Native American Mitochondrial Haplogroups

Today, what I’m sharing with you are my research notes.  If you follow my blogs, you’ll know that I have a fundamental, lifelong interest in Native American people and am mixed blood myself.  I feel that DNA is just one of the pieces of history that can be recovered and has a story to tell, along with early records, cultural artifacts and oral history.

In order to work with Native American DNA, and the various DNA projects that I co-administer, it’s necessary to keep a number of lists and spreadsheets.  This particular list was originally the first or earliest reference or references to a Native American mitochondrial (maternal line) haplogroup where it is identified as Native in academic papers.  I have since added other resources as I’ve come across them.

For those wondering why I’ve listed Mexican, this article speaks to the very high percentage of Native American mitochondrial DNA in the Mexican population.

Please note that while some of these haplogroups are found exclusively among Native American people, others are not and are also found in Europe and/or Asia.  In some cases, branches are exclusively Native.  In other cases, we are still sorting through the differences.  For haplogroups though to be only Native, I have put any other submission information, which is often from Siberia.

I have labeled the major founding haplogroups, as such.  This graphic from the paper, “Beringian Standstill and the Spread of Native American Founders” by Tamm et al, provided the first cumulative view of the mitochondrial Native founder population.

beringia map

Haplogroups A, B, C, D and X are known as Native American haplogroups, although not all subgroups in each main haplogroup are Native, so one has to be more specific.

Normally, you could presume that if haplogroup A2 is Native, for example, that A2a, downstream of A2, would also be Native, but that’s not always true.  For example, A4 is found in Asia.  A2 is a subset of A4, which you wouldn’t expect, and we believe that haplogroup A4a is actually Native.

The lists below are just that, lists.  If you want to see these in tree fashion, you can visit www.mtdnacommunity.org, click on Phylogeny, click on Expand All, then search on A4, for example.

mtdnacommunity a4

Please note that I am adding information from haplogroup projects at Family Tree DNA.  This information is self-reported and should only be utilized with confidence after confirming the accuracy of the information.

Please note that in earlier papers and projects, not all results may have been tested to the full sequence level, so results in base haplogroups, like A and B, for example, may well fall into subclades with additional testing.

The protocol and logic for adding the Anzick results for consideration, along with other evidence is discussed in this article.  In short, for the 12,500 year old Anzick specimen to match any currently living people at relatively high thresholds, meaning 5cM or over, the living individual would likely have to be heavily Native.  Most matches are from Mexico, Central America and South America.  Many mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are subgroups of known Native groups, but never before documented as Native.  Therefore, the protocol I followed for inclusion was any subgroup of haplogroups A, B, C, D, M or X.  Some individuals are unhappy that some haplogroups were among the Anzick results and that I have not removed them at their request, in particular, M23.  To arbitrarily remove a haplogroup listing would be a breach of the protocol I followed.  Research does not always provide what is expected.  I have includes links to notes where appropriate.

Roberta’s Native Mitochondrial DNA Notes

Haplogroup A

A – Cherokee and Huron and PeeDee and Panama and Manitoba and Alaska and Mi’kmaq and Puerto Rico and Mexico and Cuba and Nicaragua and Kuna-Panama and Cree and Chippewa and Guatemaula and Brazil and British Colombia and Honduras and Choctaw found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNAAnzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Costa Rica found in the Haplogroup A4 project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (32 As with no subgroup)

A1 – Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa

A2 is Native, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa, Achilli, 2008, Eskimo – Volodko, 2008, Dogrib – Eskimo – Volodko, 2008, Apache – Volodko, 2008, Mexico and Central America – Eskimo – Volodko, 2008, Apache – Volodko, 2008, Ache and Guarani/Rio-das-Cobras and Katuana and Poturujara and Surui and Waiwai and Yanomama and Zoro – Fagundes 2008, Arsario and Cayapa – Tamm 2007, Kogui – Tamm 2007, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (192 A2s with no subgroup), Raff 2015 – Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope, ancient remains from Lauricocha cave central Andean highlands – Fehren-Schmitz 2015

A2a and A2b – Paleo Eskimo, identified in only Siberia, Alaska and Natives from the American SW (Achilli 2013), Raff 2015 – Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope

