Quick Tip – Trees, Death Dates and Unintentionally “Private” Ancestors

I manage trees for a number of DNA tests for my relatives at various vendors. DNA and trees work hand-in-hand to identify common ancestors, providing hints to direct you along that path.

If you don’t have a tree at the sites that support trees, meaning FamilyTreeDNA, Ancestry and MyHeritage, please either create one or upload a GEDCOM file from your genealogy software. Many of the features provided by those vendors depend on both your DNA results and the tree you’re linked to. While 23andMe does not support trees, you can include a link to a tree in another site under “settings,” then “enhanced profile” – so do that.

In many cases, especially for Y and mitochondrial DNA at Family Tree DNA, I only enter the relevant line for the tests taken. That way, anyone who matches my cousin can check their tree and easily view the relevant line for the test.

Often, especially if the person tested at my request, I’m the one who has done the genealogy and I don’t research the wives or collateral lines that are not relevant to the test that was taken. I don’t want to do a lot of maintenance work to export only a small branch from my desktop software, so I create each tree by hand from scratch.

Of course, if they have taken a Family Finder test, I upload a more robust tree for them that includes as much of their various lines as I know.

Uploading or creating trees helps us and other genealogists break through their brick walls too.

Ned Matched John – But Encountered a “Privacy” Roadblock

Recently, another Estes tester, we’ll call him Ned, matched the Y DNA of my cousin, John, and emailed me, saying that John’s entire tree was private. I told him that I had not made John’s tree private, so Ned sent me a screenshot.

click to enlarge

There’s no dispute – while the tree itself isn’t private, every single person in the tree is.

What could be causing this? In other words, how do I fix it? That’s not AT ALL what I intended.

Let’s Check the Privacy Settings

The first thing to do, of course, is to check the settings – so I signed in to John’s account.

I checked the privacy settings, located under Account Settings just below the user name of the kit, after you sign in.

According to the Privacy and Sharing settings, John’s tree is not private.

click to enlarge

That seemed odd, so I checked John’s tree myself. It looks fine to me, so I wonder what might be wrong?

click to enlarge

Nothing is showing as private from John’s perspective from within his account.

I decided to send Ned a direct sharing link to see if that made any difference.

The link I shared with Ned made no difference, but reading the information in the red box did! Yay for documentation!

I had not filled in the birth or death dates of the people in question or marked them as deceased. Yes, I know – my bad.

I clicked on the profile and then “View Profile” to verify.

Sure enough – no dates. To edit the profile, click on the pencil.

In order to cause the death date and death location fields to display, you must check the “Deceased” box which then turns blue.

Even if you don’t know the death date or location, marking the person as deceased allows their information to be displayed, such as their name, and NOT to be marked as private.

If you do NOT click the deceased box, the person’s profile WILL be marked “private” and will not be shown to anyone except you, the tester, if you sign in. You’ll have no idea that it isn’t showing to other people when you had intended to share all along.

click to enlarge

I marked each person as deceased and added death dates and locations while I was working on the tree.

Did that take care of the problem?

Let’s take a look from Ned’s perspective.

click to enlarge

Sure did.

In order for people to display, you need to kill them off, again😊

Tree Privacy

Every vendor has a combination of features that control tree privacy and security. You will be able to mark the entire tree private or shareable. You may be able to make it searchable, or not, depending on the vendor.

No vendor will display known living people to others – but the calculations they use to determine who may be living, unless you specifically mark them as deceased, will vary.

Be sure to check all of those factors, and find a way to view the tree from someone else’s perspective to check and be sure it’s functioning the way you expect.

I would never have known that all of John’s ancestors were private if Ned hadn’t contacted me.

At Family Tree DNA, if you view your own tree and you notice that neither dates nor question marks appear in the date field on the pedigree page – that means you have not marked these people as deceased – so no information for them will show to anyone else.

If you see any dates or question marks beneath the names of people on your tree – then that individual’s profile will show and is not private, unless you have marked the entire tree as private.

Check your trees to see if you have an unknown issue. Those valuable trees provide critical information to your matches. They may not contact you to ask why your tree is private – in fact – most won’t. They assume it’s a choice you meant to make.

Be sure you’re not unintentionally driving cousins away. You never know who’s going to have that crucial piece of information or photo, and you want all of your cousin-bait to function as intended!

_____________________________________________________________

Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Products and Services

Genealogy Research

Barbara Mehlheimer’s Letter: A Daughter Found, Photos and a Family Reunited – 52 Ancestors #308

Barbara Mehlheimer (1823-1906) married George Drechsel, apparently twice, once in Germany and once after their arrival in the US. They raised 6 children in Aurora Indiana, the eldest born in 1848 in Germany before their arrival, and the youngest born in 1862 a decade after their arrival.

I wrote about Barbara Mehlheimer and George Drechsel in their own stories back in 2016. When I publish these articles, it’s always with the hope that someplace, someday, somehow they will connect with the right person. Yes, the articles are cousin-bait. Over the years, these articles have been wonderfully effective. It always makes me feel good to provide another researcher with well-documented information.

I’d be fibbing if I told you my motives are entirely altruistic. They aren’t. From time to time, one of those cousins or a complete stranger has something absolutely wonderful to share with me.

Ernest Lent III, my newest cousin, found me recently by posting a comment on an earlier article. He descends from Barbara and George’s lost daughter, baptized as Teresa Maria Drechsel, known better as Mary. Born December 28, 1862, she was living and working at the Kirsch House in Aurora, Indiana in the 1880 census.

The Kirsch House, something akin to a hotel or B&B with rooms to rent, a restaurant and bar, located beside the train depot in the photo above, was owned by Mary’s sister Barbara Drechsel and her husband, Jacob Kirsch.

The building at 506 Second Street doesn’t look a lot different today. But Mary wouldn’t stay in Aurora long. She climbed aboard the train in the station and headed east.

In 1881, the Aurora Lutheran church records show that Mary was living in Cincinnati, then nothing. Radio silence. That is, until recently – 139 years later.

I’d like to share this wonderful journey with you, including our amazing discoveries.

Email from Cousin Ernest

I appreciate your detailed research so much. It certainly helped fill in some gaps in my family history that I assumed were irretrievable.

The few details that I can add to the information about my Great grandmother Mary Drexler are that she was married to Gustav Brehm on September 12, 1883 in Chicago and that she died on April 19, 1953 in Chicago.

I am attaching a photo of Mary Drexler taken around the turn of the century, one of her father George Drexler, and a photo of George at the cooperage where he was employed.

George is the person seated in the bottom row on the far left of the photo. I’m sorry, that particular photo is quite faded now and somewhat damaged.

