In Search of…Vendor Features, Strengths, and Testing Strategies

This is the third in our series of articles about searching for unknown close family members, specifically; parents, grandparents, or siblings. However, these same techniques can be applied to ancestors further back in time too.

In this article, we are going to discuss your goals and why testing or uploading to multiple vendors is advantageous – even if you could potentially solve the initial mystery at one vendor. Of course, the vendor you test with first might not be the vendor where the mystery will be solved, and data from multiple vendors might just be the combination you need.

Testing Strategy – You Might Get Lucky

I recommended in the first article that you go ahead and test at the different vendors.

Some people asked why, and specifically, why you wouldn’t just test at one vendor with the largest database first, then proceed to the others if you needed to.

That’s a great question, and I want to discuss the pros and cons in this article more specifically.

Clearly, that is one strategy, but the approach you select might differ based on a variety of considerations:

  • You may only be interested in obtaining the name of the person you are seeking – or – you may be interested in finding out as much as possible.
  • You may find that your best match at one company is decidedly unhelpful, and may even block you or your efforts, while someone elsewhere may be exactly the opposite.
  • Solving your mystery may be difficult and painful at one vendor, but the answer may be infinitely easier at a different vendor where the answer may literally be waiting.
  • There may not be enough, or the right information, or matches, at any one vendor, but the puzzle may be solvable by combining information from multiple vendors and tests. Every little bit helps.
  • You may have a sense of urgency, especially if you hope to meet the person and you’re searching for parents, siblings or grandparents who may be aging.
  • You may be cost-sensitive and cannot afford more than one test at a time. Fortunately, our upload strategy helps with that too. Also, watch for vendor sales or bundles.

From the time you order your DNA test, it will be about 6-8 weeks, give or take a week or two in either direction, before you receive results.

When those results arrive, you might get lucky, and the answer you seek is immediately evident with no additional work and just waiting for you at the first testing company.

If that’s the case, you got lucky and hit the jackpot. If you’re searching for both parents, that means you still have one parent to go.

Unidentified grandparents can be a little more difficult, because there are four of them to sort between.

If you discover a sibling or half-sibling, you still need to figure out who your common parent is. Sometimes X, Y, and mitochondrial DNA provides an immediate answer and is invaluable in these situations.

It’s more likely that you’ll find a group of somewhat more distant relatives. You may be able to figure out who your common grandparents or great-grandparents are, but not your parent(s) initially. Often, the closer generation or two is actually the most difficult because you’re dealing with contemporary records which are not publicly available, fewer descendants, and the topic may be very uncomfortable for some people. It’s also complicated because you’re often not dealing with “full” relationships, but “half,” as in half-sibling, half-niece, half-1C, etc.

You may spend a substantial amount of time trying to solve this puzzle at the first vendor before ordering your next test.

That second test will also take about 6-8 weeks, give or take. I recommend that you order the first two autosomal tests, now.

Order Your First Two Autosomal Tests

The two testing companies with the largest autosomal databases for comparison, Ancestry, and 23andMe, DO NOT accept DNA file uploads from other companies, so you’ll need to test with each individually.

Fortunately, you CAN transfer your autosomal DNA tests to both MyHeritage and FamilyTreeDNA, for free.

You will have different matches at each company. Some people will be far more responsive and helpful than others.

I recommend that you go ahead and order both the Ancestry and 23andMe tests initially, then upload the first one that comes back with results to both FamilyTreeDNA and MyHeritage. Complete, step-by-step download/upload instructions can be found here.

You can also upload your DNA file to a fifth company, Living DNA, but they are significantly smaller and heavily focused on England and Great Britain. However, if that’s where you’re searching, this might be where you find important matches.

You can also upload to GEDMatch, a popular third-party database, but since you’re going to be in the databases of the four major testing companies, there is little to be gained at GEDMatch in terms of people who have not tested at one of the major companies. Do NOT upload to GEDMatch INSTEAD of testing or uploading to the four major sites, as GEDMatch only has a small fraction of the testers in each of the vendor databases.

What GEDMatch does offer is a chromosome browser – something that Ancestry does NOT offer, along with other clustering tools which you may find useful. I recommend GEDMatch in addition to the others, if needed or desired.

Ordering Y and Mitochondrial DNA Tests

We reviewed the basics of the different kinds of DNA, here.

Some people have asked why, if autosomal DNA shows relatives on all of your lines, would one would want to order specific tests that focus on just one line?

It just so happens that the two lines that Y and mitochondrial DNA test ARE the two lines you’re seeking – direct maternal – your mother (and her mother), and direct paternal, your father (and his father.)

These two tests are different kinds of DNA tests, testing a different type of DNA, and provide very focused information, and matches, not available from autosomal DNA tests.

For men, Y DNA can reveal your father’s surname, which can be an invaluable clue in narrowing paternal candidates. Knowing that my brother’s Y DNA matched several men with the surname of Priest made me jump for joy when he matched a woman of that same last name at another vendor.

Here’s a quote from one of the members of a Y DNA project where I’m the volunteer administrator:

“Thank you for your help understanding and using all 4 kinds of my DNA results. By piecing the parts together, I identified my father. Specifically, without Y DNA testing, and the Big Y test, I would not have figured out my parental connection, and then that my paternal line had been assigned to the wrong family. STR testing gave me the correct surname, but the Big Y test showed me exactly where I fit, and disproved that other line. I’m now in touch with my father, and we both know who our relatives are – two things that would have never happened otherwise.”

If you fall into the category of, “I want to know everything I can now,” then order both Y and mitochondrial DNA tests initially, along with those two autosomal tests.

You will need to order Y (males only) and mitochondrial DNA tests separately from the autosomal Family Finder test, although you should order on the same account as your Family Finder test at FamilyTreeDNA.

If you take the Family Finder autosomal test at FamilyTreeDNA or upload your autosomal results from another vendor, you can simply select to add the Y and mitochondrial DNA tests to your account, and they will send you a swab kit.

Conversely, you can order either a Y or mitochondrial DNA test, and then add a Family Finder or upload a DNA file if you’ve already taken an autosomal DNA test to that account too. Note – these might not be current prices – check here for sales.

You will want all 3 of your tests on the same account so that you can use the Advanced Matches feature.

Using Advanced Matches, you’ll be able to view people who match you on combinations of multiple kinds of tests.

For example, if you’re a male, you can see if your Y DNA matches also match you on the Family Finder autosomal test, and if so, how closely?

Here’s an example.

In this case, I requested matches to men with 111 markers who also match the tester on the Family Finder test. I discovered both a father and a full sibling, plus a few more distant matches. There were ten total combined matches to work with, but I’ve only shown five for illustration purposes.

This information is worth its weight in gold.

Is the Big Y Test Worth It?

People ask if the Big Y test is really worth the extra money.

The answer is, “it depends.”

If all you’re looking for are matching surnames, then the answer is probably no. A 37 or 111 marker test will probably suffice. Eventually, you’ll probably want to do the Big Y, though.

If you’re looking for exact placement on the tree, with an estimated distance to other men who have taken that test, then the answer is, “absolutely.” I wish the Big Y test had been available back when I was hunting for my brother’s biological family.

The Big Y test provides a VERY specific haplogroup and places you very accurately in your location on the Y DNA tree, along with other men of your line, assuming they have tested. You may find the surname, as well as being placed within a generation or a few of current in that family line.

Additionally, the Discover page provides estimates of how far in the past you share a common ancestor with other people that share the same haplogroup. This can be a HUGE boon to a male trying to figure out his surname line and how closely in time he’s related to his matches.

Big Y NPE Examples

Y DNA SNP mutations tested with the Big Y test accrue a mutation about every generation, or so. Sometimes we see mutations in every generation.

Here’s an example from my Campbell line. Haplogroups are listed in the top three rows.

I created this spreadsheet, but FamilyTreeDNA provides a block tree for Big Y testers. I’ve added the genealogy of the testers, with the various Big Y testers at the bottom and common ancestors above, in bold.

We have two red NPE lines showing. The MacFarlane tester matches M. Campbell VERY closely, and two Clark males match W. Campbell and other Campbells quite closely. We utilized autosomal plus the Y results to determine where the unknown parentage events occurred. Today, if you’re a Clark or MacFarlane male, or a male by any other surname who was fathered by a Y chromosome Campbell male (by any surname), you’ll know exactly where you fit in this group of testers on your direct paternal line.

Y DNA is important because men often match other men with the same surname, which is a HUGE clue, especially in combination with autosomal DNA results. I say “often,” because it’s possible that no one in your line has tested, or that your father’s surname is not his biological surname either.

Y and mitochondrial DNA matches can be HUGELY beneficial pieces of information either by confirming a close autosomal relationship on that line, or eliminating the possibility.

Lineage-Specific Population Information

In addition to matching other people, both Y and mitochondrial DNA tests provide you with lineage-specific population or “ethnicity” information for this specific line which helps you focus your research.

For example, if you view the Y DNA Haplogroup Origins shown for this tester, you’ll discover that these matches are Jewish.

The tester might not be Jewish on any other genealogical line, but they definitely have Jewish ancestry on their Y DNA, paternal, line.

The same holds true for mitochondrial DNA as well. The main difference with mitochondrial DNA is that the surname changes with each generation, haplogroups today (pre-Million Mito) are less specific, and fewer people have been tested.

Y and Mitochondrial DNA Benefits

Knowing your Y and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups not only arm you with information about yourself, they provide you with matching tools and an avenue to include or exclude people as your direct line paternal or maternal ancestors.

Your Y and mitochondrial DNA can also provide CRITICALLY IMPORTANT information about whether that direct line ancestor belonged to an endogamous population, and where they came from.

For example, both Jewish and Native populations are endogamous populations, meaning highly intermarried for many generations into the past.

Knowing that helps you adjust your autosomal relationship analysis.

Why Order Multiple Tests Initially Instead of Waiting?

If you’ve been adding elapsed time, two autosomal tests (Ancestry and 23andMe), two uploads (to FamilyTreeDNA and MyHeritage,) a Y DNA test, and a mitochondrial DNA test, if all purchased serially, one following the other, means you’ll be waiting approximately 6-8 months.

Do you want to wait 6-8 months for all of your results? Can you afford to?

Part of this answer has to do with what, exactly, you’re seeking, and how patient you are.

Only you can answer that question.

A Name or Information?

Are you seeking the name or identity of a person, or are you seeking information about that person?

Most people don’t just want to put a name to the person they are seeking – they want to learn about them and the rest of the family that door opens.

You will have different matches at each company. Even after you identify the person you seek, the people you match may have trees you can view, with family photos and other important information. (Remember, you can’t see living people in trees.) Your matches may have first-person information about your relative and may know them if they are living, or have known them.

Furthermore, you may have the opportunity to meet that person. Time delayed may not be able to be recovered or regained.

One cousin that I assisted discovered that his father had died just six weeks before he broke through that wall and made the connection.

Working with data from all vendors simultaneously will allow you to combine that data and utilize it together. Using your “best” matches at each company, augmented by X, Y, and/or mitochondrial DNA, can make MUCH shorter work of this search.

Your closest autosomal matches are the most important and insightful. In this series, I will be working with the top 15 autosomal results at each vendor, at least initially. This approach provides me with the best chance of meaningful close relationship discoveries.

Data and Vendor Results Integration

Here’s a table of my two closest maternal and paternal matches at the four major vendors. I can assign these to maternal or paternal sides, because I know the identity of my parents, and I know some of these people. If an adoptee was doing this, the top 4 could all be from one parent, which is why we work with the top 15 or so matches.

Vendor Closest Maternal Closest Paternal Comments
Ancestry 1C, 1C1R Half-1C, 2C I recognized both of the maternal and neither of the paternal.
23andMe 2C, 2C 1C1R, half-gr-niece Recognized both maternal, one paternal
MyHeritage Mother uploaded, 1C Half-niece, half-1C Recognized both maternal, one paternal
FamilyTreeDNA Mother tested, 1C1R Parent/child, half-gr-niece uploaded Recognized all 4

To be clear, I tested my mother’s mitochondrial DNA before she passed away, but because FamilyTreeDNA archives DNA samples for 25 years, as the owner/manager of her DNA kit, I was able to order the Family Finder test after she had passed away. Her tests are invaluable today.

Then, years later, I uploaded her results to MyHeritage.

If I was an adopted child searching for my mother, I would find her results in both databases today. She’ll never be at either 23andMe or Ancestry because she passed away before she could test there and they don’t accept uploads.

Looking at the other vendors, my half-niece at MyHeritage is my paternal half-sibling’s daughter. My half-sibling is deceased, so this is as close as I’ll ever get to matching her.

At 23andMe, the half-great-niece is my half-siblings grandchild.

It’s interesting that I have no matches to descendants of my other half-sibling, who is also deceased. Maybe I should ask if any of his children or grandchildren have tested. Hmmmm…..

You can see that I stand a MUCH BETTER chance of figuring out close relatives using the combined closest matches of all four databases instead of the top matches from just one database. It doesn’t matter if the database is large if the right person or people didn’t test there.

Combine Resources

I’ll be providing analysis methodologies for working with results from all of the vendors together, just in case your answer is not immediately obvious. Taking multiple DNA tests facilitates using all of these tools immediately, not months later. Solving the puzzle sooner means you may not miss valuable opportunities.

You may also discover that the door slams shut with some people, or they may not respond to your queries, but another match may be unbelievably helpful. Don’t limit your possibilities.

Let’s take a look at the strengths of each vendor.

Vendor Strengths and Things to Know

Every vendor has product strengths and idiosyncracies that the others do not. All vendors provide matches and shared matches. Each vendor provides ethnicity tools which certainly can be useful, but the features differ and will be covered elsewhere.

  • AncestryAncestry has the largest autosomal database and includes ThruLines, but no Y or mitochondrial DNA testing, no clusters, no chromosome browser, no triangulation, and no X chromosome matching or reporting. Ancestry provides genealogical records, advanced tools, and full tree access to your matches’ trees with an Ancestry subscription. Ancestry does not allow downloading your match list or segment match information, but the other vendors do.
  • 23andMe 23andMe has the second largest database. They provide triangulation and genetic trees that include your closest matches. Many people test at 23andMe for health and wellness information, so 23andMe has people in their database who are not specifically interested in genealogy and probably won’t have tested elsewhere, but may be invaluable to your search. 23andMe provides Y and mtDNA high-level haplogroups only, but no matching or other haplogroup information. If you purchase a new test or have a V5 ancestry+health current test, you can expand your matches from a limit of 1500 to about 5000 with an annual membership. For seeking close relatives, you don’t need those features, but you may want them for genealogy. 23andMe is the only vendor that limits their customers’ matches.
  • MyHeritageMyHeritage has the third largest database that includes lots of European testers. MyHeritage provides triangulation, Theories of Family Relativity, and an integrated cluster tool* but does not report X matches and does not offer Y or mitochondrial DNA testing. MyHeritage accepts autosomal DNA file uploads from other testing companies for free and provides access to advanced DNA features for a one-time unlock fee. MyHeritage includes genealogical records and full feature access to advanced DNA tools with a Complete Subscription. (Free 15 days trial subscription, here.)
  • FamilyTreeDNA Family Finder (autosomal)FamilyTreeDNA is the oldest DNA testing company, meaning their database includes people who initially tested 20+ years ago and have since passed away. This, in essence, gets you one generation further back in time, with the possibility of stronger matches. Their Family Matching feature buckets and triangulates your matches, assigning them to your maternal or paternal sides if you link known matches to their proper place in your tree, even if your parents have not tested. FamilyTreeDNA accepts uploads from other testing companies for free and provides advanced DNA features for a one time unlock fee.
  • FamilyTreeDNAFamilyTreeDNA is the only company that offers both Y and mitochondrial DNA testing products that include matching, integration with autosomal test results, and other tools. These two tests are lineage-specific and don’t have to be sorted from your other ancestral lines.

I wrote about using Y DNA results, here.

I wrote about using mitochondrial DNA results, here.

*Third parties such as Genetic Affairs provide clustering tools for both 23andMe and FamilyTreeDNA. Clustering is integrated at MyHeritage. Ancestry does not provide a tool for nor allow third-party clustering. If the answer you seek isn’t immediately evident, Genetic Affairs clustering tools group people together who are related to each other, and you, and create both genetic and genealogical trees based on shared matches. You can read more about their tools, here.

Fish in all the Ponds and Use All the Bait Possible

Here’s the testing and upload strategy I recommend, based on the above discussion and considerations. The bottom line is this – if you want as much information as possible, as quickly as possible, order the four tests in red initially. Then transfer the first autosomal test results you receive to the two companies identified in blue. Optionally, GEDMatch may have tools you want to work with, but they aren’t a testing company.

What When Ancestry 23andMe MyHeritage FamilyTreeDNA
Order autosomal Initially X X    
Order Y 111 or Big-Y DNA test if male Initially       X
Order mitochondrial DNA test Initially if desired       X
Upload free autosomal When Ancestry or 23andMe results are available     X X
Unlock Advanced Tools When you upload     $29 $19
Optional GEDMatch free upload If desired, can subscribe for advanced tools

When you upload an autosomal DNA file to a vendor site, only upload one file per site, per tester. Otherwise, multiple tests simply glom up everyone’s match list with multiple matches to the same person.

Multiple vendor sites will hopefully provide multiple close matches, which increase your opportunity to discover INFORMATION about your family, not just the identity of the person you seek.

Or maybe you prefer to wait and order these DNA tests serially, waiting until one set of results is back and you’re finished working with them before ordering the next one. If so, that means you’re a MUCH more patient person than me. 😊

Our next article in this series will be about endogamy, how to know if it applies to you, and what that means to your search.

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DNA: In Search of…What Do You Mean I’m Not Related to My Family? – and What Comes Next?

Welcome to the second in our series of articles about how to search for unknown family members.

I introduced the series in the article, DNA: In Search of…New Series Launches.

This article addresses the question of “How did this happen?” and introduces the tools we need to answer that question. I’ve combined two articles into one because I really didn’t want to leave you hanging after introducing you to the problem.

We discuss the various kinds of DNA tests, when they are appropriate for your biological sex, and how one can use them to discover information about the person or people you’re seeking.

In other words, we begin at the point of making the discovery that there is something amiss, then review possible glitches. Once we confirm there is someone you need to search for, we discuss how to use genetic testing reasonably and in a planned fashion to solve that mystery.

Please note that I am NOT referring to unexpected ethnicity results in this article. This article refers to your match list and who you do and don’t match on that list. We will discuss ethnicity and how it can help you in a different context in a future article.

The Unknown

Some people have known all their lives that they were adopted, or that they didn’t know the identity of one parent, generally their father.

Other people have made or will make that discovery in a different way. Sometimes, that realization happens when they take an autosomal DNA test and don’t match people they expect to match, either not at all or in a different way.

For example:

  • You might not match a parent or a sibling.
  • You could match only people on your mother’s side, but no known relatives on your father’s side.
  • Your parents or siblings have tested, but you don’t match any of them.
  • Your immediate family hasn’t tested, but your first and second cousins have tested, and you don’t match any of them.
  • You recognize no people, families, or family names on your match list.
  • You think you know your genealogy, but nothing on your match list looks familiar.
  • If your parents and close relatives haven’t tested, not recognizing families might be explained if your family is part of a community of undertested individuals.
  • You might not recognize anyone or surnames if you know absolutely nothing about your family genealogy.
  • Sometimes, a sibling is reported as a half-sibling instead of a full sibling, which is an unexpected finding. This means that you only share one parent, not two. I wrote about this in the article Full or Half Siblings. The non-matching parent is generally the father. The question that follows is, which one of you, if not both, weren’t fathered by the man you thought was your biological father?

These discoveries are generally unexpected and unwelcome – a horrible shock followed by some level of disbelief.

I’ve been there.

My half-brother turned out to not be my half-brother, so we weren’t biologically related at all, although that didn’t change how much I loved him one iota.

Later, I did identify his father, but it was too late for them. My brother had passed on by that time.

Ironically, his biological family would have welcomed him with open arms.

If you’re interested, I wrote about our journey in a series of articles:

The Shock of Discovery

It’s difficult discovering that your full sibling isn’t a full sibling or not a sibling at all, but it’s even worse when you discover that one or both of your parents are not your biological parent(s) when you weren’t expecting that. Obviously, sometimes those two shockers accompany each other.