A2a – Aleut – 2008 Volodko, Eskimo – Volodko, 2008, Apache – Volodko, 2008, Siberian Eskimo, Chukchi, Dogrib, Innuit and Naukan – Dryomov, 2015,Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 A2a), Common among Eskimo, Na-Dene and the Chukchis in northeasternmost Siberia, Athabaskan in SW (Achilli 2013), circumpolar Siberia to Greenland, Apache 48%, Navajo 13%

A2ab – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

A2ad – Chitimacha in Louisiana found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA

A2ac – Columbia found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA

A2a1 – Selkup and Innuit – Dryomov, 2015

A2a2 – Achilli 2013, Chukchu, Inuit, Eskimos, Naukan – Dryomov, 2015

A2a3 – northern North America -Achilli 2013, Birnirk (ancient sample,) Chukchi, Naukan, Innuit in Canada and Greenland – Dryomov 2015

A2a4 – Achilli 2013, Navajo – Dryomov 2015

A2a5 – Achilli 2013, Navajo, Apache, Cree, Secwepemc – Dryomov 2015

A2ad – second most common A2 subgroup in Panama in same countries as A2af – Perego 2012

A2af – Perego 2012

A2ag – Cui 2013 – British Columbia

A2ah – Ciu 2013 – British Columbia

A2b – Raff 2015 – Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope

A2b1 – Achilli 2013, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 A2b1)

A2c – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (5 A2c)

A2c-C64T – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

A2d – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Hispanic – Parsons, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (7 A2d)

A2d1 – Achilli, 2008, El Salvadore found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 A2d1)

A2d1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (5 A2d1a)

A2d2 – Achilli, 2008

A2e – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 A2e)

A2f – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 A2f)

A2f1 – Newfoundland, Pope

A2f1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, New Brunswick and Chippewa and Nova Scotia and Ojibwa and Mi’kmaq found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA, Mi’kmaq found in the Haplogroup A2 project at Family Tree DNA

A2g – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Hispanic – Parsons, Mexico – Kumar and Behar, Iberia – Hartman, Guatemala found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (5 A2g)

A2g1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Hispanic – Parsons, Mexico – Kumar, Asia – Hernstadt, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (3 A2g1), New Mexico, Athabascan heritage, private test at 23andMe

A2h – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Yanomama – Fagundez, Kogui – Tamm, Columbia – Rieux, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (10 A2h)

A2h1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Mexico – Kumar and Behar, Mexico found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 A2h1)

A2i – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (4 A2i)

A2j – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Hispanic – Parsons, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (4 A2j)

A2j1 – Achilli, 2008, Hispanic – Parsons

A2k – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Hispanic – Parsons, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (4 A2k)

A2k1 – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Hispanic – Parsons, Wayuu – Tamm, Mexico – FTDNA, Puerto Rico found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (5 A2k1)

A2l – Mexico found in the Haplogroup A2 project at Family Tree DNA

A2n – Canada – Achili and Behar

A2p – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Cayapa – Tamm, Mexico found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 A2p)

A2q – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Mexico found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (3 A2q)

A2r – Mixteca-B – Mishmar, Guatemala – FTDNA

A2t – Mexico – Kumar

A2u – Guatemala found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA,  Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 A2u)

A2v – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Guatemala found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 A2v)

A2w – Hispanic – Parsons, Arsario – Tamm, Mexico – Kumar, Colombia – Rieux, Caymens found in the Haplogroup A2 project at Family Tree DNA

A2w1 – Colombia – FTDNA, Cayman Islands – FTDNA, Mexico – Zheng, Panama – Rieux

A2z – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 A2z)

A2-C64T – Cuba and Guatemaula and Choctaw found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA, New Brunswick found in the Haplogroup A2 project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (7 A2-C64T)

A2-C64&-A189G – Menominee in Wisconsin found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA

A4 –  Kumar 2011 – Siberian founder of A2, not found in Americas, Poland and Romania found in the Haplogroup A4 project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 A4), A4 is Native, found in Mexico, Colombia, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Honduras, Costa Rica and elsewhere – – Estes 2015 – Haplogroup A4 Unpeeled – European, Jewish, Asian and Native American

A4a – Kumar 2011 – Siberian founder of A2, not found in Americas

A4a1 – Found in Europe.  One subgroup may be Native, found in Mexico – – Estes 2015 – Haplogroup A4 Unpeeled – European, Jewish, Asian and Native American

A4b – Kumar 2011 – Siberian founder of A2, not found in Americas, UK found in the Haplogroup A4 project at Family Tree DNA

A4c – Kumar 2011 – Siberian founder of A2, not found in Americas

A5a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 A5a)