Wait? What? There Are Photos????

Ernest, I hate to tell you, but these are not just a “few details.” I have never seen these photos before. There are no known photos of George Drechsel. That is, until now.

Do you have ANY idea how important this is to me???

Drum roll….Ernest’s photos….

There are, or were, no known photos of George Drechsel. George had obviously put on his good suit, shirt and bow tie, but his shoes look quite worn.

Here’s George, colorized and enhanced, courtesy of MyHeritage.

George died in 1908 and his wife, Barbara, in 1906. Since she’s not in this photo, and there doesn’t seem to be one of her, I wonder if this picture is George sometime between 1906 and 1908 when he would have been between 83 and 85. He doesn’t quite look that old to me. Maybe more like 60, which would have meant this photo was taken in the 1880s, probably about the same time a photo of Mary was taken. But where was his wife, Barbara Mehlheimer Drechsel, then? Maybe her photo has been destroyed, or yet to be discovered.

George Drechsel along with workers at the cooperage, bottom left corner. In the 1850s, there were at least three cooperage companies in Aurora, making barrels for the steamboats plying the Ohio River. The Wymond Cooperage spanned the entire two blocks adjacent Hogan Creek, behind the Kirsch House, beside the train depot. You can see one of their barrels in the photo.

Mary Drechsel probably circa 1881-1883, after moving to Cincinnati and before her marriage. The photo was taken by J.P. Weckman of Cincinnati, Ohio, listed on the back of the photo.

Mary would have taken the train back and forth from Aurora to Cincinnati as did many of the Aurora residents.

Jogging a Memory

Ernest’s photos jogged a memory for me. A couple years ago, another cousin contacted me. She had some photos too, and in those photos were some people I couldn’t identify.

Barbara Mehlheimer Drechsel’s daughter, Margaretha (1851-1889) married Herm Rabe and had 7 children before she died. Margaretha’s granddaughter contacted me and sent along photos, some of which neither of us could identify.

In this picture, taken in July of 1898, we know that the tallest young lady in the center rear is Eleanor Rabe who would have been 13 in 1898. But who were the rest of these people. We know they were all Barbara’s grandchildren, according to the note with the photo.

I immediately identified the female at bottom right as my grandmother, Edith Lore, born in 1888, but the rest remained a mystery.

Eleanor Rabe had older siblings, but she is clearly the oldest or at least the tallest here. Her one younger sibling was John who was born in 1887, but this boy’s name is Curt, not John.

Let’s make a list of the first names in the photo:

Back row, left to right.

  • Nora – a child, definitely NOT Nora Kirsch born in 1866 who married Curtis Benjamin Lore. I think this is actually Curtis L. Lore, born in 1891, daughter of Nora Kirsch, sister to Edith on the bottom row. They lived in Rushville and it wouldn’t make sense for one daughter to be in Aurora without the other daughter.
  • Eleanor Rabe (identified by her daughter)
  • Lilly – This is probably Lilly Giegoldt, born in 1883, daughter of Lou Drechsel who married Johann Georg Giegoldt.

Front row, left to right:

  • Stella – Stella Brehm born in 1884 to Mary Drechsel and Gustav Brehm, identified by Ernest.
  • Edna – Edna Brehm born in 1888, daughter of Mary Drechsel.
  • Curt – Curt Brehm born in 1889 to Mary Drechsel.
  • Edith Lohr (misspelled, it’s Lore) who is actually Barbara Melhleimer’s great-granddaughter

Before Ernest’s email, I had absolutely NO IDEA who Stella, Edna and Curt were.

Conversely, Ernest had never seen this photo before either.

Look what arrived next:

Well, Roberta, this is getting a bit surreal – first a picture of your grandmother Edith and my grandmother Edna in the same picture – and now this!

Obviously taken within minutes of your photo….

As you might imagine, we chattered back and forth for a few days.

I asked if Ernest thought this unidentified photo might be Mary.

Ernest replied with the genealogists lament that most of us are all too familiar with:

Unfortunately, I never spoke to my grandmother Edna about her family, my interest in genealogy came too late, I’m afraid.

My Dad told me very little about his grandmother Mary Drexler Brehm. He said she was a very strict lady who practiced, in his words, “tough love.” He said that as a young woman in Chicago she would ride streetcars to pick up big baskets of laundry which she would wash and fold and then ride back to return them. I don’t think he ever knew her well, she lived in Chicago and he grew up in Columbia, South Carolina.

I’m sending a photo of Mary when she was elderly, holding my Dad. My grandmother Edna is standing behind her as is my aunt Edna Louise Lent. Mary lived to be 89 years old.

The second picture (below) is of Mary perhaps in her 30’s – I’m not good at telling someone’s age.

The third picture is a family group. I think Mary is second from the right, my grandmother Edna standing in the center, my aunt standing next to her. I’m wondering if you recognize any of the other women.

The Branch Blossoms

Of course, I was excited to add Mary’s family information to my tree. I had always wondered what happened to the “lost sister.”

Ernest noticed:

Thank you for adding Mary Drexler’s information to your family tree, it seemed to me that it somehow symbolically reunites the family.

Rest assured that I asked Ernest if he has done a DNA test. He has, and we match. He’s in the process of transferring his DNA file to Family Tree DNA where so many of our family DNA tests reside, including Kirsch lines and other family members, along with my Mom.

The Letter

Then, almost as an afterthought, Ernest added something very important:

I have an old letter, written in what appears to be an archaic German script, that I’ve been unable to get translated. It was among the effects that my Dad left when he died and I’m not sure to whom it was written or who sent it.

Several people who speak German have looked at it and were unable to make out the gist of the letter, just pick out a few words. If I can attach a photo of the letter do you know someone who might be able to help?

It could be just a “having a good time, wish you were here” letter but it could also contain valuable information.

OMG a letter? Seriously?

Ernest, send it right away!!!!

Here is the letter in 4 parts – sorry some are upside down and sideways, I couldn’t reconfigure them.

I’ve been wondering what it may say for years now, I’m very hopeful that you can get them translated.

Perhaps an epiphany lies within!

OMG!!!!

Ernest continued:

I’m quite eager to learn what the letter says! I’ve been trying to get an accurate translation for years, thinking that having been preserved for over a hundred years it may have something important to tell us. And even if it doesn’t, I’m excited about it because it’s such a direct connection to our family and our past.

In Her Own Hand 

As it turns out, the letter is from Barbara Mehlheimer Drechsel (1823-1906) to her daughter, Theresa Marie Drechsel (Drexel, Drexler), known as Mary, who lived in Chicago at the time.