And no, if you don’t match your parents, siblings, first or second cousins, DNA tests can’t be “that” wrong in terms of matching. That’s generally the first question everyone asks.

Yes, we have seen a couple of instances of test mix-ups at the labs, many years ago, among the millions of tests taken. Better quality control procedures were introduced, and a mix-up hasn’t happened in a very long time. However, if you really think that’s a possibility, or you need peace of mind – order another test from the same vendor. If the second test comes back with the same match list as the first test, there is no lab mix-up.

Or, you can order a test from another vendor – something you’re going to need anyway to solve the mystery and for your genealogy. Hint – the two vendors you must test at directly are Ancestry and 23andMe because they don’t accept uploads. If you’re going to order another test, make it one or both of those.

Before deciding you’ve discovered a genetic disconnect, let’s take a deep breath and look at a couple of other possibilities first.

Be Sure the Vial or Transfer Wasn’t Confused

If you’re encountering a situation where you’re not matching relatives that you know have tested, or for some reason, you suspect something isn’t right, the first things that need to be considered are:

  • Are you positive that your relative(s) have taken a DNA test? You wouldn’t believe how many times someone has told me that they don’t match their mother/father/sibling and come to find out, their family member hasn’t tested. Did they order a test but never send it in? Did they send it in, but their results arent’ back yet?
  • Are you positive that your relative(s) tested at the same company where you did? Many times we discover that they’ve tested, but at a different company. Have your relative show you their results, take a screenshot, or give you their login to confirm you’re at the same vendor.
  • Are you missing all of your relatives or just one or two in the same line? If the answer is one or two, they, not you, may have a disconnect, especially if you match other people on the same side of your family.
  • Did you and a friend or spouse both swab or spit at the same time? If so, is there any possibility that your and their vials were inadvertently swapped when you put them in envelopes and mailed them?

If there is any doubt, check with that other person and see if they are experiencing the same issue. If you look at their results, you may recognize your own family. I’ve seen this occur at family reunions and at the holidays, where several DNA tests were taken by various family members.

  • This last situation is much more common and is caused by confusing files during a download/upload to another vendor. Do you manage multiple kits, and did you inadvertently download the wrong DNA file, or upload the wrong person’s DNA file to a different vendor?

If so, you’re looking at someone else’s results, thinking they are your own. If that person is a cousin, you may be even more confused because you may match some of the same people, just at very different levels. This could make your sibling look like a half-sibling or first cousin, for example.

If there is any possibility of an upload mix-up, or any doubt whatsoever:

  1. Delete the suspect file at the vendor where you uploaded the DNA file
  2. Delete the downloaded files from your computer
  3. Start over by downloading the DNA file again from the original vendor
  4. Label the downloaded file clearly, and immediately, with the tester’s name and date.
  5. Upload the new file to the target vendor before you download another person’s DNA file.

Step-by-step upload/download instructions can be found, here.

Not Parent Expected

If you discover that one of two parents is not the expected biological parent, you’ve discovered a genetic disconnect that is known by a number of different terms. Initially, the term NPE was used, but other terms have been added over the years, and they are sometimes used differently, depending on who is speaking.

  • NPE – Non-Parental Event, Not Parent Expected
  • MPE – Misattributed Paternal/Parental Event or Misattributed Parentage Experience
  • Undocumented Adoption – Regardless of how the situation occurred, it was not documented.

Please, please do NOT jump to conclusions and make assumptions about infidelity and duplicity. There can be many reasons for this occurrence, including:

  • Agreed upon “open” relationships
  • Intentional impregnation when one partner is infertile
  • Surrogacy
  • Infidelity
  • Rape
  • Sperm donor
  • Adoption
  • Unknown first marriage, with step-father raising a child as his own
  • Illegitimate birth of a child before marriage
  • Lifestyle choices
  • Intoxication
  • Coercion

In other words, the situation may have been known to the involved parties, even if they did not share that information with you or others. Prior to the last 20 years, no one would ever have considered that this information might ever be revealed. Social norms and judgments were very different a generation or more ago.

I wrote about this in the article, Things That Need To Be said: Adoption, Adultery, Coercion, Rape, and DNA.

Of course, these events could happen in any generation, but the closer to you, in time, the more evident it will be when looking at your matches.

Now that we’ve determined that we have an unknown parent or grandparent, how do we sort this out?

Let’s Start with the Basics

I’m going to begin by explaining the basics of the different kinds of tests, and when each test can be used.

In this series, we will be focused on searching for six individuals, separately – both parents and all four grandparents.

You will be able to use the same techniques for ancestors in more distant generations by following the same instructions and methodologies, just adapting to include more matches to reach further back in time.

We will be taking the search step-by-step in each article.

Four Kinds of DNA

For genealogy, we can work with four kinds of DNA:

We can potentially use each of these when searching for unknown ancestors, including parents and grandparents. Each type of DNA has specific characteristics and uses in different situations because it’s inherited differently by the son and daughter, below.

In these examples, everything is from the perspective of the son and daughter.

Y DNA testing is only available to males, because only males have a Y chromosome which is inherited directly from the father, shown by the blue arrow. In other words, the son has the father’s Y chromosome (and generally his surname,) but the daughter does not.

The Y chromosome can provide surnames and very close matches, or reach far back in time, or both. Ideally, Y DNA is used in conjunction with autosomal testing when searching for unknown individuals.

Mitochondrial DNA can be tested by everyone since males and females both receive mitochondrial DNA from their mother, passed to her from her direct maternal line, shown by the pink arrows and the yellow hearts. Both the son and daughter can test for their mother’s mitochondrial DNA.

Both Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA can reach far back in time, but can also be informative of recent connections. Neither are ever mixed with the DNA of the other parent, so the DNA is not diluted over the generations.

Think of Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA as having the ability to provide recent genealogy information and connections, plus a deep dive on just one particular line. Fortunately, when you’re looking for parents, the lines they test are the direct maternal (or matrilineal) line and the direct paternal (or patrilineal) lines.

Both Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA tests are deep, not broad. One line each.

Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA will both be able to tell you if that specific ancestral line is European, African, Native American, Asian, Jewish, and so forth. Additionally, both offer matching at FamilyTreeDNA, information about where other testers’ ancestors are found in the world, and more.

If you want more information about what these tests have to offer, now, I provide a Y DNA Resource page, here, and a Mitochondrial DNA Resource page, here.

Autosomal DNA is the DNA contributed to you on chromosomes 1-22 by your ancestors from across all your ancestral lines in your tree, shown by the green arrow.

Everyone receives half of their autosomal DNA from each parent, with the exception of the X chromosome, which we’ll discuss in a minute.

This means that because the parent’s DNA is cut in half in each generation, the contributions of more distant ancestors’ DNA are reduced over time, with each generational division, until it’s no longer discernable or disappears altogether.

Autosomal DNA is broad across many lines, but not deep.

This figure provided by Dr. Paul Maier at FamilyTreeDNA, in the MyOrigins 3.0 White Paper, illustrates that by the 7th generation, you won’t receive DNA from a few of your ancestors. Some may be contained in segments too small to be reported by DNA testing vendors.

Translated, this means that autosomal DNA matching is most reliable in the closest generations, which is where we are working.

There is no documented occurrence of second cousins who don’t match each other. 90% of third cousins match, and about 50% of fourth cousins. I wrote about that in the article, Why Don’t I Match My Cousin?

The 23rd Chromosome – Sex Determination

Autosomal DNA generally refers to chromosomes 1-22. The 23rd chromosome is the sex selection chromosome.

Males have a Y chromosome contributed by their father, and an X contributed by their mother. The Y chromosome is what makes males, male.

Females have an X chromosome contributed by both their mother and father, which recombines just like chromosomes 1-22, but women have no Y chromosome.

In this graphic, you can see that a male child receives the father’s Y chromosome and the mother’s X. The female child receives an X chromosome from both parents.

Only FamilyTreeDNA and 23andMe report X chromosome results by including them with their autosomal DNA test.

Let’s take a look at how the X chromosome works in a little more detail.

X Chromosome DNA is another type of autosomal DNA, meaning it can be inherited from both parents in some circumstances. However, the X chromosome has a different inheritance path which means we analyze it differently for genealogy.

The father gives an X or a Y chromosome to his offspring, but not both.

If the child inherits the Y chromosome from the father, the child becomes a male. If the child inherits the X chromosome from the father, the child becomes a female.

Men only receive an X chromosome from their mother since they receive a Y chromosome from their father. Men can inherit a mixture of their mother’s X chromosomes that were contributed to their mother from both her mother (peach) and father (green.) Conversely, men can inherit their maternal grandmother’s or maternal grandfather’s X chromosome intact.

In this example, the mother and father have three sons. None of the sons can inherit an X chromosome from their father, whose X chromosome is shown in yellow. The father gives the sons his Y chromosome, not shown here, instead of an X, which is how they become males. Males only inherit their X chromosome from their mother.

The mother inherited one copy of her X chromosome from her father, shown in green, and one copy from her mother, shown in peach.

  1. The first son inherited his maternal grandfather’s green X chromosome, intact, from his mother, and none of his maternal grandmother’s peach X chromosome.
  2. The second son inherited a portion of his maternal grandmother’s peach X chromosome and a portion of his maternal grandfather’s green X chromosome. I’ve shown the portions as half, but the division could vary.
  3. The third son inherited his maternal grandmother’s peach X chromosome, intact, and none of his maternal grandfather’s green X chromosome.

This means if you match a man on his X chromosome, assuming it’s a valid match and not identical by chance, that match MUST come from his mother’s line.

In a future article, I’ll provide some X-specific fan charts and tips to help you easily discern potential X inheritance paths.

Women inherit an X chromosome from both their mother and father. They inherit their father’s X chromosome intact that he received from his mother, because he only has one X to give his daughter. Therefore, daughters inherit their paternal grandmother’s X chromosome from their father, because he passes on exactly what he received from his mother.

In this graphic, the father and mother have three daughters. You can see that each daughter receives the father’s yellow X chromosome that he inherited from his mother.

He doesn’t have a second copy of an X chromosome to mix with his mother’s.

Women inherit their mother’s X chromosome in the same fashion that men do. You can see in our example that:

  • The first daughter inherited her father’s yellow X chromosome, plus her maternal grandmother’s peach X chromosome, intact, and none of her maternal grandfather’s green X chromosome.
  • The second daughter inherited her father’s yellow X chromosome, plus part of her maternal grandfather’s green X chromosome and part of her maternal grandmother’s peach X chromosome from her mother. The portions of the mother’s pink and green chromosomes inherited by the daughter can vary widely.
  • The third daughter inherited her father’s yellow X chromosome, plus her maternal grandfather’s green X chromosome, intact, which is his mother’s X chromosome, of course. This daughter inherited none of her maternal grandmother’s peach X chromosome.

Women inherit two X chromosomes, one from each parent, while men only inherit one X, contributed from their mother. This means that X matches have different inheritance paths for women and men.

Because the X inheritance path involves the mother, many people confuse mitochondrial DNA inheritance with X inheritance. I wrote about that in the article, X Matching and Mitochondrial DNA is NOT the Same Thing.

Testing Strategies and Vendor Strengths

In the next article, we will be discussing detailed testing strategies based on multiple factors:

  • Who you are searching for in your tree
  • Who, other than you, is available to test
  • Sex of the tester(s)
  • Vendor strengths and unique offerings
  • Urgency, or not
  • Using combinations of vendor results and why you want to

Getting lucky may be what you hope for, but it’s not a strategy.😊

_____________________________________________________________

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DNA: In Search of… New Series Launches

Today, I’m excited to announce a new series titled “DNA: In Search of…”

I receive queries every single day about how to search for either unknown parents or unknown grandparents using genetic genealogy.

While some of the techniques are the same when searching for these different people, others vary and depend on a combination of factors: Continue reading

FamilyTreeDNA DISCOVER™ Launches – Including Y DNA Haplogroup Ages

FamilyTreeDNA just released an amazing new group of public Y DNA tools.

Yes, a group of tools – not just one.

The new Discover tools, which you can access here, aren’t just for people who have tested at FamilyTreeDNA . You don’t need an account and it’s free for everyone. All you need is a Y DNA haplogroup – from any source.

I’m going to introduce each tool briefly because you’re going to want to run right over and try Discover for yourself. In fact, you might follow along with this article.

Y DNA Haplogroup Aging

The new Discover page provides seven beta tools, including Y DNA haplogroup aging.

Haplogroup aging is THE single most requested feature – and it’s here!

Discover also scales for mobile devices.

Free Beta Tool

Beta means that FamilyTreeDNA is seeking your feedback to determine which of these tools will be incorporated into their regular product, so expect a survey.

If you’d like changes or something additional, please let FamilyTreeDNA know via the survey, their support line, email or Chat function.

OK, let’s get started!

Enter Your Haplogroup

Enter your Y DNA haplogroup, or the haplogroup you’re interested in viewing.

If you’re a male who has tested with FamilyTreeDNA , sign on to your home page and locate your haplogroup badge at the lower right corner.

If you’re a female, you may be able to test a male relative or find a haplogroup relevant to your genealogy by visiting your surname group project page to locate the haplogroup for your ancestor.

I’ll use one of my genealogy lines as an example.

In this case, several Y DNA testers appear under my ancestor, James Crumley, in the Crumley DNA project.

Within this group of testers, we have two different Big Y haplogroups, and several estimated haplogroups from testers who have not upgraded to the Big Y.

If you’re a male who has tested at either 23andMe or LivingDNA, you can enter your Y DNA haplogroup from that source as well. Those vendors provide high-level haplogroups.

The great thing about the new Discover tool is that no matter what haplogroup you enter, there’s something for you to enjoy.

I’m going to use haplogroup I-FT272214, the haplogroup of my ancestor, James Crumley, confirmed through multiple descendants. His son John’s descendants carry haplogroup I-BY165368 in addition to I-FT272214, which is why there are two detailed haplogroups displayed for this grouping within the Crumley haplogroup project, in addition to the less-refined I-M223.

Getting Started

When you click on Discover, you’ll be asked to register briefly, agree to terms, and provide your email address.

Click “View my report” and your haplogroup report will appear.

Y DNA Haplogroup Report

For any haplogroup you enter, you’ll receive a haplogroup report that includes 7 separate pages, shown by tabs at the top of your report.

Click any image to enlarge

The first page you’ll see is the Haplogroup Report.

On the first page, you’ll find Haplogroup aging. The TMRCA (time to most recent common ancestor) is provided, plus more!

The report says that haplogroup I-FT272214 was “born,” meaning the mutation that defines this haplogroup, occurred about 300 years ago, plus or minus 150 years.

James Crumley was born about 1710. We know his sons carry haplogroup I-FT272214, but we don’t know when that mutation occurred because we don’t have upstream testers. We don’t know who his parents were.

Three hundred years before the birth of our Crumley tester would be about 1670, so roughly James Crumley’s father’s generation, which makes sense.

James’ son John’s descendants have an additional mutation, so that makes sense too. SNP mutations are known to occur approximately every 80 years, on average. Of course, you know what average means…may not fit any specific situation exactly.

The next upstream haplogroup is I-BY100549 which occurred roughly 500 years ago, plus or minus 150 years. (Hint – if you want to view a haplogroup report for this upstream haplogroup, just click on the haplogroup name.)

There are 5 SNP confirmed descendants of haplogroup I-FT272214 claiming origins in England, all of whom are in the Crumley DNA project.

Haplogroup descendants mean this haplogroup and any other haplogroups formed on the tree beneath this haplogroup.

Share

If you scroll down a bit, you can see the share button on each page. If you think this is fun, you can share through a variety of social media resources, email, or copy the link.

Sharing is a good way to get family members and others interested in both genealogy and genetic genealogy. Light the spark!

I’m going to be sharing with collaborative family genealogy groups on Facebook and Twitter. I can also share with people who may not be genealogists, but who will think these findings are interesting.

If you keep scrolling under the share button or click on “Discover More” you can order Y DNA tests if you’re a biological male and haven’t already taken one. The more refined your haplogroup, the more relevant your information will be on the Discover page as well as on your personal page.

Scrolling even further down provides information about methods and sources.

Country Frequency

The next tab is Country Frequency showing the locations where testers with this haplogroup indicate that their earliest known ancestors are found.

The Crumley haplogroup has only 5 people, which is less than 1% of the people with ancestors from England.

However, taking a look at haplogroup R-M222 with many more testers, we see something a bit different.

Ireland is where R-M222 is found most frequently. 17% of the men who report their ancestors are from Ireland belong to haplogroup R-M222.

Note that this percentage also includes haplogroups downstream of haplogroup R-M222.

Mousing over any other location provides that same information for that area as well.

Seeing where the ancestors of your haplogroup matches are from can be extremely informative. The more refined your haplogroup, the more useful these tools will be for you. Big Y testers will benefit the most.

Notable Connections

On the next page, you’ll discover which notable people have haplogroups either close to you…or maybe quite distant.

Your first Notable Connection will be the one closest to your haplogroup that FamilyTreeDNA was able to identify in their database. In some cases, the individual has tested, but in many cases, descendants of a common ancestor tested.

In this case, Bill Gates is our closest notable person. Our common haplogroup, meaning the intersection of Bill Gates’s haplogroup and my Crumley cousin’s haplogroup is I-L1195. The SNP mutation that defines haplogroup I-L1145 occurred about 4600 years ago. Both my Crumley cousin and Bill Gates descend from that man.

If you’re curious and want to learn more about your common haplogroup, remember, you can enter that haplogroup into the Discover tool. Kind of like genetic time travel. But let’s finish this one first.

Remember that CE means current era, or the number of years since the year “zero,” which doesn’t technically exist but functions as the beginning of the current era. Bill Gates was born in 1955 CE

BCE means “before current era,” meaning the number of years before the year “zero.” So 2600 BCE is approximately 4600 years ago.

Click through each dot for a fun look at who you’re “related to” and how distantly.

This tool is just for fun and reinforces the fact that at some level, we’re all related to each other.

Maybe you’re aware of more notables that could be added to the Discover pages.

Migration Map

The next tab provides brand spanking new migration maps that show the exodus of the various haplogroups out of Africa, through the Middle East, and in this case, into Europe.

Additionally, the little shovel icons show the ancient DNA sites that date to the haplogroup age for the haplogroup shown on the map, or younger. In our case, that’s haplogroup I-M223 (red arrow) that was formed about 16,000 years ago in Europe, near the red circle, at left. These haplogroup ancient sites (shovels) would all date to 16,000 years ago or younger, meaning they lived between 16,000 years ago and now.

Click to enlarge

By clicking on a shovel icon, more information is provided. It’s very interesting that I-L1145, the common haplogroup with Bill Gates is found in ancient DNA in Cardiff, Wales.

This is getting VERY interesting. Let’s look at the rest of the Ancient Connections.

Ancient Connections

Our closest Ancient Connection in time is Gen Scot 24 (so name in an academic paper) who lived in the Western Isles of Scotland.

These ancient connections are more likely cousins than direct ancestors, but of course, we can’t say for sure. We do know that the first man to develop haplogroup I-L126, about 2500 years ago, is an ancestor to both Gen Scot 24 and our Crumley ancestor.

Gen Scot 24 has been dated to 1445-1268 BCE which is about 3400 years ago, which could actually be older than the haplogroup age. Remember that both dating types are ranges, carbon dating is not 100% accurate, and ancient DNA can be difficult to sequence. Haplogroup ages are refined as more branches are discovered and the tree grows.

The convergence of these different technologies in a way that allows us to view the past in the context of our ancestors is truly amazing.

All of our Crumley cousin’s ancient relatives are found in Ireland or Scotland with the exception of the one found in Wales. I think, between this information and the haplogroup formation dates, it’s safe to say that our Crumley ancestors have been in either Scotland or Ireland for the past 4600 years, at least. And someone took a side trip to Wales, probably settled and died there.

Of course, now I need to research what was happening in Ireland and Scotland 4600 years ago because I know my ancestors were involved.

Suggested Projects

I’m EXTREMELY pleased to see suggested projects for this haplogroup based on which projects haplogroup members have joined.

You can click on any of the panels to read more about the project. Remember that not everyone joins a project because of their Y DNA line. Many projects accept people who are autosomally related or descend from the family through the mitochondrial line, the direct mother’s line.

Still, seeing the Crumley surname project would be a great “hint” all by itself if I didn’t already have that information.