A10 – Undetermined at this time, could be either European or Native – Estes 2015 – Haplogroup A4 Unpeeled – European, Jewish, Asian and Native American, A10 found in ancient remains in West Siberian population, Pilipenko, PlosOne, 2015

Haplogroup B

B – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (8 B with no subgroup)

B1 – Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 B1*)

B2 is Native, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, 2007 Tamm, Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa, Quecha and Ache and Gaviao and Guarani/Rio-das-Cobras and Kayapo-Dubemkokre and Katuena and Pomo and Waiwai and Xavante and Yanomama – Fagundes 2008, Mexican American – Kumar 2011, Cayapa and Coreguaje and Ngoebe and Waunana and Wayuu and Coreguaje – Tamm 2007, Pima – Ingman 2000, Native American – Mishmar 2003, Columbian and Mayan – Kivisild 2006, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Columbia – Hartman, Yaqui – FTDNA, shown with European and Mexican and South American entry in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 B2), ancient remains from Lauricocha cave central Andean highlands – Fehren-Schmitz 2015, Central Alaska from circa 11,500 before present – 2015, Tackney et al

B21 – found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade, Goncalves 2013

B2a –  Achilli 2008 and 2013, just to the south of A2a, widespread in SW and found in one Chippewa clan, one Tsimshian in Canada and tribes indigenous to the SW, Mexico, possibly Bella Coola and Ojibwa, evolved in North America, found with Mexican entry and descended from Dorothee Metchiperouata b.c.1695 (Illinois) in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (14 B2a)

B2a1 – Achilli 2008 and 2013, Hispanic – Parsons, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (4 B2a1)

B2a1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Hispanic – Parsons, Asia – Herrnstadt, Achilli 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (6 B2a1a)

B2a1a1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (12 B2a1a1)

B2a2 – Achilli 2013, Hispanic – Parsons, Asia – Herrnstadt, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (4 B2a2)

B2a3 – Achilli 2013

B2a4 – Achilli 2013, widespread in north central Mexico and US SW

B2a5 – Achilli 2013, restricted to the Yuman (5%) and Uto-Aztecan Pima and Papago from Arizona (7%)

B2b – Achilli, 2008, Yanomama, Pomo, Xavante, Kayapo – Fagundes, Cayapa – Tamm, shown in Mexico and South America in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (40 B2b)

B2b2 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

B2c – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Hispanic – Parsons, Asia – Herrnstadt, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 B2c)

B2c1 – Achilli, 2008, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B2c2a – shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B2c2b – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 B2c2b)

B2d – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, N America – Mishmar, Ngoebe, Wayuu – Tamm, shown in South America in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (7 B2d)

B2e – Waiwai – Fagundes

B2f – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Mexico – Kumar, Chile – FTDNA, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (3 B2f)

B2g – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 B2g)

B2g1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 B2g1)

B2k – Mexico – Kumar, Venezuela – Gomez-Carballa

B2-T16211C! – shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B4 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 B4)

B4a1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 B4a1a)

B4a1a1 – found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade.  Goncalves 2013, Polynesian motif, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 B4a1a1) – full genome sequencing shows these remains to be entirely Polynesian, Malaspinas, 2015, Estes 2015.  Note August 30, 2016 – Te Papa’s archival records dating back to 1883/84 indicate that a Māori skull and a Moriori skull were sent to the National Museum in Rio de Janeiro in the early 1880s. In 2013-14, the findings of DNA research which included samples of Botocudo Indians housed at National Museum in Rio de Janeiro indicated that two of the Botocudo ancestors had typical Polynesian DNA sequences. It seems likely that these two “Botocudo Indians” with Polynesian DNA are the Tupuna (ancestors) that were sent from the Wellington Colonial Museum (now Te Papa) in the 1880s.   

B4a1a1a – found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade.   Goncalves 2013, Polynesian motif – full genome sequencing shows these remains to be entirely Polynesian, Malaspinas, 2015, Estes 2015. See August 30, 2016 note for B4a1a1.

