1a1 F

  • Found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade.  Goncalves 2013, Polynesian motif,
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 B4a1a1) – full genome sequencing shows these remains to be entirely Polynesian, Malaspinas, 2015, Estes 2015.
  • Note August 30, 2016 – Te Papa’s archival records dating back to 1883/84 indicate that a Māori skull and a Moriori skull were sent to the National Museum in Rio de Janeiro in the early 1880s. In 2013-14, the findings of DNA research which included samples of Botocudo Indians housed at National Museum in Rio de Janeiro indicated that two of the Botocudo ancestors had typical Polynesian DNA sequences. It seems likely that these two “Botocudo Indians” with Polynesian DNA are the Tupuna (ancestors) that were sent from the Wellington Colonial Museum (now Te Papa) in the 1880s.   

B4a1a1a

  • Found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade.  Goncalves 2013, Polynesian motif – full genome sequencing shows these remains to be entirely Polynesian, Malaspinas, 2015, Estes 2015. See August 30, 2016 note for B4a1a1.

B4a1b

B4a1b1

B4b

B4b1

B4bd

B4c1b

B4f1

B4’5

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Shown as European and East Asian and Mexican and South America and Nicaragua and Guatemaula and Cuba and Pacific Islands and identified as Ho-Chunk and descended from Pistikiokonay Pushmataha, b. 1766 (Choctaw) and Eastern Cherokee and Chickasaw and Creek in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (15 B4’5)

B5b2a

B5b3

B2e

  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 

B21

  • Found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade, Goncalves 2013

Haplogroup C

C

C1

  • Native – 2008 Achilli, 2007 Tamm
  • Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa, Kumar 2011
  • Poturujara – Fagundes 2008
  • Arara do Laranjal and Quechua and Yanomama and Waiwai and Zoro – Fagundes 2008, Native American – Mishmar 2003, Warao – Ingman 2000
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (25 C1 with no subgroup)
  • Remains from Wizard’s Beach in Nevada– Chatters, 2015
  • Aymara, Atacameno, Mapuche, Huilliche, Kawesqar, Mapuche, Teheulche and Yamana in Chile and Argentina, South America – de Saint Pierre, 2012
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

C1a

C1b

C1b1

C1b1i

  • Gomez-Carbala, 2015, Complete Mito Genome of 500 Year Old Inca Child Mummy

C1b2

C1b2a

C1b3

C1b4

C1b5

C1b5a

  • Hispanic – Parsons
  • Mexican – Kumar

C1b5b

C1b6

  • Yanomama – Fagundes

C1b7

  • Mexican – Kumar
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 C1b7)
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Mexico, Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA
  • Mexico, Mitosearch
  • Rumsen peoples, Monterey Mission, California – Breschini and Hversat
  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

C1b7a

C1b8

C1b8a

C1b9

C1b9a

C1b10

C1b11

C1b12

C1b13

  • Found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade, Goncalves 2013
  • Chilean and Kolla – de Saint Pierre, Dec. 2012
  • Atacameno, Pehuenche, Mapuche, Huilliche, Kawesqar, Mapuche, Tehuelche and Yamana in Chile and Argentina, South America – de Saint Pierre, 2012
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

C1b13a

C1b13a1

C1b13b

C1b13c

C1b13c1

C1b13d

C1b13e

C1b14

C1b11

C1ba

C1b-T16311C

C1c

C1c1

C1c1a

C1c1b

C1c2

C1c3

C1c4

C1c5

C1c6

C1c7

C1c8

C1c8-A19254G, C16114T

C1d

C1d-C194T

  • Mexico, and Argentina and Colombia – Perego,

C1d1

  • Indman 2000
  • Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Lima, Peru and Buenos Aires and Loreta, Peru and Imbabura, Ecuador and Mestizos in Colombia and Minas Gerais, Brazil and Cajamarca, Peru and Huanucu,Peru and Puca Puca, Peru and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil and Chaco, Paraguay and Kolla-Salta and Piura, Peru and Huancavelica, Peru and Corrientes and Los Lagos, Chile and Oklahoma and Kuna Yala, Panama and Darien, Panama and Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua and Eduador and Uruguay and Nicaragua – Perego 2010
  • Fagundes 2008
  • Tamm, 2007
  • Coreguaje – Tamm
  • Warao – Ingman
  • American – Kivisild
  • Hispanic – Parsons
  • Brazil – Rieux
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