I had to sit for a while and just stare at this handwriting – holding space with Barbara. This is HER very own handwriting. Not only that, but she COULD write, probably having attended Lutheran school in Goppmansbuhl, Germany in the late 1820s or 1830s. Clearly, she raised her children to speak fluent German. My grandmother, three generations later, still understood German.

These letters to her much-missed daughter were scribed by candlelight using a quill pen dipped in a bottle of ink, at night, when Barbara was bone-tired from dangerous physical work like boiling clothes at 65 years of age. Work, of course, that was never ever done because clothes simply got dirty again and had to be boiled all over again a week or so later. She was “retirement age,” but there was no such thing as retirement.

It looks like Barbara prepared to write by drawing faint lines across the pages to keep her sentences straight – except for page 4 where she stopped drawing guidelines about halfway down the page – and sure enough, her sentences began to list to right. We don’t think about things like that today.

Yet, Barbara’s writing is beautiful, old-world script, despite the fact that she was fatigued and writing in the dark when she had trouble seeing. Other than her photo and fragments of DNA shared by her descendants, this letter is likely the only tangible thing that was actually physically, personally hers that remains on this earth some 132 years after she wrote those pages and almost 197 years after her birth. For most of us today, that’s the equivalent of someplace around the year 2160, with our great-great-great-grandchild unearthing a 4-page handwritten letter we sent today and sharing it with another great-great-great-grandchild – the two of them not previously knowing that each other exists.

Indeed, a mother’s hand – still healing after almost two centuries.

Barbara Mehlheimer Drechsel’s Family

Before going further, here’s a list of Barbara Mehlheimer Drechsel’s children and grandchildren. These relationships are important in sorting out the contents of the letter.

  • Barbara “Babbit” Drechsel 1848-1930, married Jacob Kirsch in 1866 and operated the Kirsch House, a hotel and restaurant/tavern beside the train depot.
    • Ellenore “Nora” Kirsch 1866-1949, married Curtis Benjamin Lore in 1888 in Aurora. Their first child, Edith was born in 1888 and their second child, Curtis, a daughter, was born in 1891. Two additional daughters, Mildred and Eloise were born in 1899 and 1903, respectively.
    • Georg Martin Kirsch 1868-1949, married Maude Powers in 1888 in Aurora, died in Shelbyville, Indiana in 1949. Son Edgar was born in 1899 and daughter Cecile born in 1892.
    • Johann Edward Kirsch 1870-1924 married Emma Miller in 1891 in Dearborn County, Indiana and lived in Aurora during the 1890s. He died in 1924 in Edwardsport, Knox County, Indiana. They had Juanita born in 1892, Deveraux “Devero” born in 1899. Two daughters born later died as infants.
    • Caroline “Carrie” Kirsch 1871-1926 married Joseph Smithfield Wymond in 1902 in Aurora. The wealthy Wymond family owned one of the cooperage companies and whoo-boy, is there a story about this man that rivals any soap opera. Sadly, they had no children.
    • Margaret Louise “Lou” Kirsch 1873-1940 married Charles “Todd” Fiske in 1899 in Aurora and after his suicide, married Arthur Wellesley. She had no children.
    • Ida Carolina Kirsch 1876-1966 married William “Billy” Galbreath in 1921 and had no children.
  • Margaret Drechsel 1851-1889, married Herm Rabe in 1873, lived between Aurora, Indiana and Cincinnati, Ohio, just a few miles away.
    • Mary “Mayme” Rabe 1875-1961 married Albert Weatherby in 1892 in Cincinnati, Ohio. They had three daughters, Lorine 1893-1975, Juanity 1896-1986 and Margaret 1904-1994.
    • Frederick George Rabe 1876-1879
    • Louisa B. “Lou” Rabe 1879-1863 married Irvin Isaac Denison in 1919 and had possibly had one child.
    • Caroline Louise “Leah” Engel Rabe 1880-1951
    • Wilhelm J. Rabe 1883-1886
    • Eleanor Rabe 1885-1961 married Guy Nicholas Young and had 2 daughters, Marian 1908-1978, Eleanor 1910-2006 and two sons, Donald 1915-2000 and Guy 1929-1997.
    • John Rabe 1887-1893
  • Caroline “Lina” or “Lena” Drechsel 1854-1938, married Johannes Gottfried Heinke in Cincinnati about 1895. She may have been married previously with one deceased child, according to the census. Much of her life is a mystery.
  • Johann “John” Edward Drechsel (Drexler, Drexel) born 1856 and died sometime after 1877. It’s believed that he married and had a child in 1882, but there is conflicting information. If so, his wife, Elizabeth Louisa “Lizzie” Uffman remarried in 1888 in Cincinnati. One John Drechsel was married, a tailor and living with her parents in the 1880 census.
    • Alfred Drexel born 1882 in Cincinnati
  • Emma Louise “Lou” Drechsel 1859-1949 married Johann Georg Giegoldt in 1881 in Aurora, Indiana. They lived between Cincinnati and Aurora.
    • Barbara Margaretha Josephine “Nettie” Giegoldt 1882-1908
    • Carolina Louise Lillian “Lilly” Giegoldt 1883-1951, married Theodore Ludwig “Louis” Bosse/Busse and had two children, Raymond born in 1911 and Wilbur born in 1915.
  • Theresa Maria “Mary” Drechsel 1862-1953, lived in Cincinnati from 1881-1883. She married Gustav Brehm in Chicago where she spent the duration of her life.
    • Stella Brehm born 1884
    • Edna Marie Brehm born March 4, 1888, died 1975, married Dr. Ernest Lent in 1913 in Iowa.
    • Curtis Brehm born July 1889
    • Drexel (or Drexler) Brehm born 1900

Christoph Saves the Day

Oh, my faithful German friend Christoph. What would I do without him?!

I hate to always be asking questions and favors – but Christoph is always so very gracious. I told Christoph that he didn’t need to translate the letter word for word. Mostly, I wanted to know who it was from and if the contents shed any light on our ancestors or family history. For all we know, it could have been something totally unrelated.

Fortunately, for us, it wasn’t.

From Christoph

Here is my translation of the letter.

I also add the original German text (with all spelling mistakes) below my translation, just for your records. As you will see, some blanks remain and maybe those will be filled by somebody else in the future. But I think that the main content of the letter is clear anyway. I labeled the blanks in [] brackets and also my comments at some places.

In fact, page four (the one with several “Gutbei” at the end) seems to be a separate letter that was first misplaced and thus sent later (see translation). It is clear however, that it is the same handwriting and from the same person. Since she signs as “your good mother Mrs Drexler, Aurora, Indiana”, I would conclude that the letters were written by Barbara Mehlheimer Drechsler (1823-1906).