Scientific Details

The Scientific Details page actually has three tabs.

The first tab is Age Estimate.

The Age Estimate tab provides more information about the haplogroup age or TMRCA (Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor) calculations. For haplogroup I-FT272214, the most likely creation date, meaning when the SNP occurred, is about 1709, which just happens to align well with the birth of James Crumley about 1710.

However, anyplace in the dark blue band would fall within a 68% confidence interval (CI). That would put the most likely years that the haplogroup-defining SNP mutation took place between 1634 and 1773. At the lower end of the frequency spectrum, there’s a 99% likelihood that the common ancestor was born between 1451 and 1874. That means we’re 99% certain that the haplogroup defining SNP occurred between those dates. The broader the date range, the more certain we can be that the results fall into that range.

The next page, Variants, provides the “normal” or ancestral variant and the derived or mutated variant or SNP (Single Nucleotide Polymorphism) in the position that defines haplogroup I-FT272214.

The third tab displays FamilyTreeDNA‘s public Y DNA Tree with this haplogroup highlighted. On the tree, we can see this haplogroup, downstream haplogroups as well as upstream, along with their country flags.

Your Personal Page

If you have already taken a DNA test at FamilyTreeDNA, you can find the new Discover tool conveniently located under “Additional Tests and Tools.”

If you are a male and haven’t yet tested, then you’ll want to order a Y DNA test or upgrade to the Big Y for the most refined haplogroup possible.

Big Y tests and testers are why the Y DNA tree now has more than 50,000 branches and 460,000 variants. Testing fuels growth and growth fuels new tools and possibilities for genealogists.

What Do You Think?

Do you like these tools?

What have you learned? Have you shared this with your family members? What did they have to say? Maybe we can get Uncle Charley interested after all!

Let me know how you’re using these tools and how they are helping you interpret your Y DNA results and assist your genealogy.

_____________________________________________________________

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You’re always welcome to forward articles or links to friends and share on social media.

If you haven’t already subscribed (it’s free,) you can receive an email whenever I publish by clicking the “follow” button on the main blog page, here.

You Can Help Keep This Blog Free

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Uploads

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Hurry: Relatives at RootsTech Ends March 25 – Search for Y & Mitochondrial DNA Cousins While You Can

Relatives for RootsTech is still available through March 25th, even though RootsTech, the event, is over for this year. (Obviously, the video sessions are still available.)

Relatives at RootsTech provides participants with the opportunity to see cousins, organized in different ways, including by ancestor, with a path for both of you drawn back to your common ancestors.

Be sure to fully utilize the Relatives at RootsTech connections to easily find cousins who descend appropriately to be testing candidates for Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA for your ancestors. I’ve included step-by-step instructions in this article along with a few hints I’ve discovered.

Just navigate to RootsTech, here, and scroll down to the relatives at RootsTech button.

Click that button, then on “view relatives” and voila, here you are.

FamilySearch has made this easy by displaying your relatives by ancestor, at least for several generations back in time. You can see how many of your cousins descend from any particular ancestor.

While my closest ancestors are showing few cousins, more distant ancestors further down my relatives list, (and further back in my tree,) have hundreds.

It’s Easy Peasy

Eventually, every single line brick walls. Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA are the ONLY types of DNA you can use that doesn’t divide in every generation and remains as reliable 10 or more generations ago as today. Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA are laser lights shining back through time. We need them for every single ancestral line to push beyond that brick wall, whenever and wherever we hit it.

I’ve spent time in the past few days fishing for cousins and messaging people who are good candidates to represent lines that I don’t have represented in my DNA pedigree chart.

In my own desktop software, I enter my ancestor’s haplogroup as a middle name. The * means I’ve written a 52 Ancestors series article about this person. (I don’t do this in public trees, just my own.)

I can see at a glance which ancestors don’t have haplogroups, which means I need to find cousins who descend appropriately to have inherited either the Y DNA or the mitochondrial DNA of that ancestor.

The blue boxes above represent the Y DNA inheritance path, and the red, mitochondrial inheritance. You can read more about Y and mitochondrial DNA inheritance paths, here.

Neither Y nor mitochondrial DNA are admixed with the DNA of the other parent, so it’s a rich source of information that never divides during meiosis. This gives us the ability to see far back in time without dilution.

Focus

I created a small spreadsheet so I wouldn’t lose track of whose DNA I’m looking for and the message I sent to various cousins.

By focusing only on ancestral lines I specifically need, I’ve eliminated a lot of busy work. Initially, I was going to record every cousin, but there are too many for me to be able to complete that task. Now I’m focused on:

  • Lines where I have very few matches. These may represent closer cousins I haven’t yet met, or people in the Netherlands who are now participating. I found a new Dutch cousin. Hopefully they will reply to my message.
  • Y DNA lines
  • Mitochondrial DNA lines

Timesaving Hint

When searching in this manner, find your most distant ancestor on the relatives list in that line. For example, I only have two cousins on my Lazarus Estes list, but as I look at ancestors on up that Estes line, I have several more by the time you get to Moses Estes, 4 generations earlier. My two cousins who descend from Lazarus will ALSO be on the Moses Estes list – as will all the rest of my cousins who descend from Estes males between Lazarus Estes and Moses Estes.

Moving to the earliest ancestors in a line immediately saves you a heap of time because you don’t need to view your cousins in the closer generations.

Y DNA

Finding appropriate cousins for Y DNA is easy. They will generally carry the surname of the ancestor in question. If I’m searching for a descendant of Andrew McKee (c1766-1814), I’ll just look for McKee surname cousins on my list.

To see how your cousin descends from your common ancestor click on Relationship. A nice dual path is shown to your common ancestors.

I found a female, so I messaged her and ask if she has a father or brother or uncle who would be willing to test to represent the McKee Y DNA line.

In my message, I briefly explain how beneficial this would be for everyone in that line and might well help break down those upstream brick walls. Who were Andrew’s parents?

I don’t know now, but I’d surely know more after a Y DNA test. So would she!

In this next example, my cousin is male, and the last male shown descending from Andrew is Robert Clayton McKee. I “presume” my cousin descends through two upstream males, but sometimes that’s not the case. Either of those two greyed out people could be females. I’m always “gentle” in these messages and say that “It appears that you descend from Andrew through all males. FamilySearch conceals the identity of your closest generations for privacy.”

I ask my cousin to confirm how they descend and ask if they have tested or are interested in DNA testing. I also provide my email address and offer a testing scholarship.

Mitochondrial DNA

Locating mitochondrial DNA testing candidates takes slightly more effort, but can be VERY productive.

Let’s say I’m searching for a mitochondrial DNA candidate for Andrew McKee’s wife.

Notice, I said “wife” and did not mention her name. All we really know, from a deed signature releasing her dower right, is that her first name is Elizabeth. The reason I would be seeking her mitochondrial DNA is to figure out who her parents were.

At FamilySearch, Elizabeth has been assigned a full name, including surname, but there are no sources that provide her surname.

DO NOT DISREGARD THIS RECORD!

My first inclination is to disregard this record because there is no evidence that Barnes is Elizabeth’s surname, at least not that I’ve ever seen. If any reader has actual evidence, please do share.

However, in this case, we are searching for anyone descended from the wife of Andrew McKee, REGARDLESS OF HER NAME. Her name, in this context and for this purpose does not matter.

In other words, if we can find a candidate for Andrew’s wife’s mitochondrial DNA, we may then be able to determine if indeed she does match someone in the Barnes family line.

It’s very easy to skim your matches ancestral line. If you see any blue in their lineage, indicating a male in your cousin’s line, that’s an immediate “no,” so you can just proceed to the next cousin in your list.

Mitochondrial DNA is only passed from women to their children. Men don’t pass it on, so a male in that line is a blocker. Andrew McKee Jones, in this example, inherited his mother’s mitochondrial DNA, but his children inherited the mitochondrial DNA of their mother.

Fortunately, FamilySearch also identifies daughter or son when names are ambiguous.

Scholarships

I always offer a DNA testing scholarship at FamilyTreeDNA for the appropriate Y DNA or mitochondrial test. FamilyTreeDNA also offers their autosomal Family Finder test, of course, and I often include that test in the scholarship.

Other vendors do not offer Y and mitochondrial DNA testing. However, if your cousins have already tested autosomally at Ancestry, 23andMe, or MyHeritage, they can upload their DNA files to FamilyTreeDNA for free after you order their scholarship test. Step-by-step upload instructions can be found, here.

I always check to see if Y DNA and mtDNA testers’ matches are also autosomal matches. That too can provide valuable clues.

March 25th

Don’t wait. The Relatives at RootsTech tool is only available until March 25th. It will take you some time to review the lists, but it’s fun because it’s like mining for buried ancestral gold nuggets. Except it’s not just a game. There is real genealogical gold hiding there, just itching to be discovered.

If you message someone, or click on the contact button, they will be added to your list which remains available after March 25th.

Do you have ancestors whose Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA you need? Your gold-nugget cousin may be waiting for you!

_____________________________________________________________

Follow DNAexplain on Facebook, here or follow me on Twitter, here.

Share the Love!

You’re always welcome to forward articles or links to friends and share on social media.

If you haven’t already subscribed (it’s free,) you can receive an email whenever I publish by clicking the “follow” button on the main blog page, here.

You Can Help Keep This Blog Free

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Uploads

Genealogy Products and Services

My Book

Genealogy Books

Genealogy Research

Top Ten RootsTech 2022 DNA Sessions + All DNA Session Links

The official dates of RootsTech 2022 were March 3-5, but the sessions and content in the vendor booths are still available. I’ve compiled a list of the sessions focused on DNA, with web links on the RootsTech YouTube channel

YouTube reports the number of views, so I was able to compile that information as of March 8, 2022.

I do want to explain a couple of things to add context to the numbers.

Most speakers recorded their sessions, but a few offered live sessions which were recorded, then posted later for participants to view. However, there have been glitches in that process. While the sessions were anticipated to be available an hour or so later, that didn’t quite happen, and a couple still aren’t posted. I’m sure the presenters are distressed by this, so be sure to watch those when they are up and running.

The Zoom rooms where participants gathered for the live sessions were restricted to 500 attendees. The YouTube number of views does not include the number of live viewers, so you’ll need to add an additional number, up to 500.

When you see a number before the session name, whether recorded or live, that means that the session is part of a series. RootsTech required speakers to divide longer sessions into a series of shorter sessions no longer than 15-20 minutes each. The goal was for viewers to be able to watch the sessions one after the other, as one class, or separately, and still make sense of the content. Let’s just say this was the most challenging thing I’ve ever done as a presenter.

For recorded series sessions, these are posted as 1, 2 and 3, as you can see below with Diahan Southard’s sessions. However, with my live session series, that didn’t happen. It looks like my sessions are a series, but when you watch them, parts 1, 2 and 3 are recorded and presented as one session. Personally, I’m fine with this, because I think the information makes a lot more sense this way. However, it makes comparisons difficult.

This was only the second year for RootsTech to be virtual and the conference is absolutely HUGE, so live and learn. Next year will be smoother and hopefully, at least partially in-person too.

When I “arrived” to present my live session, “Associating Autosomal DNA Segments With Ancestors,” my lovely moderator, Rhett, told me that they were going to livestream my session to the RootsTech page on Facebook as well because they realized that the 500 Zoom seat limit had been a problem the day before with some popular sessions. I have about 9000 views for that session and more than 7,400 of them are on the RootsTech Facebook page – and that was WITHOUT any advance notice or advertising. I know that the Zoom room was full in addition. I felt kind of strange about including my results in the top ten because I had that advantage, but I didn’t know quite how to otherwise count my session. As it turns out, all sessions with more than 1000 views made it into the top ten so mine would have been there one way or another. A big thank you to everyone who watched!

I hope that the RootsTech team notices that the most viewed session is the one that was NOT constrained by the 500-seat limited AND was live-streamed on Facebook. Seems like this might be a great way to increase session views for everyone next year. Hint, hint!!!

I also want to say a huge thank you to all of the presenters for producing outstanding content. The sessions were challenging to find, plus RootsTech is always hectic, even virtually. So, I know a LOT of people will want to view these informative sessions, now that you know where to look and have more time. Please remember to “like” the session on YouTube as a way of thanking your presenter.

With 140 DNA-focused sessions available, you can watch a new session, and put it to use, every other day for the next year! How fun is that! You can use this article as your own playlist.

Please feel free to share this article with your friends and genealogy groups so everyone can learn more about using DNA for genealogy.

Ok, let’s look at the top 10. Drum roll please…

Top 10 Most Viewed RootsTech Sessions

Session Title Presenter YouTube Link Views
1 1. Associating Autosomal DNA Segments With Ancestors Roberta Estes (live) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_IHSCkNnX48

 

~9000: 1019 + 500 live viewers + 7,400+ Facebook
2 1. What to Do with Your DNA Test Results in 2022 (part 1 of 3) Diahan Southard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FENAKAYLXX4 7428
3 Who Is FamilyTreeDNA? FamilyTreeDNA – Bennett Greenspan https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MHFtwoatJ-A 2946
4 2. What to Do with Your DNA Test Results in 2022 (part 2 of 3) Diahan Southard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mIllhtONhlI 2448
5 Latest DNA Painter Releases DNAPainter Jonny Perl (live) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iLBThU8l33o 2230 + live viewers
6 DNA Painter Introduction DNAPainter – Jonny Perl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rpe5LMPNmf0 1983
7 3. What to Do with Your DNA Test Results in 2022 (part 3 of 3) Diahan Southard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hemY5TuLmGI 1780
8 The Tree of Mankind Age Estimates Paul Maier https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjkL8PWAEwk 1638
9 A Sneak Peek at FamilyTreeDNA Coming Attractions FamilyTreeDNA (live) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K9sKqNScvnE 1270 + live viewers

 

10 Extending Time Horizons with DNA Rob Spencer (live) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wppXD1Zz2sQ 1037 + live viewers

 

All DNA-Focused Sessions

I know you’ll find LOTS of goodies here. Which ones are your favorites?

  Session Presenter YouTube Link Views
1 Estimating Relationships by Combining DNA from Multiple Siblings Amy Williams https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xs1U0ohpKSA 201
2 Overview of HAPI-DNA.org Amy Williams https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FjNiJgWaBeQ 126
3 How do AncestryDNA® Communities help tell your story? | Ancestry® Ancestry https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EQNpUxonQO4 183

 

4 AncestryDNA® 201 Ancestry – Crista Cowan https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lbqpnXloM5s

 

494
5 Genealogy in a Minute: Increase Discoveries by Attaching AncestryDNA® Results to Family Tree Ancestry – Crista Cowan https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iAqwSCO8Pvw 369
6 AncestryDNA® 101: Beginner’s Guide to AncestryDNA® | Ancestry® Ancestry – Lisa Elzey https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-N2usCR86sY 909
7 Hidden in Plain Sight: Free People of Color in Your Family Tree Cheri Daniels https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FUOcdhO3uDM 179
8 Finding Relatives to Prevent Hereditary Cancer ConnectMyVariant – Dr. Brian Shirts https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LpwLGgEp2IE 63
9 Piling on the chromosomes Debbie Kennett https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e14lMsS3rcY 465
10 Linking Families With Rare Genetic Condition Using Genealogy Deborah Neklason https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b94lUfeAw9k 43
11 1. What to Do with Your DNA Test Results in 2022 Diahan Southard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FENAKAYLXX4 7428
12 1. What to Do with Your DNA Test Results in 2022 Diahan Southard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hemY5TuLmGI 1780
13 2. What to Do with Your DNA Test Results in 2022 Diahan Southard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mIllhtONhlI 2448
14 DNA Testing For Family History Diahan Southard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kCLuOCC924s 84

 

15 Understanding Your DNA Ethnicity Estimate at 23andMe Diana Elder

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xT1OtyvbVHE 66
16 Understanding Your Ethnicity Estimate at FamilyTreeDNA Diana Elder https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XosjViloVE0 73
17 DNA Monkey Wrenches DNA Monkey Wrenches https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Thv79pmII5M 245
18 Advanced Features in your Ancestral Tree and Fan Chart DNAPainter – Jonny Perl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4u5Vf13ZoAc 425
19 DNA Painter Introduction DNAPainter – Jonny Perl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Rpe5LMPNmf0 1983
20 Getting Segment Data from 23andMe DNA Matches DNAPainter – Jonny Perl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8EBRI85P3KQ 134
21 Getting segment data from FamilyTreeDNA DNA matches DNAPainter – Jonny Perl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rWnxK86a12U 169
22 Getting segment data from Gedmatch DNA matches DNAPainter – Jonny Perl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WF11HEL8Apk 163
23 Getting segment data from Geneanet DNA Matches DNAPainter – Jonny Perl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eclj8Ap0uK4 38
24 Getting segment data from MyHeritage DNA matches DNAPainter – Jonny Perl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9rGwOtqbg5E 160
25 Inferred Chromosome Mapping: Maximize your DNA Matches DNAPainter – Jonny Perl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tzd5arHkv64 688
26 Keeping track of your genetic family tree in a fan chart DNAPainter – Jonny Perl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W3Hcno7en94 806

 

27 Mapping a DNA Match in a Chromosome Map DNAPainter – Jonny Perl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A61zQFBWaiY 423
28 Setting up an Ancestral Tree and Fan Chart and Exploring Tree Completeness DNAPainter – Jonny Perl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lkJp5Xk1thg 77
29 Using the Shared cM Project Tool to Evaluate DNA Matches DNAPainter – Jonny Perl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vxhn9l3Dxg4 763
30 Your First Chromosome Map: Using your DNA Matches to Link Segments to Ancestors DNAPainter – Jonny Perl https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tzd5arHkv64 688
31 DNA Painter for absolute beginners DNAPainter (Jonny Perl) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JwUWW4WHwhk 1196
32 Latest DNA Painter Releases DNAPainter (live) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iLBThU8l33o 2230 + live viewers
33 Unraveling your genealogy with DNA segment networks using AutoSegment from Genetic Affairs Evert-Jan Blom https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rVpsJSqOJZI

 

162
34 Unraveling your genealogy with genetic networks using AutoCluster Evert-Jan Blom https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZTKSz_X7_zs 201

 

 

35 Unraveling your genealogy with reconstructed trees using AutoTree & AutoKinship from Genetic Affairs Evert-Jan Blom https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OmDQoAn9tVw 143
36 Research Like a Pro with DNA – A Genealogist’s Guide to Finding and Confirming Ancestors with DNA Family Locket Genealogists https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NYpLscJJQyk 183
37 How to Interpret a DNA Network Graph Family Locket Genealogists – Diana Elder https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i83WRl1uLWY 393
38 Find and Confirm Ancestors with DNA Evidence Family Locket Genealogists – Nicole Dyer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DGLpV3aNuZI 144
39 How To Make A DNA Network Graph Family Locket Genealogists – Nicole Dyer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MLm_dVK2kAA 201
40 Create A Family Tree With Your DNA Matches-Use Lucidchart To Create A Picture Worth A Thousand Words Family Locket Genealogists – Robin Wirthlin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RlRIzcW-JI4 270
41 Charting Companion 7 – DNA Edition Family Tree Maker https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=k2r9rkk22nU 316

 

42 Family Finder Chromosome Browser: How to Use FamilyTreeDNA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w0_tgopBn_o 750

 

 

43 FamilyTreeDNA: 22 Years of Breaking Down Brick Walls FamilyTreeDNA https://www.familysearch.org/rootstech/session/familytreedna-22-years-of-breaking-down-brick-walls Not available
44 Review of Autosomal DNA, Y-DNA, & mtDNA FamilyTreeDNA  – Janine Cloud https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EJoQVKxgaVY 77
45 Who Is FamilyTreeDNA? FamilyTreeDNA – Bennett Greenspan https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MHFtwoatJ-A 2946
46 Part 1: How to Interpret Y-DNA Results, A Walk Through the Big Y FamilyTreeDNA – Casimir Roman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ra1cjGgvhRw 684

 

47 Part 2: How to Interpret Y-DNA Results, A Walk Through the Big Y FamilyTreeDNA – Casimir Roman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CgqcjBD6N8Y

 