B4a1b – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 B4a1b)

B4a1b1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

B4b – 2007 Tamm

B4b1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 B4b1)

B4bd – 2007 Tamm

B4c1b – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 B4c1b)

B4f1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

B4’5 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, shown as European and East Asian and Mexican and South America and Nicaragua and Guatemaula and Cuba and Pacific Islands and identified as Ho-Chunk and descended from Pistikiokonay Pushmataha, b. 1766 (Choctaw) and Eastern Cherokee and Chickasaw and Creek in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (15 B4’5)

B5b2a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

B5b3 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

Haplogroup C

C – Cherokee East and Mexico and Turkey and Puerto Rico and Ecuador and Argentina and Poland and Canada in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (35 C with no subgroup)

C1 is Native – 2008 Achilli, 2007 Tamm, Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa, Kumar 2011, Poturujara – Fagundes 2008, Arara do Laranjal and Quechua and Yanomama and Waiwai and Zoro – Fagundes 2008, Native American – Mishmar 2003, Warao – Ingman 2000, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (25 C1 with no subgroup), remains from Wizard’s Beach in Nevada, Chatters, 2015

C1a – Kumar 2011, Ulchi – Starikovskaya, Siberia – Derenko, Nanaitci – Ingham_gyll

C1b, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, Wayuu – 2007 Tamm, Mexican American – Kumar 2011, Quechua and Zoro and Arara and Poturujara – Fagundes 2008, Peru – Tito, Colombia – Zheng, Samish on Guemes Island and Fidalgo Island, British Columbia, American Indian DNA Project, 2014, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (26 C1b), Central Alaska from circa 11,500 before present – 2015, Tackney et al

C1b1 – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Mexico – Kumar, N America – Mishmar, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 C1b1)

C1b1i – Gomez-Carbala, 2015, Complete Mito Genome of 500 Year Old Inca Child Mummy,

C1b2 – Hispanic – Parsons, Puerto Rico – FTDNA, Peru – Tito, Asia – Herrnstadt, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (27 C1b2)

C1b3 – Hispanic – Parsons, Peru – Tito, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 C1b3)

C1b4 – Hispanic – Parsons, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (6 C1b4), American Indian DNA Project at Family Tree DNA (November 2015) – Durango, Mexico

C1b5 – Mexican – Kumar

C1b5a – Hispanic – Parsons, Mexican – Kumar

C1b6 – Yanomama – Fagundes

C1b7 – Mexican – Kumar, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 C1b7)

C1b7a – Mexican – Kumar, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 C1b7a)

C1b8 – Mexican – Kumar

C1b8a – Mexican – Kumar

C1b9 – Mexican – Kumar

C1b10 – Mexican – Kumar

C1b11 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Pima, Mexico – Hartman, Mexico – Kumar, Mexico – Zheng, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (5 C1b11)

C1b12 – Mexico – Kumar

C1b13 – found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade, Goncalves 2013, Chilean and Kolla – de Saint Pierre

C1b13a – Huilliche and Chilean – de Saint Pierre

C1b13a1 – Huilliche and Chilean – de Saint Pierre

C1b13b – Huilliche, Chilean and Spain – de Saint Pierre

C1b13c – Mapuche and Chilean – de Saint Pierre

C1b13c1 – Chilean and Penuenche – de Saint Pierre

C1b13d – Chilean – de Saint Pierre

C1b13e – Chilean – de Saint Pierre

C1b14 – Mexico – Kumar

C1b2 – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Puerto Rico and Taino in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C1b2a – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

C1b3 – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

C1b – Mexico and Ecuador in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C1b1 – Mexico in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C1b2 – Puerto Rico in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C1b4 – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Puerto Rico in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C1b5 – Achilli, 2008

C1b7 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913 – Mexico, Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA, Mitosearch, Rumsen peoples, Monterey Mission, California

C1b7a – Mexico – Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA, Mitosearch

C1b11 – Mexico in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C1ba – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

C1b-T16311C – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 C1b-T16311C)

C1c, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, Kogui nd Arsario – 2007 Tamm, Mexican American – Kumar 2011, Kogui – Tamm 2007, Hispanic – Parsons, Canada – Achilli, Canada – Behar, Cherokee and Cuba in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (34 C1c)

C1c1 – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 C1c1)

C1c1a – Asia – Herrnstadt, Pima, Mexico – Hartman and Lippold, Mexico – Zheng

C1c1b – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Mexico and USA – Behar, Mexico in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (6 C1c1b)

C1c2 – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, HIspanic – Parsons, Mexico – Kumar, Cuba – FTDNA

C1c3 – Arsario and Kogui – Tamm, Columbia Behar and Rieux

C1c4 – Doiminica – Bravi, Mexico – Kumar

C1c5 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Hispanic – Parsons, Mexico – Kumar, Pima – Lippold, Mexico – Zheng, Mexico in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 C1c5)