Her writing suggests that she had some school education, but still several words are misspelled and interpunctation is missing at times. This is true even more for the English words, she even misspells her daughter Mary`s name “Märi”. There is also “Luiswil” instead of “Louisville”, “flauer” instead of “flour” and then “Gutbei” instead of “Goodbye”. In essence, she seems to spell all English words just the way they sound to her as a native German speaker.

Barbara Drechsler also mentions a “Mrs. Kirsch” at two occasions. I do not think that this refers to her daughter (she would have called her by her first name), but rather to her daughter`s mother-in-law Katharina Barbara Lemmert Kirsch (1807-1889), who seems to have been living very close to her house – maybe across the street?

Next, a “Lina” is mentioned. Lina is a short form of “Carolina” and from the letter it seems it is one of her daughters, too. So this would have to be Caroline Drexler married to Gottlieb Heinke. Similarly, “Luise” would have to be Emma “Louis” Drexler Giegoldt. I am not sure for all the other names, but maybe you have a better clue than me.

When Barbara writes “the father”, I do not think it is her own father, she is speaking of, but rather her husband – father of her daughter Mary. I do not know about this in American English, but it certainly was a habit in German still one generation ago. Quite similarly, my grandmother sent my mother letters, speaking about “father”, when in fact she referred to her husband – her daughter`s father.

As for the date of the letter, it only says March 17th, no year. But I think it is possible to draw out the facts and with their help narrow it down to a certain range.

Barbara`s daughter Mary already had a son, so it would have to be after 1883. But Katharina Barbara Lemmert Kirsch, who died in 1889, was still alive. So if I conclude right that she is the “Mrs Kirsch” mentioned, then the letter would have to be from between 1883 to 1889. What do you think?

So much for my comments. I hope you enjoy your ancestor`s voice from the past! (“Roberta and Ernest, I heard that you are interested in your ancestors` past, so I arranged for an interpreter to make my voice heard to you!”)

Best wishes
Christoph

Christoph, I would hug you if I could!

The Translation 

Letter of Barbara Mehlheimer Drechsler – Transcription and Translation

– page 1 –

Aurora, Indiana, March 17th

Dear children, we greet you all warmly from our hearts. I had intended to write for a long time, but had not found the time so far. Here, many are sick from the [“Krüh” – not clear, what it means. Someone suggested to me it could be a dialect word for scabies. Alternatively, it could be a variant of the word “Grippe” (flu), but these are both just guesses.]. Our father has fallen down and has hurt himself at the hand. It was not too bad, but still he is sick now anyway and cannot work. We had to give up going to church. I do not know, who will take it. [That makes no sense to me, but that is what she wrote.] I always have to take care of somebody over there. The Mrs Kirsch has no maidservant. Furthermore, they all have been sick every few weeks. Babedt [Babette?] has had “remidis” in her right leg. Cähri and Eidi have been sick. Luli and her husband are in Louisville, they both have been sick. Mr Roberts has died, he was 69 years old. Brindi is large and fat and our Luise has caught a cold, when hanging up the laundry out in the snow. I have burnt my left hand, while taking the laundry out of the kettle and it was so …

– page 2 –

… heavy and I lifted it diligently and in the necktie and his shirt was just sliding over my left hand. It frizzled and my entire hand was full of blisters. I immediately have put flour on it and said a prayer. Now my hand is well again. All this happened two weeks ago and last week I have already done the laundry again.

Mary, did you write down, what I have written to you? Put it in your bible, where it will remain safe. And if you have not received it, please let me know, since then I will resend it, it takes away the pain and cures. Now we are all healthy again. Mary, have you received my last letter from Christmas time? I had put inside a thaler painting for your little one and if you did receive it, you are a lucky one! Mister Nibaum had to work so hard, so I always am afraid that you may not have received it.

– page 3 –

I want to let you know, how it went on for the dear Lina. They have been sued, since their milk had been found to be too slurry. How could it have been their fault? They sell it just the way it has been sent to them. They had to pay eighty thaler [dollars ?] fine. That was an awful lot of money for something that had not been their fault. Lina has to work pretty hard. She has to wash big […?], in one of them sweet milk, in the next one buttermilk and in the last one butter. Lina would love me to come and help her, if only I could. Mary, please do not write this in any letter, since I am not supposed to know, because they know that it hurts me. A mother is not free from worries and cannot help nonetheless. My writing is not nice, I can only write at night. I hope and wish that you are all at good health and happy and that you all have work. So please be so good and write me soon, Mary, so that we hear something from you.

– page 4 –

Beloved child, we send you all the greetings from us all. I have to write you another time, since I have not received a reply yet. I do not know, what to think. I hope, you are not all fallen ill! If you do not have the time, then you still have your girls. They may write us a few lines. I always get a hiccup, whenever I think about you. So please be so kind once and write us a little letter about how you are doing.

The father has recovered completely, so thank God we are all healthy again.

The Mrs Kirsch has now a diligent maidservant, so now I do not have to go over to her anymore.

I had put this letter aside and then could not find it anymore. So I wrote another one and sent it to you. Now I have found it again, and so I decided to send it to you as well, so that I do not owe it to you. I hope for your reply soon! I remain your good mother Mrs Drexler. Aurora Indiana

Goodbye, dear children all!
Goodbye, dear children all, be diligent and good and pray as well, so that the good God will help you. Remain healthy all of you!
Goodbye, dear children, goodbye!

Unraveling the Threads

I didn’t want to interrupt the flow of the original letter in Barbara’s own voice, but we do need to see if we can extract additional information from her letter.

Aurora, Indiana, March 17th

Dear children, we greet you all warmly from our hearts. I had intended to write for a long time, but had not found the time so far. Here, many are sick from the [“Krüh” – not clear, what it means. Someone suggested to me it could be a dialect word for scabies. Alternatively, it could be a variant of the word “Grippe” (flu), but these are both just guesses.]. Our father has fallen down and has hurt himself at the hand. It was not too bad, but still he is sick now anyway and cannot work. We had to give up going to church. I do not know, who will take it. [That makes no sense to me, but that is what she wrote.] I always have to take care of somebody over there.

The Mrs Kirsch has no maidservant. Furthermore, they all have been sick every few weeks.

Mrs. Kirsch is indeed very likely Barbara Drechsel Kirsch’s mother-in-law. In fact, I have no idea who else it could be since Katharina Barbara Lemmert and her husband, Philipp Jacob Kirsch were the original immigrants.