259
48 Big Y-700: A Brief Overview FamilyTreeDNA – Janine Cloud https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IefUipZcLCQ 96
49 Mitochondrial DNA & The Million Mito Project FamilyTreeDNA – Janine Cloud https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Zppv2uAa6I 179
50 Mitochondrial DNA: What is a Heteroplasmy FamilyTreeDNA – Janine Cloud https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZeGTyUDKySk 57
51 Y-DNA Big Y: A Lifetime Analysis FamilyTreeDNA – Janine Cloud https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E6NEU92rpiM 154
52 Y-DNA: How SNPs Are Added to the Y Haplotree FamilyTreeDNA – Janine Cloud https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CGQaYcroRwY 220
53 Family Finder myOrigins: Beginner’s Guide FamilyTreeDNA – Katy Rowe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VrJNpSv8nlA 88
54 Mitochondrial DNA: Matches Map & Results for mtDNA FamilyTreeDNA – Katy Rowe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YtA1j01MOvs 190
55 Mitochondrial DNA: mtDNA Mutations Explained FamilyTreeDNA – Katy Rowe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=awPs0cmZApE 340

 

56 Y-DNA: Haplotree and SNPs Page Overview FamilyTreeDNA – Katy Rowe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FOuVhoMD-hw 432
57 Y-DNA: Understanding the Y-STR Results Page FamilyTreeDNA – Katy Rowe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gCeZz1rQplI 148
58 Y-DNA: What Is Genetic Distance? FamilyTreeDNA – Katy Rowe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qJ6wY6ILhfg 149
59 DNA Tools: myOrigins 3.0 Explained, Part 1 FamilyTreeDNA – Paul Maier https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ACgY3F4-w78 74

 

60 DNA Tools: myOrigins 3.0 Explained, Part 2 FamilyTreeDNA – Paul Maier https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h7qU36bIFg0 50
61 DNA Tools: myOrigins 3.0 Explained, Part 3 FamilyTreeDNA – Paul Maier https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SWlGPm8BGyU 36
62 African American Genealogy Research Tips FamilyTreeDNA – Sherman McRae https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XdbkM58rXIQ 153

 

63 Connecting With My Ancestors Through Y-DNA FamilyTreeDNA – Sherman McRae https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xbo1XnLkuQU 200
64 Join The Million Mito Project FamilyTreeDNA (Join link) https://www.familysearch.org/rootstech/session/join-the-million-mito-project link
65 View the World’s Largest mtDNA Haplotree FamilyTreeDNA (Link to mtDNA tree) https://www.familytreedna.com/public/mt-dna-haplotree/L n/a
66 View the World’s Largest Y Haplotree FamilyTreeDNA (Link to Y tree) https://www.familytreedna.com/public/y-dna-haplotree/A link
67 A Sneak Peek at FamilyTreeDNA Coming Attractions FamilyTreeDNA (live) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K9sKqNScvnE 1270 + live viewers

 

68 DNA Upload: How to Transfer Your Autosomal DNA Data FamilyTreeDNA -Katy Rowe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CS-rH_HrGlo 303
69 Family Finder myOrigins: How to Compare Origins With Your DNA Matches FamilyTreeDNA -Katy Rowe https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7mBmWhM4j9Y 145
70 Join Group Projects at FamilyTreeDNA FamilyTreeDNA link to learning center article) https://www.familysearch.org/rootstech/session/join-group-projects-at-familytreedna link

 

71 Product Demo – Unraveling your genealogy with reconstructed trees using AutoKinship GEDmatch https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R7_W0FM5U7c 803
72 Towards a Genetic Genealogy Driven Irish Reference Genome Gerard Corcoran https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6Kx8qeNiVmo 155

 

73 Discovering Biological Origins in Chile With DNA: Simple Triangulation Gonzalo Alexis Luengo Orellana https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WcVby54Uigc 40
74 Cousin Lynne: An Adoption Story International Association of Jewish Genealogical Societies https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AptMcV4_B4o 111
75 Using DNA Testing to Uncover Native Ancestry Janine Cloud https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=edzebJXepMA 205
76 1. Forensic Genetic Genealogy Jarrett Ross https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0euIDZTmx5g 58
77 Reunited and it Feels so Good Jennifer Mendelsohn https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X-hxjm7grBE 57

 

78 Genealogical Research and DNA Testing: The Perfect Companions Kimberly Brown https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=X82jA3xUVXk 80
79 Finding a Jewish Sperm Donor Kitty Munson Cooper https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iKRjFfNcpug 164
80 Using DNA in South African Genealogy Linda Farrell https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HXkbBWmORM0 141
81 Using DNA Group Projects In Your Family History Research Mags Gaulden https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0tX7QDib4Cw 165
82 2. The Expansion of Genealogy Into Forensics Marybeth Sciaretta https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HcEO-rMe3Xo 35

 

83 DNA Interest Groups That Keep ’em Coming Back McKell Keeney (live) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HFwpmtA_QbE 180 plus live viewers
84 Searching for Close Relatives with Your DNA Results Mckell Keeney (live) https://www.familysearch.org/rootstech/session/searching-for-close-relatives-with-your-dna-results Not yet available
85 Top Ten Reasons To DNA Test For Family History Michelle Leonard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1B9hEeu_dic 181
86 Top Tips For Identifying DNA Matches Michelle Leonard https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-3Oay_btNAI 306
87 Maximising Messages Michelle Patient https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4TRmn0qzHik 442
88 How to Filter and Sort Your DNA Matches MyHeritage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fmIgamFDvc8 88
89 How to Get Started with Your DNA Matches MyHeritage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JPOzhTxhU0E 447

 

90 How to Track DNA Kits in MyHeritage` MyHeritage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2W0zBbkBJ5w 28

 

91 How to Upload Your DNA Data to MyHeritage MyHeritage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nJ4RoZOQafY 82
92 How to Use Genetic Groups MyHeritage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PtDAUHN-3-4 62
My Story: Hope MyHeritage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qjyggKZEXYA 133
93 MyHeritage Keynote, RootsTech 2022 MyHeritage https://www.familysearch.org/rootstech/session/myheritage-keynote-rootstech-2022 Not available
94 Using Labels to Name Your DNA Match List MyHeritage https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=enJjdw1xlsk 139

 

95 An Introduction to DNA on MyHeritage MyHeritage – Daniel Horowitz https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1I6LHezMkgc 60
96 Using MyHeritage’s Advanced DNA Tools to Shed Light on Your DNA Matches MyHeritage – Daniel Horowitz https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pez46Xw20b4 110
97 You’ve Got DNA Matches! Now What? MyHeritage – Daniel Horowitz https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gl3UVksA-2E 260
98 My Story: Lizzie and Ayla MyHeritage – Elizbeth Shaltz https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NQv6C8G39Kw 147
99 My Story: Fernando and Iwen MyHeritage – Fernando Hermansson https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=98-AR0M7fFE 165

 

100 Using the Autocluster and the Chromosome Browser to Explore Your DNA Matches MyHeritage – Gal Zruhen https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a7aQbfP7lWU 115

 

101 My Story : Kara Ashby Utah Wedding MyHeritage – Kara Ashby https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qbr_gg1sDRo 200
102 When Harry Met Dotty – using DNA to break down brick walls Nick David Barratt https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8SdnLuwWpJs 679
103 How to Add a DNA Match to Airtable Nicole Dyer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oKxizWIOKC0 161
104 How to Download DNA Match Lists with DNAGedcom Client Nicole Dyer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=t9zTWnwl98E 124
105 How to Know if a Matching DNA Segment is Maternal or Paternal Nicole Dyer https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-zd5iat7pmg 161
106 DNA Basics Part I Centimorgans and Family Relationships Origins International, Inc. dba Origins Genealogy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SI1yUdnSpHA 372
107 DNA Basics Part II Clustering and Connecting Your DNA Matches Origins International, Inc. dba Origins Genealogy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ECs4a1hwGcs 333
108 DNA Basics Part III Charting Your DNA Matches to Get Answers Origins International, Inc. dba Origins Genealogy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qzybjN0JBGY 270
109 2. Using Cluster Auto Painter Patricia Coleman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-nfLixwxKN4 691
110 3. Using Online Irish Records Patricia Coleman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mZsB0l4z4os 802
111 Exploring Different Types of Clusters Patricia Coleman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eEZBFPC8aL4 972

 

112 The Million Mito Project: Growing the Family Tree of Womankind Paul Maier https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cpctoeKb0Kw 541
113 The Tree of Mankind Age Estimates Paul Maier https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jjkL8PWAEwk 1638
114 Y-DNA and Mitochondrial DNA Testing Plans Paul Woodbury https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=akymSm0QKaY 168
115 Finding Biological Family Price Genealogy https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4xh-r3hZ6Hw 137
116 What Y-DNA Testing Can Do for You Richard Hill https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a094YhIY4HU 191
117 Extending Time Horizons with DNA Rob Spencer (live) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wppXD1Zz2sQ 1037 + live viewers
118 DNA for Native American Ancestry by Roberta Estes Roberta Estes https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EbNyXCFfp4M 212
119 1. Associating Autosomal DNA Segments With Ancestors Roberta Estes (live) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_IHSCkNnX48

 

~9000: 1019 + 500 live viewers + 7,400+ Facebook
120 1. What Can I Do With Ancestral DNA Segments? Roberta Estes (live) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Suv3l4iZYAQ 325 plus live viewers

 

121 Native American DNA – Ancient and Contemporary Maps Roberta Estes (live) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dFTl2vXUz_0 212 plus 483 live viewers

 

122 How Can DNA Enhance My Family History Research? Robin Wirthlin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f3KKW-U2P6w 102
123 How to Analyze a DNA Match Robin Wirthlin https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LTL8NbpROwM 367
124 1. Jewish Ethnicity & DNA: History, Migration, Genetics Schelly Talalay Dardashti https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AIJyphGEZTA 82

 

125 2. Jewish Ethnicity & DNA: History, Migration, Genetics Schelly Talalay Dardashti https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VM3MCYM0hkI 72
126 Ask us about DNA Talking Family History (live) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kv_RfR6OPpU 96 plus live viewers
127 1. An Introduction to Visual Phasing Tanner Blair Tolman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WNhErW5UVKU

 

183
128 2. An Introduction to Visual Phasing Tanner Blair Tolman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CRpQ8EVOShI 110

 

129 Common Problems When Doing Visual Phasing Tanner Blair Tolman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=hzFxtBS5a8Y 68
130 Cross Visual Phasing to Go Back Another Generation Tanner Blair Tolman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=MrrMqhfiwbs 64
131 DNA Basics Tanner Blair Tolman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OCMUz-kXNZc 155
132 DNA Painter and Visual Phasing Tanner Blair Tolman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2-eh1L4wOmQ 155
133 DNA Painter Part 2: Chromosome Mapping Tanner Blair Tolman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgOJDRG7hJc 172
134 DNA Painter Part 3: The Inferred Segment Generator Tanner Blair Tolman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=96ai8nM4lzo

 

100
135 DNA Painter Part 4: The Distinct Segment Generator Tanner Blair Tolman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pu-WIEQ_8vc 83
136 DNA Painter Part 5: Ancestral Trees Tanner Blair Tolman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dkYDeFLduKA 73
137 Understanding Your DNA Ethnicity Results Tanner Blair Tolman https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4tAd8jK6Bgw 518
138 What’s New at GEDmatch Tim Janzen https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=AjA59BG_cF4

 

515
139 What Does it Mean to Have Neanderthal Ancestry? Ugo Perego https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DshCKDW07so 190
140 Big Y-700 Your DNA Guide https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rIFC69qswiA 143
141 Next Steps with Your DNA Your DNA Guide – Diahan Southard (live) https://www.familysearch.org/rootstech/session/next-steps-with-your-dna Not yet available

Additions:

142  Adventures of an Amateur Genetic Genealogist – Geoff Nelson https://www.familysearch.org/rootstech/session/adventures-of-an-amateur-genetic-genealogist     291 views

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FamilyTreeDNA Keynote, RootsTech Wrap + Special Show Pricing Still Available

Am I ever whipped. My two live Sessions that were actually a series of three classes each took place on Friday. Yes, that means I presented 6 sessions on Friday, complete with a couple of Zoom gremlins, of course. It’s the nature of the time we live in.

RootsTech tried something new that they’ve never done before. The Zoom class sessions were restricted to 500 attendees each. RootsTech was concerned about disappointed attendees when the room was full and they couldn’t get in, so we live-streamed three of my sessions to Facebook in addition to the 500 Zoom seats.

As of this evening, 6,800 of you have viewed the Facebook video, “Associating Autosomal DNA Segments With Ancestors.” I’m stunned, and touched. Thank you, thank you. Here’s the Facebook link, and here’s the RootsTech YouTube link.

My afternoon sessions, “What Can I DO With Ancestral DNA Segments?” can be viewed here at RootsTech or here on YouTube.

I must admit, I’m really, REALLY looking forward to being together again because RootsTech without the socializing and in-person Expo Hall just isn’t the same. Still, be sure to take a virtual walk through the Expo Hall, here. There’s lots of content in the vendors” booths and it will remain available for all of 2022, until the beginning of RootsTech 2023..

Between prep for my classes and presenting, I didn’t have a lot of time to watch other sessions, but I was able to catch the FamilyTreeDNA keynote and their 2022 Product Sneak Peek. Both were quite worthwhile.

However, I just realized that FamilyTreeDNA’s special show pricing promo codes are still valid for the next two days.

 Special Prices Are Still Available

Every single test that FamilyTreeDNA offers, including UPGRADES, is on sale right now by using special RootsTech promo codes. These prices are good for two more days, through March 7th, so if you want to purchase a Y DNA test, mitochondrial, or Family Finder autosomal test, or upgrade, click here to see the prices only available at RootsTech (and to you through my blog.) It’s not too late, but it will be soon.

To order, click here to sign on or place your order.

FamilyTreeDNA’s Keynote

FamilyTreeDNA’s keynote was titled FamilyTreeDNA: 22 Years of Breaking Down Brick Walls.

I really enjoyed this session, in part because I’ve been a part of the genetic genealogy revolution and evolution from the beginning. Not only that, but I know every single person they interviewed for this video, and have for years. If you’ve been participating in genetic genealogy for some time, you’ll know many of these people too. For a minute, it was almost as good as visiting in person.

I’m going to share a few highlights from the session, but I’m also going to include information NOT in the video. I was one of the early project administrators, so I’ve been along for the ride for just a few months shy of 22 years.

FamilyTreeDNA was the first US company to enter the DNA testing space, the first to offer Y DNA testing, and the only one of the early companies that remains viable today. FamilyTreeDNA was the result of Bennett Greenspan’s dream – but initially, he was only dreaming small. Just like any other genealogist – he was dreaming about breaking down a brick wall which he explains in the video.

I’m so VERY grateful that Bennett had that dream, and persisted, because it means that now millions of us can do the same – and will into the future.

Bennett tells this better than anyone else, along with his partner, Max Blankfeld.

“Some people were fascinated,” Bennett said.

Yep, that’s for sure! I certainly was.

“Among the first genetic genealogists in the world.”

“Frontier of the genetic genealogy revolution.”

Indeed, we were and still are. Today’s genetic genealogy industry wouldn’t even exist were it not for FamilyTreeDNA and their early testers.

I love Max Blankfeld’s story of their first office, and you will too.

This IS the quintessential story of entrepreneurship.

In 2004, when FamilyTreeDNA was only four years old, they hosted the very first annual international project administrator’s conference. At that time, it was believed that the only people that would be interested in learning at that level and would attend a DNA conference would be project administrators who were managing surname and regional projects. How times have changed! This week at RootsTech, we probably had more people viewing DNA sessions than people that had tested altogether in 2004. I purchased kit number 30,087 on December 28, 2004, and kit 50,000 a year later on New Year’s Eve right at midnight!

In April 2005, Nat Geo partnered with FamilyTreeDNA and founded the Genographic Project which was scheduled to last for 5 years. They were hoping to attract 100,000 people who would be willing to test their DNA to discover their roots – and along with that – our human roots. The Genographic Project would run for an incredible 15 years.

In 2005 when the second Project Administrator’s conference was held at the National Geographic Society headquarters in Washington DC, I don’t think any of us realized the historic nature of the moment we were participating in.

I remember walking from my hotel, ironically named “Helix,” to that iconic building. I had spent my childhood reading those yellow magazines at school and dreaming of far-away places. As an adult, I had been a life-long subscriber. Never, in my wildest dreams did I imagine ever visiting Nat Geo and walking the marble Explorer’s Hall with the portraits of the founders and early explorers hanging above and keeping a watchful eye on us. We would not disappoint them.

That 100,000 participation goal was quickly reached, within weeks, and surpassed, leading us all to walk the road towards the building that housed the Explorer’s Hall, Explorers’ in Residence, and so much more.

We were all explorers, pioneers, adventurers seeking to use the DNA from our ancestors in the past to identify who they were. Using futuristic technology tools like a mirror to look backward into the dim recesses of the past.

The archaeology being unearthed and studied was no longer at the ends of the earth but within our own bodies. The final frontier. Reaching out to explore meant reaching inward, and backward in time, using the most progressive technology of the day.

Most of the administrators in attendance, all volunteers, were on a first-name basis with each other and also with Max, Bennett, and the scientists.

Here, Bennett with a member of the science team from the University of Arizona describes future research goals. Every year FamilyTreeDNA has improved its products in numerous ways.

Today, that small startup business has its own ground-breaking state-of-the-art lab. More than 10,000 DNA projects are still administered by passionate volunteer administrators who focus on what they seek – such as the history of their surname or a specific haplogroup. Their world-class lab allows FamilyTreeDNA to focus on research and science in addition to DNA processing. The lab allows constant improvement so their three types of genetic genealogy products, Y, mitochondrial and autosomal DNA.

Those three types of tests combine to provide genealogical insights and solutions. The more the science improves, the more solutions can and will be found.

If you watch the video, you’ll see 6 people who have solved particularly difficult and thorny problems. We are all long-time project administrators, all participate on a daily basis in this field and community – and all have an undying love for both genealogy and genetic genealogy.

You’ll recognize most of these people, including yours truly.

  • I talk about my mother’s heritage, unveiled through mitochondrial DNA.
  • Rob Warthen speaks about receiving a random phone call from another genealogist as his introduction to genetic genealogy. Later, he purchased a DNA test for his girlfriend, an adoptee, for Christmas and sweetened the deal by offering to “go where you’re from” for vacation. He didn’t realize why she was moved to tears – that test revealed the first piece of information she had ever known about her history. DNA changed her and Rob’s life. He eventually identified her birth parents – and went on to found both DNAAdoption.org and DNAGedcom.
  • Richard Hill was adopted and began his search in his 30s, but it would be DNA that ended his search. His moving story is told in his book, Finding Family: My Search for Roots and the Secrets in My DNA.
  • Mags Gaulden, professional genealogist and founder of Grandma’s Genes and MitoYDNA.org tells about her 91-year-old adopted client who had given up all hope of discovering her roots. Back in the 1950s, there was literally nothing in her client’s adoption file. She was reconciled to the fact that “I would never know who I was.” Mags simply could not accept that and 2 years later, Mags found her parents’ names.

  • Lara Diamond’s family was decimated during the holocaust. Lara’s family thought everyone in her grandfather’s family had been killed, but in 2013, autosomal DNA testing let her to her grandfather’s aunt who was not killed in the holocaust as everyone thought. The aunt and first cousin were living in Detroit. Lara went from almost no family to a family reunion, shown above. She says she finally met “people who look like me.”
  • Katherine Borges founded ISOGG.org, the International Society of Genetic Genealogy in 2005, following the first genetic genealogy conference in late 2004 where she realized that the genealogy community desperately needed education – beginning with DNA terms. I remember her jokingly standing in the hallway saying that she understood three words, “a, and and the.” While that’s cute today, it was real at that time because DNA was a foreign language, technology, and concept to genealogy. In fact, for years we were banned from discussing the topic on RootsWeb. The consummate genetic genealogist, Katherine carries DNA kits in her purse, even to Scotland!

Bennett says that he’s excited about the future, for the next generation of molecular scientific achievements. It was Bennett that greenlit the Million Mito project. Bennett’s challenge as a genetic genealogy/business owner was to advance the science that led to products while making enough money to be able to continue advancing the science. It was a fine line, but Max and Bennett navigated those waters quite well.

Apparently, Max, Bennett, and the FamilyTreeDNA customers weren’t the only people who believe that.