C1d1a

C1d1a1

C1d1b

C1d1b1

C1d1c

C1d1c1

C1d1d

C1d1e

C1d2

C1d2a

C1d3

C1d-C194T

C2

  • Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa

C2b

C4

  • 2007 Tamm
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (4 C4 with no subgroup)
  • Chippewa – White Earth Reservation, Minnesota – private test at 23andMe
  • Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope – Raff 2015
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

C4a

C4a1

C4b

C4c

Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli

C4c1

C4c1a

C4c1b

C4c2

C4e

Haplogroup D

D

D1

  • Native, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli
  • Coreguaje – 2007 Tamm
  • Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa
  • Mexican American – Kumar 2011
  • North American – Henstadt 2008 and Achilli 2008
  • Katuena and Poturujara and Surui and Tiryo and Waiwai and Zoro and Gaviao and Guarani/Rio-das-Cobras  – Fagundes 2008
  • Guarani – Ingman 2000
  • Native American – Mishmar 2003
  • Guarani and Brazilian and Que Chia and Pima Indian – Kivisild 2006
  • British Colombia found in the Haplogroup D project at Family Tree DNA
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (59 D1)
  • D1 from 12,000-13,000 skeletal remains found in the Yukatan, Chatters et al 2014, Chatters et al 2015
  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014
  • Chumash, Rumsen, Yokuts, Tubatulabal, Mono, Gabrielino – Breschini and Haversat 2008
  • Aymara, Atacameno, Huilliche, Kawesqar, Mapuche, Yamana in Chile and Argentina, South America – de Saint Pierre, 2012
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D1a

D1a1a1

D1a2

D1b

D1c

D1d

D1d2

D1f

D1f1

D1f2

D1f3

D1g

  • Found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade, Goncalves 2013
  • Aymara, Pehuenche, Mapuche, Huilliche, Mapuche, Tehuelche, Yamana in Chile and Argentina, South America – de Saint Pierre, 2012
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D1g1

D1g1a

D1g2

D1g2a

D1g3

D1g4

D1g5

D1g6

D1h

D1i

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D1i2

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D1j

  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 

D1j1a

  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D1j1a1

  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 

D1k

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D1m

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D2

  • Aleut, Commander Islands and Eskimo, Siberia – 2002 Derbeneva
  • 2007 Tamm
  • Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa
  • Tlingit, Commander Island – Volodko 2008
  • Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope, ancient Paleo-Eskimos – Raff 2015
  • Miwok – Breschini and Haversat 2008
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D2a

  • NaDene – 2002 Derbeneva
  • 2008 Achilli
  • Eskimo in Siberia – Tamm 2007
  • Late Dorset ancient sample, Tlingit (Commander Island) – Dryomov 2015
  • Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope – Raff 2015
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D2a1

  • Aleut Islanders and northernmost Eskimos, Saqqaq Ancient sample, Middle Dorset ancient sample – Dryomov 2015
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D2a1a

  • Aleut – 2008 Volodko
  • Aleut – Dryomov 2015
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017
  • Commander Islands – 2008 Volodko (100%)

D2a1b

  • Sireniki (Russian) Eskimo – Dryomov 2015
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D2a2

  • Chukchi – Derenko, Ingman, Tamm and Volodko
  • Eskimo – Tamm and Volodko
  • Siberia – Derbeneva
  • Eskimos and Chikchi – Dryomov 2015
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D2b

  • 2007 Tamm
  • Aleut 2002
  • Derbeneva, Russia – Derenko
  • Siberian mainland cluster – Dryomov 2015
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D2c

  • Eskimo – 2002 Derbeneva
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D3

  • Inuit – 2008 Achilli
  • 2007 Tamm
  • Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope (noted as currently D4b1a) – Raff 2015
  • Ancient Neo-Eskimos, Kitanemuk, Kawaiisu – Breschini and Haversat 2008
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D3a2a

  • Greenland – 2008 Volodko

D3a2a

  • Canada – 2008 Volodko

D4

  • 2007 Tamm
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 D4)
  • Chumash – Breschini and Haversat 2008
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4b1

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 D4b1)

D4b1a

  • Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope (noted as formerly D3), ancient Neo-Eskimos – Raff 2015
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4b2a2

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 D4b2a2)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4e1

  • Mexican American – Kumar 2011
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4e1a1

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 D4e1a1)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4e1c

  • Kumar 2011 – found in Mexican Americans (2 sequences only)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4g1

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h1a

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h1a1

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h1a2

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h3

  • Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli
  • 2007 Tamm
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 D4h3)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h3a