In August 1887, Katharina Barbara Kirsch, then a widow, executed a deed to their farm in neighboring Ripley County. She turned 80 the next day and her son who lived with her was disabled from the Civil War. Both she and her son, according to the deed, were living in Dearborn County. I know that her son lived with his brother, Jacob Kirsch, at the Kirsch House until his death. I’m sure that Katharina Barbara Lemmert Kirsch did as well. She died on February 1, 1889, so the letter would have had to have been written before 1889, given that it was dated March 17th.

Barbara goes on to provide some newsy information about her other children to their sister living in Chicago.

Babedt [Babette?] has had “remidis” in her right leg.

Probably rheumatitis. Babbit is Barbara Drechsel Kirsch’s nickname, listed as such on one census.

Cähri and Eidi have been sick.

Cahri was likely Caroline Kirsch, the daughter of Barbara Drechsel Kirsch, born in 1871 who lived at the Kirsch House.

Eidi is probably Ida, born in 1876, also Barbara Drechsel Kirsch’s daughter.

Luli and her husband are in Louisville, they both have been sick.

I’m presuming this is Emma Louise Drechsel, known as “Aunt Lou” who was married to Johann Georg Giegoldt in 1881. They had two daughters, born in 1882 and 1883. I wonder why Barbara didn’t mention the girls.

Mr. Roberts has died, he was 69 years old.

Based on the 1880 census, I can’t find a Roberts in that region that would be roughly the correct age. I wonder why this was important to Mary and her mother. Generally, we find the family interacting with German families.

Brindi is large and fat and our Luise has caught a cold, when hanging up the laundry out in the snow.

Caroline Louise Rabe, born in 1880, would have been the age to hang clothes on the line. I have no clue who Brindi refers to. Everyone in this family had nicknames, some of which bore little or no resemblance to their actual given name.

I wonder if Brindi is a pet or perhaps a pregnant daughter. The only daughter pregnant during this time would have been Margaretha Drechsel, whose nickname I don’t know, who had Eleanor Rabe in March of 1885 and John Rabe in September of 1887. Of course, Mary, the recipient of the letter was pregnant with Stella who was born in June of 1884 and Edna Marie born on March 4, 1888, so she would not have been the person being referred to as “Brindi.”

I have burnt my left hand, while taking the laundry out of the kettle and it was so …

– page 2 –

… heavy and I lifted it diligently and in the necktie and his shirt was just sliding over my left hand. It frizzled and my entire hand was full of blisters. I immediately have put flour on it and said a prayer. Now my hand is well again. All this happened two weeks ago and last week I have already done the laundry again.

This sounds just horrible, but provides perspective on the daily dangers of simply doing laundry. Boiling laundry. Probably miserable at best and horrid in the summer. I had to look the definition of frizzle up and it means to “fry or grill with a sizzling noise.” Ugh – my hand hurts this many years later just thinking about that boiling water. Poor Barbara.

I have never heard of flour as a remedy for burns but googling reveals it as a folk remedy with many warnings against this methodology today.

Mary, did you write down, what I have written to you? Put it in your bible, where it will remain safe. And if you have not received it, please let me know, since then I will resend it, it takes away the pain and cures. Now we are all healthy again.

I surely wonder about that remedy. Was it the flour remedy she was referring to, or something else? Apparently, something she sent earlier. I hope the family still has this Bible someplace, probably given to Mary in the church in Aurora when she was confirmed about 1873 or 1874.

Mary, have you received my last letter from Christmas time? I had put inside a thaler painting for your little one and if you did receive it, you are a lucky one! Mister Nibaum had to work so hard, so I always am afraid that you may not have received it.

“Little one” tells us that Mary had at least one child, so that dates this letter after 1884. Mary’s first child, Stella, was born in June of 1884. I was unable to figure out what a thaler painting is or was, but a thaler was the official coin in Germany until 1908. It could be interpreted as roughly similar to a dollar at that time, which of course was worth much more than a dollar today.

– page 3 –

I want to let you know, how it went on for the dear Lina. They have been sued, since their milk had been found to be too slurry. How could it have been their fault? They sell it just the way it has been sent to them. They had to pay eighty thaler [dollars ?] fine. That was an awful lot of money for something that had not been their fault. Lina has to work pretty hard. She has to wash big […?], in one of them sweet milk, in the next one buttermilk and in the last one butter. Lina would love me to come and help her, if only I could. Mary, please do not write this in any letter, since I am not supposed to know, because they know that it hurts me. A mother is not free from worries and cannot help nonetheless.

I am presuming Lina would be Caroline “Lina” Drechsel who married Johannes Gottfried Heinke in Cincinnati, although that wasn’t until 1895. There’s certainly a big piece of Lina’s life missing during the 1880s. In the 1880 census she was living with the Heinke family as a servant and noted as a cousin. In 1881 she is shown in the City Directory as a housekeeper. Maybe the Lina that Barbara references is someone else since it does refer to “they,” inferring that Lina was married. There may be an earlier marriage we don’t know about. All of the pieces don’t add up for her. Maybe this mystery will be solved one day too.

My writing is not nice, I can only write at night. I hope and wish that you are all at good health and happy and that you all have work. So please be so good and write me soon, Mary, so that we hear something from you.

– page 4 –

Beloved child, we send you all the greetings from us all. I have to write you another time, since I have not received a reply yet. I do not know, what to think. I hope, you are not all fallen ill! If you do not have the time, then you still have your girls. They may write us a few lines. I always get a hiccup, whenever I think about you. So please be so kind once and write us a little letter about how you are doing.

I suspect hiccup means that she cried.

The word “girls” in this sentence suggests that Mary had already had her second child who was born on March 4, 1888, unless she had a child in 1886 that we don’t know about that died.

This is perplexing because this page appears to be the older letter that Barbara enclosed, written before March 17th. We know that the original letter was dated March 17th, and that Barbara had not heard from Mary or at least had not received a letter since Christmas. Mary’s second child was born March 4th, 1888.  We also know that Mrs. Kirsch died in February 1889, so this entry is confounding. Mary’s first child, Stella, was born in June of 1884. No letter year scenario fits all three pieces of evidence well.

The father has recovered completely, so thank God we are all healthy again.

The Mrs. Kirsch has now a diligent maidservant, so now I do not have to go over to her anymore.

I would presume this means Barbara Drechsel Kirsch’s mother-in-law again.

I had put this letter aside and then could not find it anymore. So I wrote another one and sent it to you. Now I have found it again, and so I decided to send it to you as well, so that I do not owe it to you. I hope for your reply soon! I remain your good mother Mrs Drexler. Aurora Indiana

Goodbye, dear children all!
Goodbye, dear children all, be diligent and good and pray as well, so that the good God will help you. Remain healthy all of you!
Goodbye, dear children, goodbye!