In January 2021, myDNA acquired and merged with FamilyTreeDNA. Max and Bennett remain involved as board members.

Dr.Lior Rauchberger, CEO of myDNA which includes FamilyTreeDNA

Dr. Lior Rauchberger, the CEO of the merged enterprise believes in the power of genetics, including genetic genealogy, and is continuing to make investments in FamilyTreeDNA products – including new features. There have already been improvements in 2021 and in the presentation by Katy Rowe, the Product Manager for the FamilyTreeDNA products, she explains what is coming this year.

I hope you enjoyed this retrospective on the past 22 years and are looking forward to crossing new frontiers, and breaking down those brick walls, in the coming decades.

Sneak Peek at FamilyTreeDNA – New Features and Upcoming Releases

You can watch Katy Rowe’s Sneak Peek video about what’s coming, here.

Of course, while other companies need to split their focus between traditional genealogy research records and DNA, FamilyTreeDNA does not. Their only focus is genetics. They plan to make advances in every aspect of their products.

FamilyTreeDNA announced a new Help Center which you can access, here. I found lots of short videos and other helpful items. I had no idea it existed.

In 2021, customers began being able to order a combined Family Finder and myDNA test to provide insights into genealogy along with health and wellness

Wellness includes nutrition and fitness insights.

Existing customers either are or will be able to order the myDNA upgrade to their existing test. The ability to upgrade is being rolled out by groups. I haven’t had my turn yet, but when I do, I’ll test and let you know what I think. Trust me, I’m not terribly interested in how many squats I can do anymore, because I already know that number is zero, but I am very interested in nutrition and diet. I’d like to stay healthy enough to research my ancestors for a long time to come.

FamilyTreeDNA announced that over 72,000 men have taken the Big Y test which has resulted in the Y DNA tree of mankind surpassing 50,000 branches.

This is utterly amazing when you consider how far we’ve come since 2002. This also means that a very high number of men, paired with at least one other man, actually form a new branch on the Y haplotree.

The “age” of tester’s Y DNA haplogroups is now often within the 500-year range – clearly genealogical in nature. Furthermore, many leaf-tip haplogroups as defined by the Big Y SNPs are much closer than that and can differentiate between branches of a known family. The Big Y-700 is now the go-to test for Y DNA and genealogy.

Of course, all these new branches necessitate new maps and haplogroup information. These will be released shortly and will provide users with the ability to see the paths together, which is the view you see here, or track individual lines. The same is true for mitochondrial DNA as well.

Y DNA tree branch ages will be forthcoming soon too. I think this is the #1 most requested feature.

On the Mitochondrial DNA side of the house, the Million Mito project has led to a significant rewrite of the MitoTree. As you know, I’m a Million Mito team member.

Here’s Dr. Paul Maier’s branch, for example. You can see that in the current version of the Phylotree, there is one blue branch and lots of “child” branches beneath that. Of course, when we’re measuring the tree from “Eve,” the end tip leaf branches look small, but it’s there that our genealogy resides.

In the new version, yet to be released, there is much more granularity in the branches of U5a2b2a.

To put this another way, in today’s tree, haplogroup U5a2b2a is about 5,000 years old, but the newly defined branches bring the formation of Paul’s (new) haplogroup into the range of about 500 years. Similar in nature to the Y DNA tree and significantly more useful for genealogical purposes. If you have not taken a mitochondrial DNA full sequence test, please order one now. Maybe your DNA will help define a new branch on the tree plus reveal new information about your genealogy.

Stay tuned on this one. You know the Million Mito Project is near and dear to my heart.

2022 will also see much-needed improvements in the tree structure and user experience, as well as the matches pages.

There are a lot of exciting things on FamilyTreeDNA’s plate and I’m excited to see these new features and functions roll out over the next few months.

Just the Beginning

The three days of RootsTech 2022 may be over, but the content isn’t.

In fact, it’s just the beginning of being able to access valuable information at your convenience. The vendor booths will remain in the Expo Hall until RootsTech 2023, so for a full year, plus the individual instructor’s sessions will remain available for three years.

In a few days, after I take a break, I’ll publish a full list of DNA sessions, along with links for your convenience.

Thank You Shout Outs

I want to say a HUGE thank you to RootsTech for hosting the conference and making it free. I specifically want to express my gratitude to the many, many people working diligently behind the scenes during the last year, and frantically during the past three days.

Another huge thank you to the speakers and vendors whose efforts provide the content for the conference.

And special thanks to you for loving genealogy, taking your time to watch and learn, and for reading this blog.

_____________________________________________________________

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If you haven’t already subscribed (it’s free,) you can receive an email whenever I publish by clicking the “follow” button on the main blog page, here.

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Johann Peter Koehler (1724-1791), Innkeeper, Lawyer, Mayor of Ellerstadt – 52 Ancestors #351

My ancestor, Margaretha Elisabetha Koehler was born on April 30, 1772 in Ellerstadt, Germany to Johann Peter Koehler and Anna Elisabetha Scherer.

I wrote about the Kirsch and Koehler homes in neighboring Mutterstadt where Margaretha Elisabetha lived after her marriage, here.

Ellerstadt

The village of Ellerstadt is the heart of German wine country. The ideal location for an innkeeper. Johann Peter Koehler was just that, the innkeeper at The Lion, and an innkeeper with aspirations.

Ellerstadt was a small village in the 1700s when Peter Koehler lived there, although it had existed for hundreds of years, minus the years it was laid waste by invading armies. The first mention of Ellerstadt was in 783, nearly 1000 years before Peter took up residence.

Peter wasn’t born in Ellerstadt.

Rehutte

According to his death record, Peter was born on September 28, 1724. His parents were Johann Peter Theobald Koehler and Anna Elisabetha Ulzhofer and he was most likely born in the little village of Rehutte (Rehhutte), given that his father was the customs collector and innkeeper there. However, Rehutte was occupied by French troops from 1734-1745, so where the family might have lived during that time is open to speculation. Records from Rehutte would be very enlightening.

Peter spent his adult life in Ellerstadt.

We don’t know exactly when Peter took up residence there, but at age 22, on January 11, 1746, he married Charlotta Braun in Ellerstadt. He would have been a citizen by then, with a vocation sufficient to support a wife and family or he would not have been allowed to marry.

Ellerstadt

This map of Ellerstadt from the 1840s is probably very similar to life 50 years earlier, near the end of Peter’s time on earth. These are the streets that Peter would have walked, buttressed by the vineyards tended by the residents stretching long and narrow behind their homes.

Today, you can see the same roads embracing the beautiful “old,” village.

The lives of all of the villagers, their comings and goings, revolved around the center of the village where there was likely a communal well at one time and probably a marketplace too. You can easily see the Protestant church with the green roof near the old school on the corner.

There would have been a bakery nearby, the smell of freshly baked bread wafting down the street. Of course, every village had an inn that functioned as the local restaurant and pub, gathering place, and safe haven for travelers and their beasts.

The region’s fine wines would have been served at the tables there, and maybe some locally distilled fruit brandy too. Today there’s a generationally owned winery in Ellerstadt plus a few more in close proximity.

You have no idea how much I want to walk these streets.

Von Immanuel Giel – Eigenes Werk, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=70902203

The old white school, shown above on the corner, was likely something else before it served as a school. We know that during Peter’s day that the schoolmaster taught at the Lutheran church.

Kirchenstrasse runs alongside the church, north to south, and Ratstrasse, or city hall street, intersects in the center of town. The city hall would have been located there, as would the local inn. Peter would have lived and worked someplace in this long block. I’d bet that in the city’s dusty records, there is something that would tell us where the old Lion or Red Lion Inn was located, or where Peter lived, which might well have been the same building. His wife may well have cooked for the family and their guests.

Peter, his wives and some of his children are assuredly buried in the cemetery behind the church in long-lost graves. Many of his children married and moved away, to neighboring villages and eventually, some of his descendants sailed for America.

Ellerstadt History

Like the rest of the Palatinate, Ellerstadt was entirely abandoned during the Thirty Years War which began in 1618. While the war officially ended in 1648, families had either died or settled elsewhere and there was literally nothing to return to. Everythign was burned and gone, but some tried to return to their ancestral villages.

Repeated incursions lasted throughout the 1600s, with French troops once again ravaging the Palatinate from 1689-1697. Refugees fled across the Rhine, with some eventually returning after the French discovered that they needed people to work so they had someone to tax.

In 1707, Ellerstadt belonged to Casimir Kolb von Wartenberg and was part of the Imperial county that was of an Imperially immediate nature. An imperial immediate nature was a privileged political status rooted in feudal law under the Holy Roman Empire granting the holder a form of sovereignty, allowing them to extract taxes and tolls, among other forms of control. Often, they granted benefits to villagers such as allowing them to own some time of business, such as an inn. Of course, nothing was free – they would have selected a man they could depend on to pay their taxes.

We know that Peter was living in Ellerstadt by 1746 when he married and established himself as a citizen and innkeeper. A decade later in 1756 catastrophic weather conditions including hail destroyed the entire harvest.

Many people probably went hungry that year. Peter, then 32 years old and married for a decade had 6 children, including a babe in arms. What did they do? How did they survive? We’ll never know.

During almost the entire time that Peter lived in Ellerstadt, the village was owned by the Wartenbergs. However, in 1789, the impoverished Wartenbergs sold their rights to the Counts of Sickingen, another noble family who subsequently lost Ellerstadt, along with all of the Palatinate west of the Rhine to the French in 1794.

We don’t know exactly how many people lived in the village of Ellerstadt in the 1700s, but we do know that there were 24-30 families by 1548 and by 1614, that number had increased to 60-70. Of course, that was before the war.

The families who didn’t die left no later than 1620, and it’s unknown if any of the original families tried to return after 1650. A full generation had passed.

Regardless, Peter Koehler’s family was not from Ellerstadt, but Ellerstadt was probably a “young” village once again in the early and mid-1700s, in the process of rebuilding and reestablishing itself. If it was without an innkeeper, a newly established inn would have been quite welcome. Food, wine and travelers. More people and goods to tax, including luxuries like tea, coffee and chocolate.

By 1722, the population had not extended beyond the city center; Ratsstausse, Kirchenstrausse with Fliesstrasse bordering the south side of the village.

The 1840s map shows about 110 or so residences, but many are in the “newer” outskirts of town, outside the village center where the church would have been rebuilt. Perhaps there were 50 families when Peter lived in Ellerstadt, eventually serving as Mayor.

Peter died in 1791, before the French Revolution occurred in 1793 and 1794, once again ravaging Ellerstadt. Soldiers plundered homes and forced the inhabitants into labor if they did not flee across the Rhine River.

Peter’s home and the inn would have either been destroyed or at least repurposed – although soldiers like everyone else had to eat and likely enjoyed a drink. While Peter was gone, perhaps his inn survived due to its usefulness.

Reassembling Peter’s Life

Most of what we know about Peter came from the church records which of course reflect none of the turmoil taking place, at least not directly. Clearly, the family attended services regularly. All of Peter’s children were baptized in the church as was expected.

The church was the central, cohesive glue of the village, with the protestant religion a way of life in German Palatinate villages during this time. There was no Catholic church. The Thirty Years’ War had been about the differences between Catholicism and the Protestant faith and the protestants won.

Peter’s transcribed marriage record tells us that on the 11th of January, 1746, Johann Peter Koehler, legitimate son of the customs collector Mister Kohler was married to the local widow Braun’s daughter Charlotta, after 3 public announcements during open church services.

Charlotta died 16 years later, on March 6, 1762, in Ellerstadt.

Charlotta and Peter had 8 children between November of 1746 and March of 1761. There are two gaps of 4 years, suggesting that two children died, one in 1751 and one in 1759. Others might have died after they were christened during that timeframe.

Peter remarried shortly, just 3 months later, on June 29th, 1762 to Anna Elisabetha Scherer, 18 years his junior and the daughter of the innkeeper of the “Lion Inn” in Heuchelheim, about 20 miles away. Peter’s oldest child was only 5 years younger than his new wife who immediately acquired a family of 8 children, minus any who had died. The oldest was 16 and the youngest, an infant who would never have known any other mother other than Elisabetha.

The translation of their marriage record, courtesy of cousin Tom says:

The local innkeeper at the Löwenwirth (Lion’s Inn), Peter KÖHLER, widower with Anna Elisabetha SCHER(IN), the late Philipp SCHER(N) from Heuchelheim, surviving legitimate daughter were married after the reading of the three proclamation of the banns.

Their first child arrived in November of 1763.

In his daughter Christina Ottilia’s marriage record on August 4, 1763, Peter is referenced as “citizen and host of the Red Lion in Ellerstadt, of the reformed religion.”

In 1765, their child Anna Margaretha was christened with Peter’s brother, Tobias Kohler, citizen and resident of Zeiskem (Zeiskam) and his wife, Anna Margaretha, serving as godparents. Zeiskam is about 33 kilometers away, so not a trivial journey.

Until 1776, Peter was consistently referred to as the Innkeeper at the Lion’s Inn, but in September 1776 when a new daughter was christened, he was referred to as anwalt,” or “lawyer here”, meaning the person who checked the contracts for the village. Probably quite different than a lawyer today, but still a position of responsibility and one that required the trust of the residents. He was 52 years old.

Elisabetha had 11 children between 1763 and January 1784. She died on July 21, 1784, once again leaving Peter, then 60, a widower with young children ranging in age from 6 months to 19 years, plus his children from his first marriage who were all adults by that time.

Three of Peter and Elisabetha’s children had died, including young Johann Martin Koehler on January 22, 1784, just a few months before his mother. I wonder if something like typhoid, flu or maybe dysentery was affecting people in the village during that time.

After Elisabetha’s death, Peter waited nearly a year before remarrying on July 4, 1785 to the widow Anna Margaretha Volker of Assenheim, a neighbor village.

Elke translated the record as:

The 4th of July, Mister Peter Kohler, former mayor and widower and Anna Margarethe nee Volckerin, remaining widow of the former Johannes tock, former citizen and court cognant in Assenheim.

Former mayor suggests that in 1785, Peter was no longer mayor, but that may have changed.

Four years later, in 1789, when his son, Philip Jacob Kohler married, Peter was referenced once again as the village mayor.

Then Peter died, his demise recorded in the church record.

On August 11, 1791, Herr Johann Peter Kohler, village mayor and lowenwirth, Innkeeper at The Lion here, died. Age 67 years, less 1 month 2 weeks and 4 days.

This tells us that Peter was born on September 28, 1724, and that he was still both the mayor and an innkeeper at his death. The title Herr was used as a sign of respect.

Peter’s daughter Anna Elisabetha’s marriage record on August 18, 1801 says:

Anna Elisabetha Kohlerin of Ellerstadt, 21 years old born in Fussgoenheim the ? of Oct residing in Ellerstadt, daughter of the former Peter Koehler, former citizen and mayor in Ellerstadt and his wife anna Elisabetha nee Schererin.

She was born October 3, 1781.

Peter’s daughter’s August 13, 1793 marriage record says:

Philipp Jacob Rhodt, citizen in Freudenheim a widower to Maria Eva Kohlerin unmarried daughter of the former Peter Kohler, former mayor, from here and Anna Elisabetha, nee Scherin, both are no more.

In 1823, Peter’s daughter died, providing a final confirmation:

On the 21st of April 1823 died and on the 23rd was buried, Anna Margaretha Kirsch, widow of the late Andreas Kirsch, aged 49 years 11 months 22 days. Her parents: Peter Kohler from Ellerstadt and Anna Elisabetha Scherr.

The Lion Inn

It has been suggested that perhaps the Lion Inn has something to do with the Hallberg crest or coat of arms. It’s worth noting that the inn in Heuchelheim was also known as “The Lion.”

Von Immanuel Giel – Eigenes Werk, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=48993779

This Hallberg crest is affixed to the pulpit in the Hallberg castle church in neighboring Fussgoenheim, less than 2 miles away. There are two lions on the crest, and one way to obtain the rights to open a local inn would be to sell Hallberg wine and name the establishment after the local noble’s crest animal.

A Confusing DNA Puzzle

Several years ago, my Koehler cousin was gracious enough to take an autosomal and Y DNA test to represent our Koehler line.

The results are very interesting.

The Renner family is also present in this part of Germany, primarily in Mutterstadt, but also found in neighboring Fussgoenheim, Schauernheim, Dannstadt and Assenheim. Perhaps even more interesting is that one Jacob Wilhelm Renner married Peter Koehler’s sister. The couple stood as godparents for one of Peter’s children.

The Renner and Koehler families were both in this part of Germany since before written records. It’s certainly possible that the Renner and Koehler families had a common paternal ancestor, before the advent of surnames. Celts and Germanic tribes settled along the Rhine River in prehistory, and Ceasar crossed the Rhine in 55 and 53 BCE. The Rhine River has always been Europe’s water superhighway, serving as both passageways and boundaries – and always worth fighting for.

In other words, families existed, as did armies, in the Palatinate long before surnames.

My Koehler cousin descends from Peter Koehler and Elisabetha through their son, Philip Jacob Koehler who married Maria Catharina Merck.

Today, my Koehler cousin’s Y DNA matches several Renner and Rennard men. So far, no Koehler surname matches on Y DNA, but, there’s more…

  • Autosomal matching shows a match to another descendant of Johann Peter Koehler and Anna Elisabetha Scherer through Philip Jacob Koehler and Maria Catharina Merck, through their daughter. Therefore, the path back to at least Philip Jacob Koehler seems to be clear and unbroken. If the Y DNA Koehler line of Ellerstadt had been broken between Philip Jacob Koehler and my Koehler cousin, he would NOT match anyone else descended from that couple autosomally, and he does.
  • In other words, if Peter Koehler and Elisabetha Scherer’s son, Philip Jacob Koehler had been their son, but his son was a Renner male, then the Y and autosomal link would both have been broken, so my cousin today could not match a descendant of either Philip Jacob Koehler or Peter Koehler.

There’s additional information to consider.

  • My cousin also matches another Koehler male on the Family Finder test, but that person has not taken the Y DNA test and hasn’t provided genealogical information.
  • Another interesting tidbit – we find another Koehler line autosomal match and a Renner Y DNA match both in Frederick County, Maryland in the 1700s. Is this important? I don’t know.
  • One of the Renner Y DNA test matches shows their ancestor, Johann Peter Renner in Oberschleichach, Hassberge, Bavaria and his father Adam Renner born in 1739 in Neuschleichach, Haßberge, Bavaria, Germany. His father, Johann Adam Renner was born in Oberschleichach in 1689. Given the Y DNA direct connection, this link between Koehler and Renner seems to reach back beyond the birth of Peter Koehler in 1724 in the Palatinate. This connection, 250 kilometers east of Ellerstadt and far from the Palatinate looks like it reaches back to or before the Thirty Years’ War.

I can’t help but think back to the devastation of the Thirty Years War in the early 1600s west of the Rhine in the Palatinate, and how many children were orphaned. Fighting continued throughout the 1600s and the 1700s weren’t exactly stable either. The French Revolution in the 1790s caused massive upheaval as well. Was an orphan child taken in and raised by another family? Did a Renner family take a Koehler child, or vice versa?

I would LOVE to test a Renner male from the Renner line that lived in Mutterstadt or nearby. I descend from Johann Peter Renner (1679-1746) there was well. If you’re a Renner male that fits this description, I have a DNA testing scholarship for you!

Were the paternal ancestors of both of these lines the same man prior to the adoption of surnames? Had their ancestors lived in this region since prehistory? The answer to this question is never going to be found in the records – and only shadows and hints exist in the Y and autosomal DNA of descendants.

Perhaps in time, enough other people will test both Y and autosomal DNA that we can refine our knowledge.

Until then, we can only piece tidbits together about how Johann Peter Koehler was related to the Renner family, and when.

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DNA from 459 Ancient British Isles Burials Reveals Relationships – Does Yours Match?

In December 2021, two major papers were released that focused on the ancient DNA of burials from Great Britain. The paper, A high-resolution picture of kinship practices in an Early Neolithic tomb by Fowler et al provided a genetic analysis of 35 individuals from a Cotswold Neolithic burial who were found to be a multi-generational family unit. In Large-scale migration into Britain during the Middle to Late Bronze Age by Patterson et, the authors generated genome-wide data for 793 ancient burials from the British Isles and continental Europe to determine who settled Great Britain, from where, and when.

Of course, the very first thing genealogists want to know is, “Am I related?”