C1c6 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Mexico – Kumar and Behar, Hispanic – Just, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (7 C1c6)

C1c7 – Mexico – Kumar

C1c8 – USA – Achilli

C1d, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, Coreguaje – 2007 Tamm, Tamaulipas and Guanajuato and Chihuahua and Kolla-Salta and Buenos Aires and Boyacá, Colombia and Mexico – Perego 2010, Mexican American – Kumar 2011, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (4 C1d)

C1d-C194T – Mexico, and Argentina and Columbia – Perego,

C1d1 – Indman 2000, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Lima, Peru and Buenos Aires and Loreta, Peru and Imbabura, Ecuador and Mestizos in Colombia and Minas Gerais, Brazil and Cajamarca, Peru and Huanucu,Peru and Puca Puca, Peru and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil and Chaco, Paraguay and Kolla-Salta and Piura, Peru and Huancavelica, Peru and Corrientes and Los Lagos, Chile and Oklahoma and Kuna Yala, Panama and Darien, Panama and Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua and Eduador and Uruguay and Nicaragua – Perego 2010, Fagundes 2008, Tamm, 2007, Coreguaje – Tamm, Warao – Ingman, American – Kivisild, Hispanic – Parsons, Brazil – Rieux

C1d1a – Sonora and Mexico – Perego 2010

C1d1a1 – Oklahoma and Montana and Quebec and Zacatecas – Perego 2010, Canada-Cree – Rieux

C1d1b – Argentina and Kolla-Salta and Diaguita-Catamarca and Buenos Aires and Rio negro and Corrientes and Flores, Uruguay – Perego 2011

C1d1b1 – Argentina – Perego

C1d1c – Oaxaca and Mexico – Perego 2010

C1d1c1 – Just 2008, Texas and Michigan – Perego 2010, Kumar 2011, Hispanic – Parsons, Mexican – Kumar

C1d1d – Buenos Aires and Rio Grande do Sul, Brzil and Uruguay and Argentina – Perego 2010, Coreguaje – Tamm

C1d1e – Bio-Bio, Chile and Rio Negro – perego 2010

C1d2 – Mestizos in Colambia – Perego 2010

C1d2a – Mestizos in Colombia – Perego 2010

C1d3 – Uruguay – Sans

C2 – Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa

C2b – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

C4 – 2007 Tamm, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (4 C4 with no subgroup), Chippewa – White Earth Reservation, Minnesota – private test at 23andMe, Raff 2015 – Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope

C4a – Native American and Siberian, Kumar 2011

C4a1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Buryat and Eleeut – Derenko, India and Russia and Turkey – FTDNA, India in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C4b – Kumar 2011

C4c, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, 2007 Tamm – found in only 2 samples, an Ijka sample from South America and a Shuswap speaker from North America, Suswap Speaker, North America – Malhi 2010 (Suswap is now C4c1)

C4c1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Suswap – Malhi, N American – Kashani, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 C4c1), Chippewa Cree, Jasper House, Alberta, Canada (1835), FTDNA American Indian Project

C4c1a – North American – Kashani, Cherokee in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C4c1b – North American – Kashani

C4c2 – North American – Kashani

C4e – Uika – Tamm 2007, Shor and Teleut – Derenko

Haplogroup D

D – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Choctaw and Korea and Japan and Mexico and Venezuela found in the Haplogroup D project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (7 D with no subgroup)

D1 is Native, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, Coreguaje – 2007 Tamm, Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa, Mexican American – Kumar 2011, North American – Henstadt 2008 and Achilli 2008, Katuena and Poturujara and Surui and Tiryo and Waiwai and Zoro andGaviao and Guarani/Rio-das-Cobras  – Fagundes 2008, Guarani – Ingman 2000, Native American – Mishmar 2003, Guarani and Brazilian and Que Chia and Pima Indian – Kivisild 2006, British Colombia found in the Haplogroup D project at Family Tree DNA, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (59 D1), D1 from 12,000-13,000 skeletal remains found in the Yukatan, Chatters et al 2014, Chatters et al 2015

D1a – Achilli, 2008

D1a1a1 – Aleut – 2008 Volodko

D1b – Achilli, 2008

D1c – Achilli, 2008

D1d – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 D1d)

D1f – Kumar 2011

D1g – found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade, Goncalves 2013