It’s of note here that Barbara did not mention Margaretha who was married to Herm Rabe, unless that’s the reference to Brindi who is fat. That might place this letter in 1887 when Margaretha was pregnant.

On a sad note, Barbara also didn’t mention her son, John. We know little about him other than that he was living in Cincinnati by 1877 according to the Aurora church records. He, or at least someone by his name, is listed in the city directory there as a tailor, and is married in 1880 to Lizzy Uffman, living with her parents. Their one child, Alfred, was born in April of 1882. John is not shown in the City Directory after 1881, but a note in the Cincinnati Enquirer Newspaper on Sept. 5., 1882 states that a massive fire in Aurora burned an entire block, a factory, hotel and other buildings. The article says that the property of John Drexel was damaged. There is no other known John Drexel, or similar surname, in Aurora, and the last we knew of John, he was living in Cincinnati. It’s possible that they meant his father, George.

Even more confusing is the May 6, 1880, Cincinnati Daily Star report under the “Aurora, Indiana” heading that says, “Mr. Jacob Kirsch and wife attended the funeral of Mr. John Dreckler in Cincinnati yesterday (Wednesday.)”

If this John Dreckler is Barbara Kirsch Drechsel’s brother, which is likely, then the Alfred born in 1882 is not his child. That John Drechsel/Drexel/Drexler may be someone entirely different. We do know that John’s wife remarried in 1888. There may be multiple John Drechsel’s involved – and “ours” remains a mystery.

A Gift from the Past Reunites Our Family

I’m extremely grateful to Ernest for reaching out and sharing. It allowed us both to connect the leaves and branches and flesh out our trees. Ernest summed this up just perfectly:

Thank you for adding Mary Drexler’s information to your family tree, it seemed to me that it somehow symbolically reunites the family.

This is so gratifying! What a direct connection to our family, to hear our great grandmother speaking to her children over the years through her letter.

First of all, please convey my deepest thanks to Christoph for opening up this insight into our family with his wonderful translation. And to you Roberta for making this happen. I’ve been wanting to know the contents of the letter for years now.

It makes no great pronouncements, It’s just a simple newsy family letter and it’s all the more intimate because it tells of incidents that occurred, accidents that befell them, what’s going on with the neighbors.

Barbara telling Mary about the lawsuit involving Lina and the milk (but don’t tell anybody else because I’m not supposed to know) is such a natural thing to do.

Barbara, possibly in her mid-sixties at the time the letter was written, is still doing laundry by boiling the clothing in a kettle, heavy work and dangerous too.

She has sent something to Mary which she’s supposed to write down and put in her bible which “takes away the pain and cures.” A spell or charm perhaps.

There is such a lot of information to be gleaned from the letter – actually two letters, it seems.

There’s a clue within the letter that may make it possible to narrow down the year it was written. The first paragraph makes mention of so many people being sick and even one death.

The “Russian Flu” was an epidemic that swept through Indiana starting in late 1889 and lasted through 1892. There were hundreds of deaths in Indiana attributed to the flu in 1890. The epidemic spiked in January of 1892 with over 400 deaths in that month alone and then began to decline. It’s possible that the sicknesses mentioned were a result of the flu.  Kind of interesting considering our current pandemic.

Ernest is right. Further research shows that there was a significant spike in deaths in January of 1888 as well, even higher than the peak of the flu in January of 1890. If the March 17th date was in 1888, that would accommodate almost all of our date hints:

  • Written before Mrs. Kirsch died on February 1, 1889 – so the letter must be 1888 or earlier because Mrs. Kirsch was deceased by March 1889.
  • After Mrs. Kirsch deeds her land and moves to town in August 1887.
  • Barbara refers to the “little one” in her letter when describing a thaler painting sent the previous Christmas. Mary’s second child was born on March 4, 1888 and the first in 1884.
  • Page 4, apparently an earlier letter, clearly refers to “girls,” so this had to be after the second daughter’s birth on March 4, 1888 unless an unknown child was born in 1886 and subsequently died. It’s also possible that page 4 is actually from a later letter.
  • However, if Barbara has not heard from Mary, by letter, since Christmas, how did she know that Mary had given birth to a daughter on March 4th, 1888 in order to refer to “girls?” A telegraph message sent to the train depot might be a possibility, or page 4 was from a later letter.
  • Indiana deaths experienced a spike in January 1888, and the March 17th letter refers to the illnesses and death, noting that in March, people are better.

It’s so much fun to peep through that remaining keyhole into their daily lives. My best guess here is that the Match 17th letter was written in 1888. Regardless, it was written near that time and provides us with a rare and wonderful glimpse into Barbara’s life, narrated in her own words.

Thanks again to Ernest and Christoph – and everyone who saved those letters!

Addendum: German Letter Transcription

– Seite 1 –

Aurora Indiana März den 17.

Liebe Kinder seid Alle Herzlich von uns
allen [gegrüßt]. Ich wolde schon lange schreiben, und kam
nicht dazu. Hier sind vühle Laide krank an der
Krüh, unser Vater ist gefahlen aber Er
hat sich weng weh gethan an der Hand
das hätt nichts aus gemacht aber doch ist Er
krank und kan nichts mehr schaffen wir musten
die Kirche auf geben wer es nimt das weis
ich noch nicht, ich mus hald imer wen drüben
aus helfen die Misses Kirsch hat keine Macht(=Magd)
Sie wahren auch Alle baar Wochen krank
Die Babedt [Babette?] hat remidis in rechten Bein
gehabd die Cähri und Eidi wen krank die
Luli und Ihr Mann die sind in Loiswill
Sie wahren baide krank. Der Raberts
ist gestorben Er war 69 Jahre ald die Brindi
st gros und fett u. unsere Loise hat sich
weng verköldet mit Ihren wasch aufhängen
in den grosen Schnee. Ich habe mich gebründ
in meine Linke Hand ich habe die Wasch
aus den Kössel gehoben, und das wahr, so…

– Seite 2 –

…schwär, und ich hebd hald dichdig und in den
schlips über und sein Hemt [stok?] schleidet
sich gerahte über meine Linke Hand das
hat gebüzeld es wahr die ganze Hand vol
Blasen, ich hab gleich recht Flauer drauf,
und habse besprochen jezt ist Sie gans gut
das wahr in zwei Wochen alles geschehen ich
habe die lezte Woche schon wieder gewa-
schen, Märi hast Du das auf geschrieben
wo ich Dir geschikt hab, lechs in die Bibel
da bleibd es sicher, und hast Du es nicht so
las mirs wissen, so wil ich Dirs schücken
den das nimt den schmärzen und heild
so sind wir Goott sei dank wieder
Alle Gesund. Märi hast Du den letzten
Brif beken zu Weihnachten ich habe
für den Kleinen ein Dallerbild einge-
legt wen dus bekomen hast, so machst
du ein großen Pungt. Der Mister
Nibaum die hatten, so zu thun gehabd
das wahr arch, da denk ich immer Ihr habd
den Brif nicht bekomen.