If we are related, it’s far too distant for the reach of autosomal DNA, but Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA might just be very interesting. If you haven’t yet tested your mother’s line mitochondrial DNA for males and females both, and paternal line Y DNA for males only, you’re in luck because you can purchase those tests here.

These two papers combined provide a significant window into the past in Great Britain; England, Scotland, Wales, and nearby islands.

First, let’s take a look at the Cotswold region.

The Cotswolds

Ancient DNA was retrieved from a cairn burial in the Cotswolds, a hilly region of Southwest England.

By Saffron Blaze – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=15675403

Even today, the paused-in-time stone houses, fences, and ancient gardens harken back to earlier times.

By Peter K Burian – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=70384620

Stunningly beautiful and historically important, the Cotswolds is a protected landscape that includes Neolithic burial chambers (3950-2450 BCE), Bronze and Iron Age forts, Roman villas, and eventually, the Celtic pathway known as Fosse Way.

The Hazelton North Long-Tomb Burial Site

The Fowler paper explores the kinship practices and relationships between the Cotswolds burials.

Click to enlarge images

The North Hazelton site was endangered due to repeated plowing in a farmer’s field. Excavation of the tomb occurred in 1981. A book was published in 1990 with a pdf file available at that link. The photo from 1979 on page 3 shows that the burial cairn only looks to be a slight rise in the field.

You can see on the map below from the UK Megalithic site map that there are many other locations in close proximity to the Hazelton North site, some with similarly arranged burials.

The paper’s authors state that there are 100 long cairns within 50 km of Hazelton North, and one only 80 meters away. Excavation in those tombs, along with archaeological evaluation would be needed to determine the ages of the cairns, if burial practices were the same or similar, and if any of the individuals were related to each other or the individuals in the North Hazelton cairn. In other words, were these separate cemeteries of an extended family, or disconnected burial grounds of different groups of people over time.

While the North Hazelton site no longer exists, as it was entirely excavated, on the same page, you can see photos before excavation, along with the main chamber which now resides in the Corinium Museum in Cirencester, just a few kilometers away.

The Fowler team analyzed 35 individuals who lived about 5,700 years ago, at least 100 years after cattle and cereal cultivation was introduced to Britain along with the construction of megalithic monuments. Stonehenge, the most well-known megalith, is located about 90 miles away and is estimated to be about 5,100 years old. The burials from Stonehenge indicate that they were primarily Early European Farmers (EEF) from Anatolia who first moved to Iberia, then on to Britain.

The remains analyzed in this paper were excavated from the Hazelton North Megalithic long-cairn type tomb.

The tomb was built between 5,695 and 5,650 years ago, with the stonework of the north passage collapsing and sealing off the north chamber between 5,660 and 5,630 years ago. All burials stopped in this location about 5,620 years ago, so the site was only in use for about 80 years.

The tomb seems to have been built with multiple passages in anticipation of planned burials by genealogical association. The arrangement of burials was determined by kinship, at least until the passage wall of the North chamber collapsed. The southern and northern chambers each housed two females’ descendants, respectively. While the male progenitor was significant in that this entire tomb was clearly his family tomb, the arrangement of the burials within the chambers suggests that the women were socially significant in the community, and to their families as well.

Osteological analysis reveals at least 41 individuals, 22 of whom were adults. Strontium isotope analysis indicates that most of the individuals had spent time in their childhood at least 40 km away. Authors of a 2015 paper interpret this to mean that the population as a whole was not sedentary, meaning that they may have moved with their livestock from place to place, perhaps based on seasons. Of course, this also calls into question what happened if an individual died while the group was not in the location of the burial cairn.

Of those individuals, 27 people were part of a 5-generation family with many interrelationships.

Of the 15 intergenerational genetic transmissions, all were through men, meaning every third, fourth or fifth generation individual was connected to the original patriarch through only males, suggesting that patrilineal descent determined who was buried in a Neolithic tomb. This also tells us that patrilineal social practices were persistent.

26 of 35 people with genetic data were male. Male burials in other Cotswold tombs outnumber females 1.6 to 1. The remains of some women must have been treated differently.

No adult lineage daughters were present in the tomb, although two infant daughters were, suggesting that adult daughters were out-married, outside of either the community or this specific family lineage. They would have been buried in their husband’s tomb, just as these women were buried here.

The male progenitor reproduced with 4 females, producing 14 adult sons who were buried in the tomb. All four females were buried in the tomb, in two chambers, suggesting that women, at least high-status women were buried with their partners and not in their father’s tomb.

The lineages of two of those women were buried in the same half of the tomb over all generations, suggesting maternal lineages were socially important.

The burials included four men who did not descend from the male progenitors of the clan lineage but DID descend from women who also had children with the progenitors. The authors state that this suggests that the progenitor men adopted the four children of their mates into their lineage, but it also raises the possibility that the progenitor men were not aware that those four men were not their descendants.

Multiple reproductive partners of men were not related to each other, but multiple reproductive partners of women were.

Eight individuals found within the tomb were not closely related to the main lineages. This could mean that they were partners of men who did not reproduce, or who had only adult daughters. It could also mean they were socially important, but not biologically related to either each other nor the tomb’s family members whose DNA was sampled.

Of those who are related, inbreeding had been avoided meaning the parents of individuals were not related to each other based on runs of homozygosity (ROH).

Some of the remains from the north chamber had been gnawed by scavengers, apparently before burial, and three cremations were buried at the entrance including an infant, a child, and an adult. This might answer the question of what happened if someone died while the group was away from the burial site.

Individuals in the north tomb exhibited osteoarthritis typical of other burials in southern England, and signs of nutritional stress in childhood.

The south chamber burials were more co-mingled and dispersed among neighboring compartments.

In the Guardian article, World’s oldest family tree revealed in 5,700-year-old Cotswolds tomb, a genetic pedigree chart was drawn based on the burials, their relationship to each other, and burial locations.

As discussed in this PNAS paper, Megalithic tombs in western and northern Neolithic Europe were linked to a kindred society, other Neolithic tomb burials in Europe were also reflective of a kinship system.

The question remains, where did the Cotswold settlers come from? Who were they descended from and related to? The second paper provides insights to that question.

Who Migrated into Britain, and When?

Patterson et al tell us that their DNA analysis of 793 individuals increased the data from the Middle (1550-1150 BCE) to Late Bronze (1150-750 BCE) and Iron Age (70-BCE-43CE) in Britain by 12-fold, and from Western and Central Europe by 3.5 times.

They also reveal that present-day people from England and Wales carry more ancestry derived from Early European Farmers than people from the Early Bronze Age.

The DNA contributed from Early European Farmers (EEF) increased over time in people in the southern portion of Britain and Wales, which includes the Cotswold region, but did not increase in northern Britain (Scotland,) nor in Kent. Specifically, from 31% in the Early Bronze Age to 34% in the Middle Bronze Age to 35% in the Late Bronze Age to 38% in the Iron Age.

While the EEF DNA increased over time in the Southwest area of Britain, it decreased in other regions. This means that the increase could not be explained by migration from northern continental Europe in the medieval period because those early migrants carried even less Early European Farmer ancestry than the inhabitants of Southwest Britain. Therefore, if those two populations had admixed, the results would be progressively lower EEF in Southwest Britain, not higher.

To fully evaluate this data, the team sequenced earlier samples from both Britain and mainland Europe in addition to the Cotswold burials, targeting 1.2 million SNP locations.

In addition to DNA sequencing, they also utilized radiocarbon dating to confirm the age of the remains.

Results for low-coverage individuals, meaning those with less than 30,000 SNPs scanned at least once, were removed from the data set.

123 individuals were identified as related to each other from 48 families within the third degree. Third-degree relatives share approximately 12.5% of their DNA and would include first cousins, great-grandparents/children, granduncles/aunts, half uncles/aunts/nieces/nephews.

Lactase persistence, the ability to digest the lactose in milk was significantly higher in this population than in either the rest of Britain or Central and Western Europe by a factor of 5 or greater.

The DNA of the Cotswold burial groups and others found from this early timeframe in Southwest Britain and Wales is most similar to ancient burials from France.

A Eupedia megalithic culture page shows a map of various major megalithic sites in both Europe and the British Isles.

Based on charts in Figure 4 of the paper, the location in Europe with the highest percentage of EEF about 4300 years ago (2300 BCE) was the Iberian Peninsula – Spain and Portugal, a location that neighbors France. Lactase persistence began increasing about that time and dramatically rose about 3500 years ago (1500 BCE.)

Y DNA haplogroup R-L21/M529 went from 0% in the Neolithic era (3950-2450 BCE,) or about 5950-4450 years ago) in Britain to 90% in all of Britain in the Early Bronze Era (2450-1550 BCE or 4450-3550 years ago), then dropped slowly to about 70% in the Iron Age in Western England and Wales, then 50% in western Britain and Wales and 20% in Central and Eastern Britain in the Modern Era.

You can read more about this research in this Phys.org article: Geneticists’ new research on ancient Britain contains insights on language, ancestry, kinship, milk, and more about Megalithic burials in France in this Smithsonian Magazine article: Europe’s Megalithic Monuments Originated in France and Spread by Sea Routes, new Study Suggests.

Are You Connected?

The paper authors made the resequenced Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA information available for analysis.

Of course, we all want to know if we are connected with these people, especially if our families have origins in the British Isles.

The R&D team at FamilyTreeDNA downloaded the Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA sequences and linked them to mapped locations. They also correlated samples to Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and linked them to their respective public trees here and here. The Y DNA sometimes contained additional SNP information which allowed a more granular haplogroup to be assigned.

I want to specifically thank Goran Runfeldt, head of R&D, for making this valuable information available and useful for genealogists by downloading, reformatting, and mapping the data, and Michael Sager, phylogeneticist in the FamilyTreeDNA lab, for reanalyzing the Y DNA results and refining them beyond the papers.

Now, let’s get to the best part.

The Map

This map shows the locations of 459 ancient British Isles burials included in the papers, both in the Cotswolds and throughout the rest of Great Britain.

There are significantly more mitochondrial DNA haplogroups represented than Y DNA. Of course, everyone, males and females both have mitochondrial DNA, so everyone can test, but only males carry Y DNA.

The next map shows the distribution of the base mitochondrial haplogroups.

  • H=light green (181 samples)
  • U=rust (70 samples)
  • K=burgundy (68 samples)
  • J=yellow (46 samples)
  • T=dark green (43 samples)
  • V=grey (16 samples)
  • X=dark teal (9 samples)
  • I=orange (6 samples)
  • W=purple (6 samples)
  • N=brown (2 samples)

The most common mitochondrial haplogroup found is H which is unsurprising given that H is the most common haplogroup in Europe as well.

It’s interesting to note that there is no clear haplogroup distribution pattern for either Y DNA or mitochondrial  DNA, with the exception of the North Hazelton burials themselves as outlined in the paper.

There were only three ancient major Y DNA haplogroups discovered.

  • R=green (179 samples)
  • I=gold (50 samples)
  • G=blue (5 samples)

225 total samples were female and had no Y chromosome. A few male Y chromosomes were not recoverable.

Of course, some samples on the maps fall directly beneath other samples, so it’s difficult to discern multiple samples from the same location.

For that, and for more granular haplogroups, we need to refer to the data itself.

How to Use the Data

Each sample is identified by:

  • A sample ID from the papers
  • Sex
  • Location with a google map link.
  • Age calibrated to BCE, before current era, which means roughly how many years before about the year 1 that someone lived. To determine approximately how long ago one of these people lived, add 2000 to the BCE date. For example, 3500 BCE equates to 5500 years ago.
  • Y DNA haplogroup for male samples where recoverable, linked to FamilyTreeDNA’s public Y DNA haplotree.
  • Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup for all but 2 samples where mitochondrial results were not recoverable, linked to FamilyTreeDNA’s public mitochondrial DNA haplotree.

If you have tested your full sequence mitochondrial DNA, you can use the browser search function (ctrl+F) on a PC to search for your haplogroup. For example. Searching for haplogroup H61 produces 5 results. Click on the sample locations to view where they were found. Are they in close proximity to each other? In the same burial?

Four were found at the same location in the Channel Islands, and one in Kent. Where is your ancestor from?

For Y DNA, you can search for your haplogroup, but if you’ve taken the Big Y test and don’t find your specific haplogroup, you might want to use the Y DNA tree to search for successive upstream haplogroups to see where your closest ancient match might be found. Of course, if you’re haplogroup G, it’s pretty easy to just take a look without searching for each individual haplogroup. Just search for “G-“.

For each sample, be sure to click on the haplogroup name itself to view its location on the tree and where else in the world this haplogroup is found. Let’s look at a couple of examples.

Sample: I26628 (Female)
Location: Channel Islands, Alderney, Longis Common
Age: 756-416 calBCE
mtDNA: H61

Mitochondrial haplogroup H61, above, is fairly rare and currently found sparsely in several countries including England, Germany, Hungary, Belarus, Ireland, Netherlands, the UK, and France. The flags indicate the location of FamilyTreeDNA testers’ earliest known ancestor of their mitochondrial, meaning direct matrilineal, line.

Click on the haplogroup link to view the results in the Y or mtDNA trees.

Next, let’s look at a Y DNA sample.

Sample: I16427 (Male)
Location: Channel Islands, Guernsey, Vale, Le Déhus
Age: 4234-3979 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-M423
mtDNA: X2b-T226C

Haplogroup I-M423 itself is found most frequently in Germany, Poland, Ukraine, Scotland and Ireland, but note that it also has 648 downstream branches defined. You may match I-M423 by virtue of belonging to a downstream branch.

Do you match any of these ancient samples, and where were your ancestors from?

Sample: I26630 (Male)
Location: Channel Islands, Alderney, Longis Common
Age: 749-403 calBCE
mtDNA: H61

Sample: I16430 (Female)
Location: Channel Islands, Alderney, Longis Common
Age: 337-52 calBCE
mtDNA: H61

Sample: I16505 (Female)
Location: Channel Islands, Alderney, Longis Common
Age: 174-45 calBCE
mtDNA: H61

Sample: I26629 (Female)
Location: Channel Islands, Alderney, Longis Common
Age: 170 calBCE – 90 calCE
mtDNA: U5a1b1

Sample: I16437 (Female)
Location: Channel Islands, Guernsey, Vale, Le Déhus
Age: 4241-4050 calBCE
mtDNA: K1b1a1

Sample: I16444 (Male)
Location: Channel Islands, Guernsey, Vale, Le Déhus
Age: 4228-3968 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-FT376000
mtDNA: J1c1b1

Sample: I16429 (Male)
Location: Channel Islands, Guernsey, Vale, Le Déhus
Age: 3088-2914 calBCE
mtDNA: K1

Sample: I16425 (Female)
Location: Channel Islands, Guernsey, Vale, Le Déhus
Age: 3083-2912 calBCE
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I16438 (Male)
Location: Channel Islands, Guernsey, Vale, Le Déhus
Age: 2567-2301 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-L623
mtDNA: J1c8

Sample: I16436 (Male)
Location: Channel Islands, Herm, The Common
Age: 3954-3773 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-CTS7213
mtDNA: HV

Sample: I16435 (Male)
Location: Channel Islands, Herm, The Common
Age: 3646-3527 calBCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I16597 (Male)
Location: England, Bedfordshire, Broom Quarry
Age: 404-209 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF49
mtDNA: H1-C16355T

Sample: I21293 (Female)
Location: England, Bedfordshire, Broom Quarry
Age: 425-200 BCE
mtDNA: J1c1b

Sample: I11151 (Male)
Location: England, Bedfordshire, Broom Quarry
Age: 379-197 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FT44983
mtDNA: K1a-T195C!

Sample: I11150 (Male)
Location: England, Bedfordshire, Broom Quarry
Age: 381-197 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FT335377
mtDNA: H15a1

Sample: I19047 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Babraham Research Campus (ARC05), ARES site
Age: 1-50 CE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: H2a

Sample: I19045 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Marshall’s Jaguar Land Rover New Showroom (JLU15)
Age: 388-206 calBCE
Y-DNA: G-S23438
mtDNA: U4a2

Sample: I19046 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Marshall’s Jaguar Land Rover New Showroom (JLU15)
Age: 383-197 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H1t

Sample: I19044 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Marshall’s Jaguar Land Rover New Showroom (JLU15)
Age: 381-199 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FT50512
mtDNA: K1a-T195C!

Sample: I11152 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Over
Age: 355-59 calBCE
Y-DNA: G-Z16775
mtDNA: U3a1

Sample: I11149 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Teversham (Marshall’s) Evaluation
Age: 733-397 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z156
mtDNA: V

Sample: I11154 (Female)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Trumpington Meadows
Age: 743-404 calBCE
mtDNA: H5a1

Sample: I13729 (Female)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Trumpington Meadows
Age: 512-236 calBCE
mtDNA: H1ag1

Sample: I11153 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Trumpington Meadows
Age: 405-209 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FGC33066
mtDNA: H3b

Sample: I13727 (Female)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Trumpington Meadows
Age: 389-208 calBCE
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I13728 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Trumpington Meadows
Age: 381-179 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: T2a1a

Sample: I13687 (Female)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Trumpington Meadows
Age: 368-173 calBCE
mtDNA: W1c

Sample: I11156 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Whittlesey, Bradley Fen
Age: 382-200 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-CTS8704
mtDNA: J1c3

Sample: I11997 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Whittlesey, Bradley Fen
Age: 377-197 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FGC36434
mtDNA: X2b-T226C

Sample: I16620 (Female)
Location: England, Co. Durham, Hartlepool, Catcote
Age: 340 BCE – 6 CE
mtDNA: H1bs

Sample: I12790 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Tregunnel
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: I12793 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Tregunnel
Age: 400-100 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: I12792 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Tregunnel
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: I16387 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Trethellan Farm
Age: 300 BCE – 100 CE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: N/A

Sample: I16456 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Trethellan Farm
Age: 300 BCE – 100 CE
mtDNA: T1a1’3

Sample: I16455 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Trethellan Farm
Age: 300 BCE – 100 CE
Y-DNA: R-Z290
mtDNA: T1

Sample: I16386 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Trethellan Farm
Age: 300 BCE – 100 CE
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I16458 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Trethellan Farm
Age: 300 BCE – 100 CE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: T2c1d-T152C!

Sample: I16457 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Trethellan Farm
Age: 300 BCE – 100 CE
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I16450 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Trethellan Farm
Age: 300 BCE – 100 CE
Y-DNA: R-FT32396
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I16424 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 2285-2036 calBCE
mtDNA: R1b

Sample: I6769 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 754-416 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY168376
mtDNA: H6a1b2

Sample: I16380 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 800 BCE – 43 CE
Y-DNA: R-ZP298
mtDNA: U4b1a1a1

Sample: I16388 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 800 BCE – 43 CE
mtDNA: J1c1

Sample: I16440 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 800 BCE – 43 CE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: T2c1d-T152C!

Sample: I16441 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 800 BCE – 43 CE
mtDNA: J1c2e

Sample: I16442 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 800 BCE – 43 CE
mtDNA: U4b1a1a1

Sample: I16439 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 800 BCE – 43 CE
mtDNA: T2c1d-T152C!

Sample: I12772 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 800 BCE – 43 CE
Y-DNA: G-CTS2230
mtDNA: T2c1d-T152C!