  • Mexican American – Kumar 2011
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 D4h3a)
  • Raff and Bolnick, Nature February 2014 – Anzick’s haplogroup
  • Remains from On Your Knees Cave in Alaska, Chatters, 2015
  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 
  • Aymara, Mapuche, Huilliche, Kawesqar, Tehuelche, Yamana in Chile and Argentina, South America – de Saint Pierre, 2012
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h3a1a

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h3a1a1

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h3a2

  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 

D4h3a6

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h3a7

  • Ciu 2013 – British Columbia – may be extinct
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h3a8

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4j

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 D4j)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4j8

  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 

D5

D5a2a

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D5b1

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D6

D7

D8

D9

D10

Haplogroup F

F1a1

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017 – Mexico in American Indian Project

Haplogroup M

M

  • Discovered in prehistoric sites, China Lake, British Columbia – 2007 Malhi
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

M1

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017- Probably Native

M1a

M1a1b

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 M1a1b)

M1a1e

  • USA – Olivieri
  • Many Eurasian in Genbank

M1b1

M2a3

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 M2a3)

M3

M5b3e

M7b1’2

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 M7b1’2)

M9a3a

M18b

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

M23

M30c

M30d1

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 M30d1)

M51

Haplogroup X

X

  • A founding lineage – found in ancient DNA Washington State –  2002 Malhi
  • 2007 Tamm
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2a

X2a1

  • Chippewa – Fagundes
  • Ojibwa – Achilli and Perego
  • Canadian Ojibwa – Rieux
  • Indian Territory – American Indian project at Family Tree DNA
  • Estes X2a (2016)
  • Virginia, Manitoba, Manitolin Island on the border between the US and Canada – Haplogroup X Project at Family Tree DNA
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2a1a

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Sioux and USA – Perego
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 X2a1a)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2a1a1

  • Jemez and Siouian – Fagundes
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2a1b

  • Western Chippewa – Fagundes
  • USA and Obijwa – Perego
  • Edmonton, Alberta and Selkirk, Manitoba – Haplogroup X Project at Family Tree DNA
  • Estes X2a (2016)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2a1b1

  • USA – Perego
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2a1b1a

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Western Chippewa and Chippewa – Fagundes
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 X2a1b1a)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2a1c

  • Western Chippewa – Fagundes
  • USA – Perego
  • La Pointe, Wisconsin and St. Ignace, Michigan – Haplogroup X Project at Family Tree DNA
  • Estes X2a (2016)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2a2

  • Navajo – Mishmar
  • USA – Perego
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 X2a2)
  • Manawan in Quebec, Newfoundland Island, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador – Haplogroup X Project at Family Tree DNA
  • Estes X2a (2016)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2b

  • European – note that 2008 Fagundes removed a sample from their analysis because they believed X2b was indeed European not X2a Native
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 X2b)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2b-T226C

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 X2b-T226T confirmed Irish, not Native)

X2b3

  • America – Kivisild

X2b4

X2b7

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017 – Not Native

X2c

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017 – not Native

X2c1

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017 – not Native

X2c2

X2d

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017- probably not Native

X2e1

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Behar notes two submissions at mtdnacommunity that are likely European
  • 2 confirmed X2e1 from Valcea , Romania at Family Tree DNA
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017 – probably not Native

X2e2

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 X2e2)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017 – probably not Native

X2g

  • Identified in single Ojibwa subject – Achilli 2013
  • Ojibwa – Perego

X2e

  • Altai people, may have arrived from Caucus in last 5000 years

X2e1

X6

  • Found in the Tarahumara and Huichol of Mexico, 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa

MtDNA References

Reconciling migration models to the Americas with the variation of North American native mitogenomes, Alessandro Achjilli et al, PNAS Aug. 2013, http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/08/08/1306290110.full.pdf+html

The Phylogeny of the Four Pan-American MtDNA Haplogroups: Implications for Evolutionary and Disease Studies, Achilli et al, PLOS, March 2008, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0001764

Mitochondrial genome diversity in arctic Siberians with particular reference to the evolutionary history of Beringia and Pleistocenic peopling of the Americans, Natalia Volodko, et al, American Journal of Human Genetics, June 2008  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18452887

Decrypting the Mitochondrial Gene Pool of Modern Panamanians, Ugo Perrego, et al, PLOS One, June 2012, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0038337

Ancient DNA Analysis of Mid-Holocene Individuals from the Northwest Coast of North America Reveals Different Evolutionary Paths for Mitogenomes, Yinqui Ciu et al, PLOS One, July 2013  http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0066948

Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders, Erika Tamm et al, PLOS One, September 2007, http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000829

Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in the Aleuts of the Commander Islands and Its Implications for the Genetic History of Beringia, Olga Derbeneva et al, American Journal of Human Genetics, June 2002, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC379174/

Mitochondrial haplogroup M discovered in prehistoric North Americans, Ripan Malhi et al, Journal of Archaeological Science 34 (2007), http://public.wsu.edu/~bmkemp/publications/pubs/Malhi_et_al_2007.pdf

Brief Communication: Haplogroup X Confirmed in Prehistoric North America, Ripan Malhi et al, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2002, http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/34275/10106_ftp.pdf

Mitochondrial DNA and the Peopling of the New World, Theodore Schurr, American Scientist, 2000, http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~tgschurr/pdf/Am%20Sci%20Article%202000.pdf

A Reevaluation of the Native American MtDNA Genome Diverstiy and Its Bearing on the Models of Early colonization of Beringia, Fagundes et al, PLOS One, Sept. 2008, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0003157

High Resolution SNPs and Microsatellite Haplotypes Point to a Single, Recent Entry of native American Y Chromosomes into the Americas, Zegura et al, Oxford Journals, 2003, http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/1/164.full.pdf

Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins, Kumar et al, Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology, October 2011, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/293

Mitochondiral genome variation and the origin of modern humans, Ingman et al, Natuer 2000, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v408/n6813/full/408708a0.html

Characterization of mtDNA Haplogroups in 14 Mexican Indigenous Populations, Human Biology, 2007

Achilli A, Perego UA, Bravi CM, Coble MD, et al. (2008) The Phylogeny of the Four Pan-American MtDNA Haplogroups: Implications for Evolutionary and Disease Studies. PLoS ONE 3(3): e1764. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001764 http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0001764

Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins, Kumar et al, 2011, Evolutionary Biology, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/293/

Mitochondrial genome diversity at the Bering Strait area highlights prehistoric human migrations from Siberia to northern North America – Dryomov et al, European Journal of Human Genetics, 2015  http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ejhg2014286a.htm

Identification of Polynesian mtDNA haplogroup in remains of Botocudo Americndians from Brazil, Goncalves et al, 2013, PNAS  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3631640/

Late Pleistocene Human Skeleton and mtDNA Link Paleoamericans and Modern Native Americans” by James Chatters et al, May 2014, Science

Mitochondrial diversity of Iñupiat people from the Alaskan North Slope provides evidence for the origins of the Paleo- and Neo-Eskimo peoples by Raff et al, (April 17, 2015) American Journal of Physical Anthropology  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22750/
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-04/nu-dsa042715.php

Genetic roots of the first Americans, Raff and Bolnick, (February 2014), Nature

MtDNA Haplogroup A10 Lineages in Bronze Age Samples Suggest That Ancient Autochthonous Human Groups Contributed to the Specificity of the Indigenous West Siberian Population by Pilipenko, et al, PLOS One, 2015

Ancestry and affiliations of Kennewick Man by Rasmussen et al, Nature, June 18, 2015

Late Pleistocene Human Skeleton and mtDNA Link Paleoamericans and Modern native Americans by Chatters, et al, Science, Vol 244, May 16, 2014

A Reappraisal of the early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru by Fehren-Schmitz et al, PLosS ONE 10 (6)(2105)

Two ancient genomes reveal Polynesian ancestry among the indigenous Botocudos of Brazil, by Malaspinas et al, Current Biology, November 2014

Botocudo Ancient Remains from Brazil, by Roberta Estes, July 2015

Two contemporaneious mitogenomes from terminal Pleistocene burials in eastern Beringia, Tackney et al, 2015, PNAS

The complete mitogenome of 500-year old Inca child mummy, 2015, Nature, Gomez-Carbala et al

Does Mitochondrial Haplogroup X Indicate Ancient Trans-Atlantic Migration to the Americas? A Critical Re-Evaluation, 2015, PubMed, Raff and Bolnick

Native American Haplogroup X2a – Solutrean, Hebrew or Beringian?, 2016, Estes

X2b4 is European, Not Native American, Estes, September 2016

‘Human mitochondrial genomes reveal population structure and different phylogenies in Gran Chaco (Argentina)’ by Sevini, F., Vianello, D., Barbieri, C., Iaquilano, N., De Fanti, S., Luiselli, D., Franceschi, C. and Franceschi, Z., sequences submitted to GenBank in January 2016 from 2014 unpublished paper

Archaeogenomic evidence reveals prehistoric matrilineal dynasty by Kennett et al, 2017, Nature Communications