– Seite 3 –

Ich wil Euch noch schreiben wie der
Liebe Lina noch gegangen ist, die sind
verklagt worden über die Milch weil
sie zu din wahr, was haben Sie dafür
könt wie Sis schücken, so verkaufens Sie
und mussten 80. Achtzich daler bezahlen
wahr das nicht ein Sinden Geld wo Mann
nichts davür kan, die Lina mus noch recht hart
schaffen Sie hat so grose [Höfen?] zu waschen
in ein ist Sismichl in ander Butter Milch
in andern Butter, die Lina nehmet mich gern
wen Ich komen könt Märi schreib nichts in kein
Brif den ich sol nichts wissen davon weil Sie
wissen, daß mirs wehe thut. Eine Mutter ist n
nicht frei von sorchen, und kann doch
nichts helfen. Mein Schreiben ist nicht schön
icht mus nur Nachts schreiben. Ich hof und
Wünsch das Ihr Alle recht Gesund und zufrieden
seid und und wen Ihr alle Arbeit habd. So
sei so gut und schreib bald Märi daß wir
auch was fon Eüch hören

– Seite 4 –

Hertz gelibde Kind seit Alle herzlich
gegrüsset von u[ns] Allen.
Ich mus noch ein mahl an Eüch schreiben, weil ich
noch keine Antwort bekomen habe. Ich weis nicht was ich
denken sol, Ihr werdet doch nicht Alle krank sein! Wen
du nicht Zeit hast, so hast du doch eine Mädchen die könen
doch so vühl thun und konen uns ein baar Zeilen schreiben
Ich hab immer Hetscher wen Ich an Dich denk, so ist es
vorbei. So seid doch ein mahl so gut und schreibt uns bald ein
Briflein wie es mit Eüch geht. Der Vader ist wieder gans
gesund, so sind wir Gott sei Dank Alle gesund. Die Misses
Kirsch hat eine fleisiche Macht jezt brauch Ich nicht mehr zu
nüber gehen. Ich habe diesen Brif weggelecht und hab
Ihm nimmer finden könen, so hab ich em anderen geschrieben
und an Euch geschückt, jezt hab ich im gefunden, und so
wil Ich im auch wieder zu Euch schücken so habd mir
nichts vir ungut. Ich Hof eine badige Andwort. Ich ver-
bleibe Eüere gute Mutter Misses Drexler. Aurora Indiana

Gutbei Libe Kinder Alle!
Gutbei liebe Kinder Alle seid Fleisich
und gut und dut auch Beeden, das Eüch
der Liebe Goott auch Hülft seid alle gesunnt
Gutbai Liebe Kinder Gutbai.

Ancient Icelandic Viking Settlers Expand the Y DNA Tree

The harsh yet starkly beautiful volcanic island of Iceland was only settled about 1100 years ago, between 870 and 930 CE (current era). Obviously, the original settlers had to originate in locations where populations were already established. During this time, Vikings had been raiding islands and coastal regions of Ireland, Scotland, and England.

Their DNA, now unearthed, tells their tale.

This 2018 paper, Ancient genomes from Iceland reveal the making of a human population by Ebenesersdóttir et al, along with the supplementary material, here, provides insight into the genomes of 27 ancient Icelanders who are a combination of Norse, Gaelic and admixed individuals. The Irish Times wrote a non-academic article, here.

Unequal contributions of the ancient founders, plus isolation resulting in genetic drift separates the current Icelandic population from the founder populations. These ancient Icelandic genomes, autosomally, are more similar to their founding populations than today’s Icelanders.

While autosomal DNA recombines in each generation, Y and mitochondrial DNA does not, revealing the exact DNA of the original founding members of the population. This, of course, allows us to peer back in time. We can see who they match, historically, and where. Today, we can see if our Y and mitochondrial DNA matches them as well.

The authors of the paper selected 35 ancient individuals, believed to be first-generation founders, to have their whole genomes sequenced, of which 27 were successful. Sometimes the ancient DNA is just too degraded to sequence properly.

Nineteen of these burials are pre-Christian, 2 from Christian burials and one that is “Early Modern,” dated to 1678 CE. Ages are expressed, as follows:

  • Pre-Christian <1000 CE
  • Pre-Christian 950-1050 CE
  • Early modern Born 1678 CE
  • Pre-Christian <1050 cal CE

Dates that say “cal CE” mean that they were carbon 14 dated and calibrated and CE (alone) means that those dates are based on the archaeological context of grave goods, other remains, and environmental indicators such as volcanic ash.

As he did with the 442 ancient Viking genomes that I wrote about, here, Goran Runfeldt who heads the research department at FamilyTreeDNA downloaded the Icelandic genomes, extracted and aligned the mitochondrial and Y DNA results.

Michael Sager analyzed the Y DNA and those results, once again, have refined, enhanced or split at least 8 branches of the Y DNA tree.

For instructions about how to see if your mitochondrial or Y DNA results match any of these ancient genomes, please click here. If you haven’t yet tested, you can order or upgrade a Y or mitochondrial DNA test, here.

The Graves

This map, provided in the paper by the authors, shows the burial locations of the remains, noted by sample numbers. Circles are females, squares are male. Light gray was later excluded from the author’s study.

Some of these burials and grave goods are fascinating. For example, note the horse and dog burials.

Goran and Michael have been kind enough to share their analysis, below, along with comments. Thanks, guys!