Sample: I16453 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, St. Mawes, Tregear Vean
Age: 800-1 BCE
Y-DNA: I-M253
mtDNA: U5a2a1

Sample: I16454 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, St. Merryn, Constantine Island
Age: 1381-1056 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z290
mtDNA: U5b2b2

Sample: I20997 (Male)
Location: England, Cumbria, Ulverston, Birkrigg Common
Age: 2450-1800 BCE
Y-DNA: R-A286
mtDNA: X2b4a

Sample: I12776 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Brassington, Carsington Pasture Cave
Age: 1918-1750 calBCE
mtDNA: U4a2c

Sample: I12774 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Brassington, Carsington Pasture Cave
Age: 758-416 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H10b

Sample: I12771 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Brassington, Carsington Pasture Cave
Age: 513-210 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FT5780
mtDNA: U5b2a2a

Sample: I12778 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Brassington, Carsington Pasture Cave
Age: 381-203 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF5
mtDNA: H4a1a2

Sample: I3014 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Brassington, Carsington Pasture Cave
Age: 377-177 calBCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I12775 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Brassington, Carsington Pasture Cave
Age: 361-177 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY9405
mtDNA: U5a1b1e

Sample: I12770 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Brassington, Carsington Pasture Cave
Age: 390-171 calBCE
mtDNA: H3b1b1

Sample: I12779 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Brassington, Carsington Pasture Cave
Age: 370-197 calBCE
mtDNA: T2b4c

Sample: I20620 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 382-204 calBCE
mtDNA: T2a1b1

Sample: I20627 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 376-203 calBCE
mtDNA: V2b

Sample: I20623 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 400-150 BCE
mtDNA: V2b

Sample: I20624 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 356-108 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: U2e1a1

Sample: I20622 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 357-60 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3713
mtDNA: T2c1d1

Sample: I20634 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: K2b1a1a

Sample: I20630 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H1au1b

Sample: I20632 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: V2b

Sample: I20621 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: T2c1d1

Sample: I20631 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: V2b

Sample: I20628 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 351-52 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: I2a

Sample: I20626 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 346-53 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-P222
mtDNA: H7b

Sample: I20625 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 343-49 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I27382 (Male)
Location: England, Dorset, Long Bredy, Bottle Knap
Age: 774-540 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY116228
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I27383 (Female)
Location: England, Dorset, Long Bredy, Bottle Knap
Age: 750-411 calBCE
mtDNA: U4c1

Sample: I27381 (Female)
Location: England, Dorset, Long Bredy, Bottle Knap
Age: 748-406 calBCE
mtDNA: U4c1

Sample: I20615 (Female)
Location: England, Dorset, Worth Matravers, Football Field
Age: 100 BCE – 50 CE
mtDNA: H1i

Sample: I22065 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Burstwick
Age: 351-55 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H

Sample: I22052 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, East Coast Pipeline (field 16)
Age: 344-52 calBCE
mtDNA: U2e2a1a

Sample: I22060 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, East Coast Pipeline (field 9)
Age: 343-1 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY154824
mtDNA: H4a1a3a

Sample: I0527 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, East Riding, North Ferriby, Melton Quarry
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: U2e1

Sample: I0525 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Melton
Age: 100 BCE – 50 CE
mtDNA: U2e1e

Sample: I7629 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, North Ferriby, Melton Quarry
Age: 1201-933 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H17

Sample: I5503 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Nunburnholme Wold
Age: 334-42 calBCE
mtDNA: U5b1c2

Sample: I5502 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Nunburnholme Wold
Age: 196-4 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FT96564
mtDNA: H3

Sample: I11033 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 717-395 calBCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I14100 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 409-229 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: J1c9

Sample: I12412 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 387-205 calBCE
mtDNA: K1c1a

Sample: I5507 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 387-206 calBCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I5506 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 358-111 calBCE
mtDNA: K1c1a

Sample: I5504 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I5505 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: V16

Sample: I14103 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H53

Sample: I5510 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: K1c1a

Sample: I13755 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I5509 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-PH4760
mtDNA: K1c1a

Sample: I13758 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L2
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I14107 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-CTS6919
mtDNA: K1c1a

Sample: I13760 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I13751 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I13754 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: U5b2b3

Sample: I13757 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: T2c1d1a

Sample: I13756 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: K1c1a

Sample: I13753 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-Z251
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I14099 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I14101 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I14105 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I14102 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-FT84170
mtDNA: K1c1a

Sample: I14108 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: V2a

Sample: I14104 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H

Sample: I13759 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-BY3865
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I11034 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I12411 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I12415 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: J1c9

Sample: I12413 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-BY50764
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I12414 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I5508 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-BY11863
mtDNA: J1c9

Sample: I5511 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF63
mtDNA: J1c9

Sample: I13752 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 346-53 calBCE
mtDNA: J1c9

Sample: I14106 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 176 calBCE – 6 calCE
mtDNA: K1c1a

Sample: I18606 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, East Coast Pipeline (field 10)
Age: 1919-1742 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: K1b1a1

Sample: I19220 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, East Coast Pipeline (field 10)
Age: 1894-1695 calBCE
mtDNA: H3g1

Sample: I14326 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, East Coast Pipeline (field 13)
Age: 3074-2892 calBCE
mtDNA: H1c

Sample: I22056 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, East Coast Pipeline (field 16)
Age: 391-201 calBCE
mtDNA: H4a1a3a

Sample: I22055 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, East Coast Pipeline (field 16)
Age: 391-201 calBCE
mtDNA: K1b1a1c1

Sample: I14327 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, East Coast Pipeline (field 16)
Age: 340-47 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY41416
mtDNA: H5

Sample: I22064 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, East Coast Pipeline (field 16)
Age: 105 calBCE – 64 calCE
mtDNA: H4a1a3a

Sample: I22057 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, East Coast Pipeline (field 16)
Age: 104 calBCE – 65 calCE
mtDNA: H2a1k

Sample: I22062 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, Town Pasture
Age: 50 calBCE – 116 calCE
Y-DNA: R-BY23382
mtDNA: K1a-T195C!

Sample: I12931 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Bishop’s Cleeve, Cleevelands
Age: 50-200 CE
Y-DNA: I-L160
mtDNA: H6a2

Sample: I12927 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Bishop’s Cleeve, Cleevelands
Age: 50-200 CE
Y-DNA: R-PR1289
mtDNA: U5b3b1

Sample: I12932 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Bishop’s Cleeve, Cleevelands
Age: 50-200 CE
mtDNA: H1bs

Sample: I12791 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Bourton-on-the-water, Greystones Farm
Age: 200-1 BCE
Y-DNA: I-BY17900
mtDNA: H1e1a

Sample: I12785 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Bourton-on-the-water, Greystones Farm
Age: 200-1 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF21
mtDNA: J1c1b2

Sample: I12926 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Fairford, Saxon Way
Age: 400-100 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H2a2a2

Sample: I21392 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: 3710–3630 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-M284
mtDNA: J2b1a

Sample: I12439 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: K1b1a

Sample: I30304 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-L1195
mtDNA: K1b1a

Sample: I13888 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: N/A
mtDNA: K1b1a

Sample: I21388 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: U8b1b

Sample: I13892 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: 3910–3630 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: T2e1

Sample: I30334 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: N/A
mtDNA: K1a3a1

Sample: I21390 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: 3950–3630 calBCE
mtDNA: U8b1b

Sample: I30300 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: N1b1b

Sample: I13899 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3712
mtDNA: U3a1

Sample: I13893 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North entrance
Age: 3650–3380 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: K1a4

Sample: I13897 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North entrance
Age: 3500–3340 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3712
mtDNA: V

Sample: I13898 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North entrance
Age: 3700–3530 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: K1a3a1

Sample: I12437 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North entrance
Age: 3790–3510 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: K1a3a1

Sample: I21389 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber
Age: 3720-3520 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I30311 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: U5b1-T16189C!-T16192C!

Sample: I21387 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber
Age: N/A
mtDNA: K1d

Sample: I12440 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: K2b1

Sample: I30302 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber
Age: N/A
mtDNA: K2b1

Sample: I13889 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber
Age: N/A
mtDNA: K1b1a1d

Sample: I13896 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber
Age: N/A
mtDNA: J1c1b1

Sample: I21395 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber, south entrance
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: J1c1b1

Sample: I13891 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber, south passage
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: U5b1-T16189C!-T16192C!

Sample: I12438 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber, south passage
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-L1195
mtDNA: W5

Sample: I30293 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South entrance
Age: N/A
mtDNA: U5b1-T16189C!

Sample: I30332 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South entrance
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-CTS616
mtDNA: N/A

Sample: I21385 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South entrance
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-FT344600
mtDNA: K1d

Sample: I13895 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South entrance
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: U8b1b

Sample: I30301 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South entrance
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3712
mtDNA: U5a2d

Sample: I20818 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South entrance, south passage
Age: 3970–3640 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3712
mtDNA: J1c1

Sample: I13890 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South passage
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-L1193
mtDNA: T2e1

Sample: I21393 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South passage
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-L1195
mtDNA: K1b1a

Sample: I20821 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South passage
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: H5

Sample: I30299 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South passage
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: K2b1

Sample: I21391 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, Uncertain
Age: N/A
mtDNA: K1b1a1

Sample: I12786 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Lechlade-on-Thames, Lechlade Memorial Hall/Skate Park
Age: 2289-2052 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: J1c2

Sample: I12935 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Lechlade-on-Thames, Lechlade Memorial Hall/Skate Park
Age: 2200-1900 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF21
mtDNA: H1ah2

Sample: I12783 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Lechlade-on-Thames, Lechlade Memorial Hall/Skate Park
Age: 783-541 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF21
mtDNA: J1c5

Sample: I12787 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Lechlade-on-Thames, Lechlade Memorial Hall/Skate Park
Age: 539-387 calBCE
mtDNA: H2a2a1

Sample: I13717 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Barton-Stacey Pipeline
Age: 398-208 calBCE
mtDNA: U5a1a1

Sample: I16611 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 401-208 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z16539
mtDNA: H1c

Sample: I17261 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 372-175 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF63
mtDNA: R0a

Sample: I20987 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 450-1 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF63
mtDNA: U5b2b3

Sample: I20985 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 450-1 BCE
mtDNA: U4a3a

Sample: I17262 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 357-57 calBCE
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: I20983 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 450-1 BCE
mtDNA: H3b-G16129A!

Sample: I20986 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 450-1 BCE
mtDNA: HV0-T195C!

Sample: I20982 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 450-1 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L20
mtDNA: J1c3

Sample: I20984 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 450-1 BCE
mtDNA: H1j6

Sample: I16609 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 341-46 calBCE
mtDNA: J1c2e

Sample: I16612 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 658-397 calBCE
mtDNA: H3

Sample: I17267 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 450-100 BCE
mtDNA: V

Sample: I20988 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 450-100 BCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3713
mtDNA: T2b19

Sample: I17264 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 450-100 BCE
Y-DNA: R-BY4297
mtDNA: U2e1f1

Sample: I20990 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 362-171 calBCE
mtDNA: J1c1b1a

Sample: I17266 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 355-60 calBCE
mtDNA: U5b1b1-T16192C!

Sample: I20989 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 354-59 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: K1c1

Sample: I16613 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 351-54 calBCE
mtDNA: J1b1a1

Sample: I17263 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 346-52 calBCE
mtDNA: J1c1c

Sample: I17260 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Stockbridge, New Buildings
Age: 800-400 BCE
Y-DNA: R-S1051
mtDNA: U5a1a2a

Sample: I17259 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Stockbridge, New Buildings
Age: 725-400 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-S16030
mtDNA: H5a1

Sample: I17258 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Stockbridge, New Buildings
Age: 542-396 calBCE
mtDNA: K1a2

Sample: I19042 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Winnall Down
Age: 715-48 calBCE
mtDNA: T2b33

Sample: I19043 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Winnall Down
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: J1c1

Sample: I19037 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Winnall Down
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: J1b1a1b

Sample: I19040 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Winnall Down
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: H1m

Sample: I14742 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 1011-860 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H1-T16189C!

Sample: I14377 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 1014-836 calBCE
mtDNA: U5b1b1d

Sample: I14864 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 983-816 calBCE
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: I14862 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 982-812 calBCE
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I14865 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 967-811 calBCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I14861 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 912-808 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FGC23071
mtDNA: V

Sample: I14358 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 912-807 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H3

Sample: I14379 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 903-807 calBCE
mtDNA: T2c1d-T152C!

Sample: I14745 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 900-798 calBCE
mtDNA: X2b

Sample: I14743 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 779-524 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L151
mtDNA: I4a

Sample: I14381 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 727-400 calBCE
mtDNA: U5b2b1a1

Sample: I14857 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 719-384 calBCE
mtDNA: H3an

Sample: I14747 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 514-391 calBCE
mtDNA: H3

Sample: I14378 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 400-208 calBCE
mtDNA: I2

Sample: I14858 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 396-207 calBCE
mtDNA: J1c1

Sample: I14380 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 387-203 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FTB53005
mtDNA: T2e1

Sample: I14860 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 386-198 calBCE
mtDNA: X2b-T226C

Sample: I14859 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 377-203 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H7d3

Sample: I14866 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 372-197 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-BY152642
mtDNA: H1at1

Sample: I14863 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 360-201 calBCE
mtDNA: U5b1b1-T16192C!

Sample: I13714 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 1533-1417 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-CTS6919
mtDNA: H1c8

Sample: I19915 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 1519-1422 calBCE
mtDNA: K1c1

Sample: I19913 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 1408-1226 calBCE
mtDNA: J1c2e

Sample: I13710 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 1411-1203 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF63
mtDNA: I4a

Sample: I13711 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 1048-920 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY28644
mtDNA: H61

Sample: I13712 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 1011-916 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: U5b2b3a

Sample: I13713 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 1055-837 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H1c

Sample: I19872 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 403-209 calBCE
mtDNA: H13a1a1

Sample: I13732 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 401-208 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-A7835
mtDNA: U5b2c1

Sample: I19873 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-BY3616
mtDNA: U5b2b

Sample: I13615 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H1c

Sample: I19907 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 400-200 BCE
mtDNA: U2e1a1

Sample: I19910 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 400-200 BCE
mtDNA: U4a2

Sample: I19911 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I19874 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 400-200 BCE
mtDNA: H1ax

Sample: I19908 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 400-200 BCE
mtDNA: K2b1a

Sample: I13731 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 393-206 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: U5a1a1g

Sample: I13730 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 390-202 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-S5668
mtDNA: H1bb

Sample: I19914 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 387-200 calBCE
mtDNA: H3g1

Sample: I19909 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 381-197 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY9003
mtDNA: T1a1-C152T!!

Sample: I19912 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 368-173 calBCE
mtDNA: H1bs

Sample: I13616 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 356-49 calBCE
mtDNA: H1b1-T16362C

Sample: I19870 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 200-1 BCE
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I19869 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 175 calBCE – 8 calCE
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I1774 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, Isle of Sheppey, Neats Court
Age: 1879-1627 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: U4b1a2

Sample: I13716 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Margetts Pit
Age: 1391-1129 calBCE
mtDNA: H11a

Sample: I13617 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Margetts Pit
Age: 1214-1052 calBCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I18599 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Sittingbourne, Highsted
Age: 43 calBCE – 110 calCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I3083 (Male)
Location: England, London, River Thames, Putney Foreshore
Age: 387-201 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: R

Sample: I16463 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Cockerham, Elbolton Cave
Age: 4000-3500 BCE
Y-DNA: I-L1195
mtDNA: H4a1a2

Sample: I16403 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Cockerham, Elbolton Cave
Age: 1600-1350 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: K2a

Sample: I16394 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Grassington, 3 Barrow Sites
Age: 2400-1600 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P297
mtDNA: K1c1

Sample: I16395 (Female)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Grassington, 3 Barrow Sites
Age: 2400-1600 BCE
mtDNA: U5b1

Sample: I16396 (Female)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Grassington, 3 Barrow Sites
Age: 2400-1600 BCE
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I16400 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Grassington, 3 Barrow Sites
Age: 2400-1500 BCE
Y-DNA: R-Z290
mtDNA: U3a1

Sample: I3035 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Ingleborough Hill, Fox Holes Cave
Age: 4000-3500 BCE
Y-DNA: R-A7208
mtDNA: H5a1

Sample: I12936 (Female)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Raven Scar Cave
Age: 1090-900 BCE
mtDNA: J1c5f

Sample: I16469 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Raven Scar Cave
Age: 1090-900 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H3-T152C!

Sample: I16467 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Raven Scar Cave
Age: 1090-900 BCE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: U5a1g1

Sample: I16459 (Unknown sex)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Raven Scar Cave
Age: 1090-900 BCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I19587 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Scorton Quarry
Age: 195 calBCE – 7 calCE
Y-DNA: G-L140
mtDNA: K2a

Sample: I14097 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Scorton Quarry
Age: 162 calBCE – 26 calCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: H66a1

Sample: I14096 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Scorton Quarry
Age: 101 calBCE – 59 calCE
Y-DNA: R-FTA11009
mtDNA: H4a1a2a

Sample: I20583 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 387-201 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY175423
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I20582 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 368-165 calBCE
mtDNA: H10

Sample: I21272 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 400-100 BCE
Y-DNA: R-S5488
mtDNA: V

Sample: I21276 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I21277 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 400-100 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I21274 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I21275 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I21271 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: W1c

Sample: I20584 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 355-54 calBCE
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I14808 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 401-209 calBCE
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I14802 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 393-206 calBCE
mtDNA: X2d

Sample: I14807 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 391-204 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF49
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I14804 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 387-201 calBCE
mtDNA: H1o

Sample: I14806 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 386-198 calBCE
mtDNA: H1bb

Sample: I14800 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 382-197 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z253
mtDNA: J2b1

Sample: I14803 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 370-175 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: I14801 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 362-163 calBCE
mtDNA: X2b-T226C

Sample: I14809 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 358-108 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: V7

Sample: I2446 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 2454-2139 calBCE
mtDNA: K1b1a1

Sample: I2448 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 1500-1000 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF63
mtDNA: U8a2

Sample: I20585 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 800-400 BCE
mtDNA: K1c1

Sample: I21180 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 396-209 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H7a1

Sample: I19209 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 400-200 BCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I19211 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I20589 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-Z52
mtDNA: V

Sample: I20586 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: J2b1a

Sample: I21178 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 400-200 BCE
mtDNA: T2b3-C151T

Sample: I21182 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-BY15941
mtDNA: J1c2

Sample: I21181 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H3

Sample: I20587 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 389-208 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF63
mtDNA: K1a2a

Sample: I19207 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 382-205 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: H

Sample: I21179 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 381-201 calBCE
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: I20588 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 366-197 calBCE
Y-DNA: G-BY27899
mtDNA: V

Sample: I19210 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 355-118 calBCE
mtDNA: H1cg

Sample: I3019 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Cheddar, Totty Pot
Age: 4000-2400 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: H4a1a-T195C!

Sample: I16591 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 408-232 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z290
mtDNA: H13a1a1

Sample: I11148 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 407-211 calBCE
mtDNA: U6d1

Sample: I13685 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 400-208 calBCE
mtDNA: U5a1b1e

Sample: I11147 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 392-204 calBCE
mtDNA: U5a1b1e

Sample: I16592 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 387-199 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FGC19329
mtDNA: U5a1b1e

Sample: I17014 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 381-179 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF63
mtDNA: U5b1b1d

Sample: I17015 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 380-197 calBCE
mtDNA: H2a2a1

Sample: I17016 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 377-178 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY3231
mtDNA: U2e1a1

Sample: I17017 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 196 calBCE – 5 calCE
mtDNA: U5b1-T16189C!

Sample: I19653 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L151
mtDNA: H1n6

Sample: I19856 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 400-200 BCE
mtDNA: R2’JT

Sample: I19654 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 400-200 BCE
mtDNA: H1c3a

Sample: I19652 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 395-205 calBCE
mtDNA: J1c2a2

Sample: I19656 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 387-198 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H5’36

Sample: I16593 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 382-197 calBCE
mtDNA: H7b

Sample: I13680 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 366-176 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: U5a2a1

Sample: I19655 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: H1c3a

Sample: I19855 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 400-100 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H1ak1

Sample: I19854 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: J1c2a2

Sample: I11993 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: J1c2a2

Sample: I11994 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: U5a2c3a

Sample: I19657 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 356-59 calBCE
mtDNA: H5s

Sample: I21315 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 173 calBCE – 5 calCE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: T1a1’3

Sample: I13684 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Meare Lake Village West
Age: 541-391 calBCE
mtDNA: W1-T119C

Sample: I11146 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Meare Lake Village West
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: J1c1c

Sample: I13682 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Mells Down, Kingsdown Camp
Age: 793-544 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY168376
mtDNA: H5a1

Sample: I6748 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Mendip, Hay Wood Cave
Age: 3956-3769 calBCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I11145 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, North Perrott, North Perrott Manor
Age: 166 calBCE – 14 calCE
Y-DNA: R-Z251
mtDNA: H1q

Sample: I11144 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, North Perrott, North Perrott Manor
Age: 149 calBCE – 65 calCE
Y-DNA: R-A9857
mtDNA: H5’36

Sample: I5365 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Priddy
Age: 103 calBCE – 107 calCE
mtDNA: U5a1b1e

Sample: I11995 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, South Cadbury, Cadbury Castle
Age: 742-399 calBCE
mtDNA: H2a5

Sample: I21303 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, South Cadbury, Cadbury Castle
Age: 153 calBCE – 25 calCE
mtDNA: H2a5

Sample: I21302 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, South Cadbury, Cadbury Castle
Age: 46 calBCE – 117 calCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: K1a-T195C!