D2 – Aleut, Commander Islands and Eskimo, Siberia – 2002 Derbeneva, 2007 Tamm, Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa, Tlingit, Commander Island – Volodko 2008, Raff 2015 – Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope, ancient Paleo-Eskimos

D2a – NaDene – 2002 Derbeneva, 2008 Achilli, Eskimo in Siberia – Tamm 2007, Late Dorset ancient sample, Tlingit (Commander Island) – Dryomov 2015, Raff 2015 – Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope

D2a1 – among Aleut Islanders and northernmost Eskimos, Saqqaq Ancient sample, Middle Dorset ancient sample – Dryomov 2015

D2a1a – Aleut – 2008 Volodko, Aleut – Dryomov 2015

D2a1a – Commander Islands – 2008 Volodko (100%)

D1a1b – Sireniki (Russian) Eskimo – Dryomov 2015

D2a2 – Chukchi – Derenko, Ingman, Tamm and Volodko, Eskimo – Tamm and Volodko, Siberia – Derbeneva, Eskimos and Chikchi – Dryomov 2015

D2b – 2007 Tamm, Aleut 2002 Derbeneva, Russia – Derenko, Siberian mainland cluster – Dryomov 2015

D2c – Eskimo – 2002 Derbeneva

D3 – Inuit – 2008 Achilli, 2007 Tamm, Raff 2015 – Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope (noted as currently D4b1a), ancient Neo-Eskimos

D3a2a – Greenland – 2008 Volodko

D3a2a – Canada – 2008 Volodko

D4 – 2007 Tamm, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 D4)

D4b1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 D4b1)

D4b1a – Raff 2015 – Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope (noted as formerly D3), ancient Neo-Eskimos

D4b2a2 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 D4b2a2)

D4e1 – Mexican American – Kumar 2011

D4e1a1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 D4e1a1)

D4e1c – Kumar 2011 – found in Mexican Americans (2 sequences only)

D4g1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

D4h1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

D4h1a1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

D4h1a2 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

D4h3, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, 2007 Tamm,Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 D4h3)

D4h3a – Mexican American – Kumar 2011, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 D4h3a), Raff and Bolnick, Nature February 2014 – Anzick’s haplogroup, remains from On Your Knees Cave in Alaska, Chatters, 2015

D4h3a7 – Ciu 2013 – British Columbia – may be extinct

D4j – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 D4j)

D5a2a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

D5b1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

Haplogroup M

M – discovered in prehistoric sites, China Lake, British Columbia – 2007 Malhi, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

M1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

M1a1b – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 M1a1b

M1a1e – USA – Olivieri, many Eurasian in Genbank

M1b1 – Anzick Pr ovisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

M2a3 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 M2a3)

M23 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Madagascar – Recaut and Debut, Madagascar Motif

M3 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

M30c – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

M30d1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 M30d1)

M51 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

M5b3e – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

M7b1’2 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 M7b1’2)

M9a3a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

Haplogroup X

X is a founding lineage – found in ancient DNA Washington State –  2002 Malhi, 2007 Tamm, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

X2 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

X2a is Native, Beringian Founder Haplogroup  – 2008 Achilli, 2007 Tamm, 2000 Schurr, Newfoundland found in the Haplogroup X project at Family Tree DNA, Kennewick Man, Saskatchewan, Norway House in Manitoba, Ontario, Pasadena in California, Chihuahua in Mexico – 2016 Haplogroup X Project at Family Tree DNA, Estes X2a (2016)

X2a1 – Chippewa – Fagundes, Ojibwa – Achilli and Perego, Canadian Ojibwa – Rieux, Indian Territory – American Indian project at Family Tree DNA, Estes X2a (2016), Virginia, Manitoba, Manitolin Island on the border between the US and Canada – Haplogroup X Project at Family Tree DNA, Estes X2a (2016)

X2a1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Sioux and USA – Perego, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 X2a1a)

X2a1a1 – Jemez and Siouian – Fagundes

X2a1b – W Chippewa – Fagundes, USA and Obijwa – Perego, Edmonton, Alberta and Selkirk, Manitoba – Haplogroup X Project at Family Tree DNA, Estes X2a (2016)

X2a1b1 – USA – Perego

X2a1b1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, W Chippewa and Chippewa – Fagundes, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 X2a1b1a)