Ancient DNA – Modern Connections: Results of Mitochondrial DNA Analyses from Monterey County, California by Gary Breschini and Trudy Haversat published in the Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 2, (written 2004 although references are later than 2004, printed 2008)

An Alternative Model for the Early Peopling of Southern South America Revealed by Analyses of Three Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, de Saint Pierre et al, 2012, PLOS

New Native American Mitochondrial Haplogroups by Roberta Estes, March 2, 2017

Arrival of Paleo-Indians to the Southern Cone of South America: New Clues from Mitogenomes, de Saint Pierre et al, Dec. 2012, PLOS

  • Updated September 26, 2014
  • Updated December 6, 2014 – Anzick data, please note that I only added extracted information for haplogroups where no academic publication had previously identified the haplogroup as Native
  • Updated December 7, 2014 – GenBank submissions utilizing Ian Logan’s GenBank by Haplogroup Program and Haplogroup A, A2, A4, B, C, D, M and X projects at Family Tree DNA
  • Updated January 2, 2015 – added kit numbers to 2014 Anzick extracted data
  • Updated January 8, 2015 with haplogroups from Dryomov et al, Chatters et al
  • Updated January 9, 2015 with Anzick extraction, including the number of results for each haplogroup.  In the previous Anzick extraction, I only added haplogroups that were not identified previously in academic papers.  In this extraction, I included all haplogroup A. B, C, D, M and X that were not excluded based on e-mail communications with kit owners that would exclude their results based on their family genealogy or geography.
  • Updated April 29, 2015 with results of 2015 Raff study, Estes, Haplogroup A4 Unpeeled study, Raff and Bolnick 2014 and a few private test results
  • Updated May 20, 2015 with A10 results from Pilipenko 015
  • Updated June 19, 2015 with Kennewick Man and results from Chatters paper
  • Updated June 30, 2015 with Fehren-Schmitz paper
  • Updated July 4, 2015 with Malaspinas paper regarding full genome sequencing of Botocudo
  • Updated July 12, 2015 haplogroup C1b7 and C1b7a information
  • Updated November 11, 2015 with Tackney, 2015 and Gomez-Carbala, 2015, information
  • Updated February 2, 2015, X2a Estes paper and C4c1 American Indian Project
  • Updated August 30, 2016 Botocudo Remains
  • Updated September 14, 2016, haplogroup X2b4
  • Updated January 16, 2017 with Sevini’s haplogroups from Gran Chaco, Argentina
  • Updated February 25, 2017 with Kennett’s B2y1 haplogroup from Kennett’s paper
  • Updated February 28, 2017 Monterey, California burials by Breschini and Haversat
  • Updated March 3, 2017 with de Saint Pierre, 2012
  • Updated March 3, 2017 to bulletized format
  • Updated March 3, 2017 with New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups by Estes

Please note that submissions styled with the researcher’s surname and no paper date, such as “Chippewa – Perego” are from GenBank submissions and are listed as recorded at GenBank.

110 thoughts on “Native American Mitochondrial Haplogroups

  1. Pingback: Haplogroup X2b4 is European, Not Native American | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  2. My brother-in-law’s mtDNA is the C1b-T16311c! which has been explained to him as a back mutation. Surely would like to know more about this NA haplogroup. Some have reported it in Chile, but his mother was born in/near Quebec and her maternal ancestor must have been in/near Canada. Any others with this mt haplogroup?

    • Apparently I have this as well: C1b-T16311C!. My mother was born in southern Colorado; the family would have been in New Mexico before then, and perhaps in Mexico prior to that.

  3. Hi, is B4 considered native american? I have some samples that in their original papers were classified as B2 and after I ran them in the HaploGrep software (using van Oven and Kayser, 2008 updated tree) they were classified as B4 (using just HV1).

  4. Pingback: Jane Dodson (c1760-1830/1840), Pioneer Wife on 5 Frontiers, 52 Ancestors #142 | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  5. Pingback: Native American and First Nations DNA Testing – Buyer Beware | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  6. Pingback: Native American and First Nations DNA Testing – Buyer Beware | Native Heritage Project

  7. Pingback: New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  8. A minor typo in the recently updated version of this page (2071 s/b 2017): New Native American Mitochondrial Haplogroups by Roberta Estes, March 2, 2071

  9. Pingback: Concepts – The Faces of Endogamy | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  10. Pingback: Concepts – “Who To Test?” Series | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out / Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out / Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out / Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out / Change )

Connecting to %s