Sample: I6776 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Storgoursey, Wick Barrow
Age: 2400-2000 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: R

Sample: I21306 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Tickenham, Diamond Cottage
Age: 2200-1400 BCE
Y-DNA: R-BY31082
mtDNA: H1an1

Sample: I21305 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Weston-super-Mare, Grove Park Road
Age: 800 BCE – 100 CE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I16596 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Worlebury
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H3b-G16129A!

Sample: I13681 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Worlebury
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H3b-G16129A!

Sample: I11143 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Worlebury
Age: 352-53 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FT5780
mtDNA: H3b-G16129A!

Sample: I13726 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Worlebury
Age: 351-52 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY23964
mtDNA: H13a1a1

Sample: I11991 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Worlebury
Age: 349-50 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H3b-G16129A!

Sample: I11992 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Worlebury
Age: 343-50 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H3b-G16129A!

Sample: I11142 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Worlebury
Age: 197-44 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-PR1289
mtDNA: H3b-G16129A!

Sample: I16619 (Male)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Bevendean
Age: 361-106 calBCE
mtDNA: H49

Sample: I16617 (Female)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Black Rock
Age: 777-516 calBCE
mtDNA: H4a1a1a

Sample: I16615 (Female)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Coldean Lane, Varley Hall
Age: 1259-912 calBCE
mtDNA: K1c1

Sample: I14543 (Female)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Ditchling Road
Age: 2450-1600 BCE
mtDNA: K1a4a1g

Sample: I16616 (Female)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Mile Oak
Age: 1410-1227 calBCE
mtDNA: H13a1a1

Sample: I14552 (Male)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Moulsecoomb
Age: 92 calBCE – 110 calCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: J1c2

Sample: I14553 (Male)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Roedean Crescent
Age: 1954-1749 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-S15808
mtDNA: H5c

Sample: I14551 (Female)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Slonk Hill
Age: 514-234 calBCE
mtDNA: H6a1a

Sample: I7632 (Male)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Slonk Hill
Age: 391-203 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-CTS4528
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I14550 (Female)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Slonk Hill
Age: 700 BCE – 900 CE
mtDNA: H3-T152C!

Sample: I16618 (Female)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Surrendon Road
Age: 787-544 calBCE
mtDNA: K1a4

Sample: I14549 (Female)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Woodingdean
Age: 401-208 calBCE
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I27379 (Male)
Location: England, Sussex, North Bersted
Age: 174-51 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FGC56332
mtDNA: H7d

Sample: I27380 (Male)
Location: England, Sussex, Westbourne, ‘Racton Man’
Age: 2453-2146 cal BCE
Y-DNA: R-Z290
mtDNA: H3k1

Sample: I2611 (Male)
Location: England, Tyne and Wear, Blaydon, Summerhill
Age: 3092-2905 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: U5a2d1

Sample: I14837 (Female)
Location: England, West Yorkshire, Dalton Parlours
Age: 381 calBCE – 6 calCE
mtDNA: K1a4a1c

Sample: I14347 (Male)
Location: England, West Yorkshire, Wattle Syke
Age: 371-176 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF23
mtDNA: K2a

Sample: I14348 (Female)
Location: England, West Yorkshire, Wattle Syke
Age: 368-173 calBCE
mtDNA: U3a1c

Sample: I14353 (Male)
Location: England, West Yorkshire, Wattle Syke
Age: 349-51 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: U5b2a1a1

Sample: I14352 (Female)
Location: England, West Yorkshire, Wattle Syke
Age: 193-6 calBCE
mtDNA: K2a

Sample: I14351 (Female)
Location: England, West Yorkshire, Wattle Syke
Age: 193-6 calBCE
mtDNA: K2a

Sample: I14359 (Male)
Location: England, West Yorkshire, Wattle Syke
Age: 200 BCE – 100 CE
mtDNA: J1c1

Sample: I14360 (Female)
Location: England, West Yorkshire, Wattle Syke
Age: 151 calBCE – 62 calCE
mtDNA: J1c1

Sample: I14200 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 2470-2239 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L151
mtDNA: K1b1a

Sample: I2565 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 2456-2146 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: W1-T119C

Sample: I2419 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 2393-2144 calBCE
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I2598 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 2139-1950 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: H

Sample: I19287 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 761-422 calBCE
mtDNA: K1b1a

Sample: I16602 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 734-403 calBCE
mtDNA: H1aq

Sample: I16600 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 713-381 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: T2b1

Sample: I16599 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 411-208 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: T2b1

Sample: I16601 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 343-43 calBCE
mtDNA: H17

Sample: I21309 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Battlesbury Bowl
Age: 354-57 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FGC33840
mtDNA: X2b-T226C

Sample: I21307 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Battlesbury Bowl
Age: 346-52 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: H7d

Sample: I21310 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Battlesbury Bowl
Age: 386 calBCE – 58 calCE
mtDNA: U4c1

Sample: I21311 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Battlesbury Bowl
Age: 336-49 calBCE
mtDNA: H16-T152C!

Sample: I21308 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Battlesbury Bowl
Age: 356 calBCE – 110 calCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: J1c1b

Sample: I21313 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Casterley Camp
Age: 354-57 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H3g

Sample: I21312 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Casterley Camp
Age: 343-51 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY129194
mtDNA: J1b1a1

Sample: I21314 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Casterley Camp
Age: 342-51 calBCE
mtDNA: V23

Sample: I16595 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Longbridge Deverill, Cow Down
Age: 387-204 calBCE
mtDNA: T2b9

Sample: I12608 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Potterne, Blackberry Field
Age: 1055-904 calBCE
mtDNA: H3ap

Sample: I12614 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Potterne, Blackberry Field
Age: 1100-800 BCE
mtDNA: K1a1b1

Sample: I12612 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Potterne, Blackberry Field
Age: 1100-800 BCE
mtDNA: U1a1a

Sample: I12611 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Potterne, Blackberry Field
Age: 1100-800 BCE
mtDNA: I2

Sample: I12613 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Potterne, Blackberry Field
Age: 1100-800 BCE
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I12624 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Potterne, Blackberry Field
Age: 900-800 BCE
mtDNA: H3

Sample: I12610 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Potterne, Blackberry Field
Age: 765-489 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: J1c1

Sample: I19858 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 1532-1431 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z290
mtDNA: J2b1a

Sample: I19857 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 1518-1425 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L617
mtDNA: J2b1a

Sample: I19859 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 1504-1403 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-S2497
mtDNA: H3

Sample: I19860 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 1503-1401 calBCE
mtDNA: T2b21

Sample: I19867 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 780-541 calBCE
mtDNA: H3-T16311C!

Sample: I19861 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 779-541 calBCE
mtDNA: U2e2a1c

Sample: I13688 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 775-516 calBCE
mtDNA: H1-C16239T

Sample: I19868 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 771-476 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: T2e1a

Sample: I19862 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 767-423 calBCE
mtDNA: H5a1f

Sample: I13689 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 753-411 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY4297
mtDNA: K1a3a

Sample: I13690 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 750-408 calBCE
mtDNA: H1b3

Sample: I19863 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 460-382 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: N1a1a1a2

Sample: I4949 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Winterbourne Monkton, North Millbarrow
Age: 3624-3376 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-M284
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: I8582 (Female)
Location: Isle of Man, Rushen, Strandhall
Age: 2195-1973 calBCE
mtDNA: H2a1e1

Sample: I12312 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Argyll and Bute, Isle of Ulva, Ulva Cave
Age: 3751-3636 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-P214
mtDNA: K1a-T195C!

Sample: I12314 (Female)
Location: Scotland, Argyll and Bute, Oban, Carding Mill Bay II
Age: 3647-3533 calBCE
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: I12313 (Female)
Location: Scotland, Argyll and Bute, Oban, Carding Mill Bay II
Age: 3700-3350 BCE
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: I12317 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Argyll and Bute, Oban, Carding Mill Bay II
Age: 3629-3377 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-A8742
mtDNA: H5

Sample: I2658 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Argyll and Bute, Oban, Macarthur Cave
Age: 4000-3700 BCE
mtDNA: W1-T119C

Sample: I3137 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Argyll and Bute, Oban, Raschoille Cave
Age: 3800-3000 BCE
Y-DNA: I-S2599
mtDNA: HV0-T195C!

Sample: I3139 (Female)
Location: Scotland, Argyll and Bute, Oban, Raschoille Cave
Age: 3800-3000 BCE
mtDNA: H45

Sample: I16498 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 750-404 calBCE
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: I2692 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 727-396 calBCE
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: I16422 (Male)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 364-121 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L151
mtDNA: H3-T152C!

Sample: I2695 (Male)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 364-121 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: I2694 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 361-110 calBCE
mtDNA: H1ak1

Sample: I2696 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 355-55 calBCE
mtDNA: U5a2b4a

Sample: I16503 (Male)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 349-51 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z30597
mtDNA: H1ak1

Sample: I16416 (Male)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 346-51 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z30597
mtDNA: H3-T152C!

Sample: I2693 (Male)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 197 calBCE – 1 calCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: H3-T152C!

Sample: I16504 (Male)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 42 calBCE – 116 calCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H1as

Sample: I16448 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Innerwick, Thurston Mains
Age: 2337-2138 calBCE
mtDNA: K1b1a1

Sample: I5471 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Innerwick, Thurston Mains
Age: 2269-1985 calBCE
mtDNA: H1c3a

Sample: I2413 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Innerwick, Thurston Mains
Age: 2114-1900 calBCE
mtDNA: H1a1

Sample: I16499 (Male)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, North Berwick, Law Road
Age: 337-43 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-ZP18
mtDNA: I2a

Sample: I16495 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, North Berwick, Law Road
Age: 196 calBCE – 3 calCE
mtDNA: H6a1a8

Sample: I16418 (Male)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, North Berwick, Law Road
Age: 97 calBCE – 107 calCE
Y-DNA: I-L1195
mtDNA: U5a1d2a

Sample: I16413 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, North Berwick, Law Road
Age: 44 calBCE – 117 calCE
mtDNA: H6a1a8

Sample: I2569 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Eweford Cottages
Age: 2140-1901 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: K1a3a

Sample: I3567 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Highland, Applecross
Age: 173 calBCE – 8 calCE
Y-DNA: R-FT221759
mtDNA: J1c3b

Sample: I3566 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Highland, Applecross
Age: 170 calBCE – 10 calCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H13a1a

Sample: I3568 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Highland, Applecross
Age: 42 calBCE – 119 calCE
Y-DNA: R-A277
mtDNA: H7a1

Sample: I19286 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Highland, Embo
Age: 3331-3022 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-M170
mtDNA: J1c1

Sample: I2824 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Isle of Harris, Northton
Age: 41 calBCE – 121 calCE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: H13a1a

Sample: I2656 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Longniddry, Grainfoot
Age: 1283-940 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H2a2a2

Sample: I2983 (Female)
Location: Scotland, Orkney, Bu
Age: 399-207 calBCE
mtDNA: U2e2a1c

Sample: I2982 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Orkney, Bu
Age: 395-207 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z16400
mtDNA: H7a1

Sample: I2799 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Orkney, Howe of Howe
Age: 152 calBCE – 22 calCE
Y-DNA: R-DF49
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I2629 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Orkney, Isbister
Age: 3350-2350 BCE
Y-DNA: I-L161
mtDNA: J1c1b

Sample: I2796 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Orkney, Point of Cott
Age: 3706-3536 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-FGC7113
mtDNA: H3

Sample: I5474 (Female)
Location: Scotland, Scottish Borders, Cumledge (Auchencraw Park)
Age: 151 calBCE – 77 calCE
mtDNA: K1a26

Sample: I2699 (Male)
Location: Scotland, South Uist, Hornish Point
Age: 159 calBCE – 26 calCE
mtDNA: V10

Sample: I16412 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Stirling, Coneypark Cairn (Cist 1)
Age: 2134-2056 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-CTS616
mtDNA: R

Sample: I27384 (Male)
Location: Scotland, West Lothian, House of Binns
Age: 90 calBCE – 110 calCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H2a2a1g

Sample: I27385 (Male)
Location: Scotland, West Lothian, House of Binns
Age: 43 calBCE – 117 calCE
Y-DNA: R-L1066
mtDNA: T2b19

Sample: I16475 (Male)
Location: Wales, Clwyd, Dinorben
Age: 550-1 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: X2b

Sample: I16514 (Female)
Location: Wales, Clwyd, Dinorben
Age: 550-1 BCE
mtDNA: HV0

Sample: I16410 (Female)
Location: Wales, Clwyd, Dinorben
Age: 550-1 BCE
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: I16479 (Unknown sex)
Location: Wales, Conwy, Llandudno, Little Ormes Head, Ogof Rhiwledyn
Age: 1500-1100 BCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I16491 (Male)
Location: Wales, Denbighshire, Llanferres, Orchid Cave
Age: 2876-2680 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-L1195
mtDNA: U5b2b

Sample: I6771 (Female)
Location: Wales, Glamorgan, Llantwit Major, Llanmaes
Age: 169 calBCE – 2 calCE
mtDNA: U4b1a

Sample: I16471 (Female)
Location: Wales, Glamorgan, Llantwit Major, Llanmaes
Age: 200 BCE – 50 CE
mtDNA: H2a

Sample: I16405 (Male)
Location: Wales, Glamorgan, RAF St Athan
Age: 397-205 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: K1a-T195C!

Sample: I5440 (Male)
Location: Wales, Glamorgan, St. Fagan’s
Age: 1500-1322 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L151
mtDNA: K1c1

Sample: I2574 (Female)
Location: Wales, North Wales, Llandudno, Great Orme
Age: 1417-1226 calBCE
mtDNA: U5a1a2b

Sample: I16476 (Female)
Location: Wales, West Glamorgan, Gower Peninsula, Port Eynon, Culver Hole Cave
Age: 1600-1200 BCE
mtDNA: H24

Sample: I16488 (Male)
Location: Wales, West Glamorgan, Gower Peninsula, Port Eynon, Culver Hole Cave
Age: 1201-1015 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: U5a1b1

_____________________________________________________________

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Y DNA Tree of Mankind Reaches 50,000 Branches

Today is a really, REALLY big day in the genetic genealogy world.

The Y DNA tree of mankind at FamilyTreeDNA has reached 50,000 branches. That’s quite a milestone!

There’s been remarkably rapid growth in the past three years, as shown below.

From the FamilyTreeDNA blog article announcing this milestone event, we see the growth from 2018 to present cumulatively and within each haplogroup. Of course, haplogroup R, present in very high frequencies in Europe, forms the base of this mountain, but every haplogroup has achieved significant gains – which benefits all testers.

Who is Branch 50,000?

Michael Sager, the phylogeneticist at FamilyTreeDNA just added branch 50,000.

Drum roll please! Who is it? Surprisingly, it’s NOT found in haplogroup R, but a man from Vanuatu, a country in Oceania.

The new branch is a member of haplogroup S – specifically S-FTC416, immediately downstream of S-P315. Haplogroup S is found in Indonesia, Micronesia and other Pacific Island nations, including Australia and New Zealand.

This man was a new customer who joins a couple of Aboriginal samples found in academic papers from Kuranda (Queensland, Australia) and 3 ancient samples from Vanuatu.

How cool is that!!!

We’ve Come a LONG Way!

The Y DNA phylogenetic tree has been growing like wildfire.

  • Back in 2002, there were 153 branches on the Y-DNA tree, and a total of 243 known SNPs. (Some SNPs were either duplicates or not yet placed on the tree which explains the difference.)
  • In 2008, six years later, the tree had doubled to 311 branches and 600 SNPs. At the FamilyTreeDNA International Conference that year, attendees received this poster. I remember the project administrators marveling about how large the tree had grown.
  • In 2010, two years later, the tree was comprised of 440 branches and 800 SNPs. That poster was even larger, and it was the last year that the phylotree would fit onto a poster.
  • By 2012, when the Genographic Project V2 was announced, that bombshell announcement included information that the Genographic project was testing for 12,000 SNP locations on their chip, not all of which had been classified.
  • In 2014, when FamilyTreeDNA and Genographic jointly released their new Y tree to celebrate DNA Day, the Y tree had grown to more than 6200 SNPS, of which, more than 1200 were end-of-branch terminal SNPs. If this had been a poster, it would have been more than 62 feet long.

From that point on, the trajectory was unstoppable.

The earliest SNP-seeking product called Walk the Y had been introduced followed by the first-generation powerful Big Y NGS DNA scanning product.

That’s 1300% growth, or said another way, the database increased by 13 times in four years.

In the three years since, many of those SNPs, plus private variants that had not yet been named at that point have been added to the tree.

In January 2019, the Big Y-700 was announced and many people upgraded. The Big Y-700 provided dramatically increased resolution, meaning that test could find more mutations or SNPs. The effect of this granularity is that the Big Y-700 is discovering mutations and new SNPs in a genealogical timeframe, where the original haplogroups a few years ago could only piece together deeper ancestry.

The Big Y-700 has made a HUGE difference for genealogists.

  • Today, in December of 2021, the tree hit 50,000 branches. That poster would be more than 500 feet long, almost twice the length of a football field.

I have to wonder how many more branches are out there just waiting to be found? How many will we find in the next year? Or the next?

The pace doesn’t show any signs of slowing down, that’s for sure. Adding academic and ancient samples to the tree helps a great deal in terms of adding context to our knowledge.

What gems does your family’s Y DNA hold?

How Does a SNP or Variant Get Added to the Tree?

You might be wondering how all of this happens.

A SNP, which becomes a haplogroup has three states of “being,” following discovery.

  1. When the mutation, termed a SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism), pronounced “snip” is found in the first male, it’s simply called a variant. In other words, it varies from the nucleotide that is normally found in that position in that one man.
  2. When the SNP is found in multiple men, assuming it’s found consistently in multiple scans, and it’s in an area that is “clean” and not genetically “noisy,” then the SNP is given a name like R-ZS3700 or R-BY154784, and the SNP is placed on the tree in its correct position. From my article last week about using Y DNA STR and SNP markers for genealogy, you can see that both of those haplogroups have multiple men who have been found with those mutations.
  3. Some SNPs are equivalent SNPs. For example, in the image below, the SNP FT702 today is equivalent to R-ZS3700, meaning it’s found in the same men that carry R-ZS3700. Eventually, many equivalent SNPs form a separate tree branch.

One day, some man may test that does have R-ZS3700 but does NOT have FT702, which means that a new branch will be formed.

When men tested that had R-BY154784, that new branch was added to the left of R-ZS3700, because not all men with R-ZS3700 have the mutation R-BY154784.

You’ll notice that the teal blocks indicate the number of private variants which are mutations that have not yet been found in other men in this same branch structure, and those variants are therefore not yet named SNPs.

If You’ve Already Tested, How Do You Receive a New Haplogroup?

It’s worth noting here that none of the terminal SNPs that define these branches were available using the older Big Y tests which illustrates clearly why it’s important to upgrade from the Big Y or Big Y-500 to the Big Y-700.

In my Estes line, the terminal SNP in the Big Y-500 was R-BY490. These same men upgraded to the Big Y-700 and have now been assigned to four different, distinct, genealogically significant lineages based on SNPs discovered after they upgraded. Some men have three new SNPs that weren’t available in earlier tests. In real terms, that’s the difference between the common ancestor born in 1495 and descendants of John R. Estes who died in the 1880s. Genealogically speaking, that’s night and day.

If you haven’t taken a Big Y test, I heartily recommend it – even if you don’t have STR matches. I talked about why, here. Men can purchase the Big Y initially, or sign on to your account and upgrade if you’ve already taken another test.

In a nutshell, the Big Y-700 test provides testers with two types of tools that work both together and separately to provide genealogically relevant information.

Not to mention – you may be responsible for growing the tree of mankind, one branch at a time. What’s waiting for you?

___________________________________________________________

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I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Uploads

Genealogy Products and Services

My Book

Genealogy Books

Genealogy Research