X2a1c – W Chippewa – Fagundes, USA – Perego, La Pointe, Wisconsin and St. Ignace, Michigan – Haplogroup X Project at Family Tree DNA, Estes X2a (2016)

X2a2 – Navajo – Mishmar, USA – Perego, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 X2a2), Manawan in Quebec, Newfoundland Island, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador – Haplogroup X Project at Family Tree DNA, Estes X2a (2016)

X2b is European – note that 2008 Fagundes removed a sample from their analysis because they believed X2b was indeed European not X2a Native, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 X2b)

X2b-T226C – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 X2b-T226T confirmed Irish, not Native)

X2b3 – America – Kivisild

X2b4 – European, not Native American, Estes, September 2016

X2c2 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

X2d – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913

X2e1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Behar notes two submissions at mtdnacommunity that are likely European, 2 confirmed X2e1 from Valcea , Romania at Family Tree DNA

X2e2 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 X2e2)

X2g – identified in single Ojibwa subject – Achilli 2013, Obijwa – Perego

X2e – Altai people, may have arrived from Caucus in last 5000 years

X2e1 – Isle of Wight County, Virginia – – American Indian project at Family Tree DNA, Estes X2a (2016)

X6 – found in the Tarahumara and Huichol of Mexico, 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa

MtDNA References

Reconciling migration models to the Americas with the variation of North American native mitogenomes, Alessandro Achjilli et al, PNAS Aug. 2013, http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/08/08/1306290110.full.pdf+html

The Phylogeny of the Four Pan-American MtDNA Haplogroups: Implications for Evolutionary and Disease Studies, Achilli et al, PLOS, March 2008,

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0001764

Mitochondrial genome diversity in arctic Siberians with particular reference to the evolutionary history of Beringia and Pleistocenic peopling of the Americans, Natalia Volodko, et al, American Journal of Human Genetics, June 2008  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18452887

Decrypting the Mitochondrial Gene Pool of Modern Panamanians, Ugo Perrego, et al, PLOS One, June 2012, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0038337

Ancient DNA Analysis of Mid-Holocene Individuals from the Northwest Coast of North America Reveals Different Evolutionary Paths for Mitogenomes, Yinqui Ciu et al, PLOS One, July 2013  http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0066948

Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders, Erika Tamm et al, PLOS One, September 2007, http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000829

Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in the Aleuts of the Commander Islands and Its Implications for the Genetic History of Beringia, Olga Derbeneva et al, American Journal of Human Genetics, June 2002, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC379174/

Mitochondrial haplogroup M discovered in prehistoric North Americans, Ripan Malhi et al, Journal of Archaeological Science 34 (2007), http://public.wsu.edu/~bmkemp/publications/pubs/Malhi_et_al_2007.pdf

Brief Communication: Haplogroup X Confirmed in Prehistoric North America, Ripan Malhi et al, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2002, http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/34275/10106_ftp.pdf

Mitochondrial DNA and the Peopling of the New World, Theodore Schurr, American Scientist, 2000, http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~tgschurr/pdf/Am%20Sci%20Article%202000.pdf

A Reevaluation of the Native American MtDNA Genome Diverstiy and Its Bearing on the Models of Early colonization of Beringia, Fagundes et al, PLOS One, Sept. 2008, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0003157

High Resolution SNPs and Microsatellite Haplotypes Point to a Single, Recent Entry of native American Y Chromosomes into the Americas, Zegura et al, Oxford Journals, 2003, http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/1/164.full.pdf

Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins, Kumar et al, Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology, October 2011, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/293

Mitochondiral genome variation and the origin of modern humans, Ingman et al, Natuer 2000, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v408/n6813/full/408708a0.html

Characterization of mtDNA Haplogroups in 14 Mexican Indigenous Populations, Human Biology, 2007

Achilli A, Perego UA, Bravi CM, Coble MD, et al. (2008) The Phylogeny of the Four Pan-American MtDNA Haplogroups: Implications for Evolutionary and Disease Studies. PLoS ONE 3(3): e1764. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001764 http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0001764

Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins, Kumar et al, 2011, Evolutionary Biology, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/293/

Mitochondrial genome diversity at the Bering Strait area highlights prehistoric human migrations from Siberia to northern North America – Dryomov et al, European Journal of Human Genetics, 2015  http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ejhg2014286a.htm

Identification of Polynesian mtDNA haplogroup in remains of Botocudo Americndians from Brazil, Goncalves et al, 2013, PNAS  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3631640/

Late Pleistocene Human Skeleton and mtDNA Link Paleoamericans and Modern Native Americans” by James Chatters et al, May 2014, Science

Mitochondrial diversity of Iñupiat people from the Alaskan North Slope provides evidence for the origins of the Paleo- and Neo-Eskimo peoples by Raff et al, (April 17, 2015) American Journal of Physical Anthropology  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22750/
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-04/nu-dsa042715.php

Genetic roots of the first Americans, Raff and Bolnick, (February 2014), Nature

MtDNA Haplogroup A10 Lineages in Bronze Age Samples Suggest That Ancient Autochthonous Human Groups Contributed to the Specificity of the Indigenous West Siberian Population by Pilipenko, et al, PLOS One, 2015

Ancestry and affiliations of Kennewick Man by Rasmussen et al, Nature, June 18, 2015

Late Pleistocene Human Skeleton and mtDNA Link Paleoamericans and Modern native Americans by Chatters, et al, Science, Vol 244, May 16, 2014

A Reappraisal of the early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru by Fehren-Schmitz et al, PLosS ONE 10 (6)(2105)

Two ancient genomes reveal Polynesian ancestry among the indigenous Botocudos of Brazil, by Malaspinas et al, Current Biology, November 2014

Botocudo Ancient Remains from Brazil, by Roberta Estes, July 2015

Two contemporaneious mitogenomes from terminal Pleistocene burials in eastern Beringia, Tackney et al, 2015, PNAS

The complete mitogenome of 500-year old Inca child mummy, 2015, Nature, Gomez-Carbala et al

Does Mitochondrial Haplogroup X Indicate Ancient Trans-Atlantic Migration to the Americas? A Critical Re-Evaluation, 2015, PubMed, Raff and Bolnick

Native American Haplogroup X2a – Solutrean, Hebrew or Beringian?, 2016, Estes

X2b4 is European, Not Native American, Estes, September 2016

  • Updated September 26, 2014
  • Updated December 6, 2014 – Anzick data, please note that I only added extracted information for haplogroups where no academic publication had previously identified the haplogroup as Native
  • Updated December 7, 2014 – GenBank submissions utilizing Ian Logan’s GenBank by Haplogroup Program and Haplogroup A, A2, A4, B, C, D, M and X projects at Family Tree DNA
  • Updated January 2, 2015 – added kit numbers to 2014 Anzick extracted data
  • Updated January 8, 2015 with haplogroups from Dryomov et al, Chatters et al
  • Updated January 9, 2015 with Anzick extraction, including the number of results for each haplogroup.  In the previous Anzick extraction, I only added haplogroups that were not identified previously in academic papers.  In this extraction, I included all haplogroup A. B, C, D, M and X that were not excluded based on e-mail communications with kit owners that would exclude their results based on their family genealogy or geography.
  • Updated April 29, 2015 with results of 2015 Raff study, Estes, Haplogroup A4 Unpeeled study, Raff and Bolnick 2014 and a few private test results
  • Updated May 20, 2015 with A10 results from Pilipenko 015
  • Updated June 19, 2015 with Kennewick Man and results from Chatters paper
  • Updated June 30, 2015 with Fehren-Schmitz paper
  • Updated July 4, 2015 with Malaspinas paper regarding full genome sequencing of Botocudo
  • Updated July 12, 2015 haplogroup C1b7 and C1b7a information
  • Updated November 11, 2015 with Tackney, 2015 and Gomez-Carbala, 2015, information
  • Updated February 2, 2015, X2a Estes paper and C4c1 American Indian Project
  • Updated August 30, 2016 Botocudo Remains
  • Updated September 14, 2016, haplogroup X2b4

Please note that submissions styled with the researcher’s surname and no paper date, such as “Chippewa – Perego” are from GenBank submissions and are listed as recorded at GenBank.

101 thoughts on “Native American Mitochondrial Haplogroups

  1. Pingback: Haplogroup X2b4 is European, Not Native American | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  2. My brother-in-law’s mtDNA is the C1b-T16311c! which has been explained to him as a back mutation. Surely would like to know more about this NA haplogroup. Some have reported it in Chile, but his mother was born in/near Quebec and her maternal ancestor must have been in/near Canada. Any others with this mt haplogroup?

    • Apparently I have this as well: C1b-T16311C!. My mother was born in southern Colorado; the family would have been in New Mexico before then, and perhaps in Mexico prior to that.

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