Sample: DAV-A9
Location: Dalvík (Brimnes), North, Iceland
Study Information: One of the largest and most studied pre-Christian burial sites in Iceland. Thirteen human skeletal remains, six horse skeletons, and the remains of three dogs were found at the site. In one of the graves, the deceased individual had been placed in a sitting position at the rear of a boat
Age: Pre-Christian 900-1000 CE
Y-DNA: I-FGC21765
FTDNA Comment: Likely splits this branch
mtDNA: H1

Sample: DKS-A1
Location: Öndverðarnes, West, Iceland
Study Information: Grave goods included a sword, a spearhead, a knife, a shield-boss, a bone-pin, and fragments of iron. According to a morphological analysis, the skeletal remains show evidence of developmental delay that could be explained by hypogonadism caused by Klinefelter syndrome, testicular disorder or castration.
Age: Pre-Christian 850-1000 CE
Y-DNA: R-YP6099
mtDNA: U5a1h

Sample: FOV-A1
Location: Fossvellir, East, Iceland
Study Information: The remains are thought to have been placed at the site after the individual was deceased. The bones had been carefully arranged on top of each other and were surrounded by stone slabs and turf.
Age: Christian 1246-1302 CE
Y-DNA: R-DF23
mtDNA: HV17a

Sample: GRS-A1
Location: Grímsstaðir, North, Iceland
Study Information: Three pre-Christian burials were found in close proximity to each other near the site of a farmstead. We analysed one of the skeletal remains (GRS-A1), which were excavated in 1937. No grave goods were found at the site.
Age: Pre-Christian <1050 cal CE
Y-DNA: R-BY92608
mtDNA: K1a1b1b

Sample: GTE-A1
Location: Gilsárteigur, East, Iceland
Study Information: In 1949, field-leveling exposed a pre-Christian burial site near an old farm site. The remains of two skeletons were excavated in 1957. Both burials contained grave goods.
Age: Pre-Christian <1000 CE
Y-DNA: R-CTS4179
mtDNA: H4a1a4b

Sample: HSJ-A1
Location: Hrólfsstaðir, East, Iceland
Study Information: A comb, knife, and pieces of charcoal were found in the grave.
Age: Pre-Christian <1000 CE
Y-DNA: I-BY202281
FTDNA Comment: forms a branch with 2 men (Scotland and England). I-BY202281. The two modern samples share an additional 11 markers that HSJ-A1 is ancestral for
mtDNA: H3g1

Sample: KNS-A1
Location: Karlsnes, South, Iceland
Study Information: Grave goods included a spearhead, a knife, two lead weights, three beads, and a small stone.
Age: Pre-Christian 950-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-Z290
mtDNA: H5

Sample: KOV-A2
Location: Kópavogur, West, Iceland
Study Information: Two skeletal remains. Based on archaeological evidence, the remains were identified as a female, born 1664, and a male, born 1678. According to historical records, they were executed in 1704 for the murder of the female’s husband. The male was beheaded, and his impaled head publicly exhibited, whereas the female was drowned. Their remains were buried in unconsecrated ground at a site called Hjónadysjar.
Age: Early modern Born 1678 CE
Y-DNA: R-L151
mtDNA: H1

Sample: MKR-A1
Location: Viðar (Másvatn), North, Iceland
Study Information: The remains date to <1477 C.E. based on volcanic ash chronology, and are thought to be from a pre-Christian burial site.
Age: Pre-Christian <1050 cal CE
Y-DNA: R-YP1258
mtDNA: K1c1b

Sample: NNM-A1
Location: Njarðvík, East, Iceland
Study Information: A human skull (NNM-A1) was found at a site considered to be a badly damaged pre-Christian burial.
Age: Pre-Christian <1000 CE
Y-DNA: R-BY56981
mtDNA: H2a2b5a

Sample: ORE-A1
Location: Ormsstaðir, East, Iceland
Study Information: Pre-Christian site near an old farmstead was excavated after being exposed during field leveling. One human skeleton (ORE-A) was found, along with an axe, a knife, and three lead weights. A single human bone from another individual was found nearby.
Age: Pre-Christian 900-1000 CE
Y-DNA: R-PH93
mtDNA: K1a3a

Sample: SBT-A1
Location: Smyrlaberg, North, Iceland
Study Information: Pre-Christian burial site in an old gravel quarry. Two years later its excavation revealed a male skeleton (SBT-A1) and an iron knife. Another grave, badly damaged, was found nearby, but only fragments of bone were recovered.
Age: Pre-Christian <1000 CE
Y-DNA: I-FGC74518
FTDNA Comment: Shares 6 SNPs with a man from England. Forms a branch down of I-BY46619 (Z140). Branch = I-FGC74518
mtDNA: H3g1a

Sample: SSG-A2
Location: Sílastaðir, North, Iceland
Study Information: A cluster of four pre-Christian graves. Based on morphological analysis, three of the skeletons were deemed male, and one female.
Age: Pre-Christian 850-1000 CE
Y-DNA: R-BY41282
FTDNA Comment: Split the R-BY23441 block – derived only for BY41282 (Z246)
mtDNA: J1c3g

Sample: SSG-A3
Location: Sílastaðir, North, Iceland
Study Information: A cluster of four pre-Christian graves. Based on morphological analysis, three of the skeletons were deemed male, and one female.
Age: Pre-Christian 850-1000 CE
Y-DNA: I-FGC9493
mtDNA: T2b2b

Sample: SSJ-A2
Location: Surtsstaðir, East, Iceland
Study Information: The remains of two individuals were found at the site, along with grave goods.
Age: Pre-Christian 850-1000 CE
Y-DNA: I-Y129187
mtDNA: U5a1a1

Sample: STT-A2
Location: Straumur, East, Iceland
Study Information: Pre-Christian burial site was excavated, which included the remains of four individuals (one child, one male, one female, and another adult whose sex could not be determined by morphological analysis). Grave goods included a horse bone, a small axe, thirty boat rivets, a lead weight, two pebbles, and a knife.
Age: Pre-Christian 975-1015 cal CE
Y-DNA: R-FT118419
FTDNA Comment: Shares 22 SNPs with a man from Wales. They form the branch R-FT118419 (Z251)
mtDNA: U4b1b1

Sample: SVK-A1
Location: Svínadalur, North, Iceland
Study Information: Human skeletal remains were brought to the National Museum of Iceland. They had been exposed for many years near an old farmhouse. There were no grave goods found at the site, but the remains are thought to be pre-Christian.
Age: Pre-Christian <1050 cal CE
Y-DNA: I-FGC21682
FTDNA Comment: Joins VK110 and VK400 as an additional I-FGC21682* (P109)
mtDNA: I2

Sample: TGS-A1
Location: Tunga, North, Iceland
Study Information: Human skeletal remains (TGS-A1) were excavated in 1981 by inhabitants at a nearby farm. They were classified at the National Museum of Iceland as having unknown temporal origin. The remains were radiocarbon dated for this study, indicating that they date from the 10th century C.E.
Age: Pre-Christian 943-1024 cal CE
Y-DNA: R-Y10827
FTDNA Comment: Likely R-BY4659. Also PH1220+, but this is a C>T mutation also present in hg I ancient samples R7 and Carrowkeel531.
mtDNA: T2e1

Sample: TSK-A26 / ÞSK-A26
Location: Skeljastaðir, South, Iceland
Study Information: Christian cemetery at Skeljastaðir in Þjórsárdalur. The remains are dated to before 1104 C.E., as the site was abandoned in the wake of a volcanic eruption of Mount Hekla in that year.
Age: Christian 1120 cal CE
Y-DNA: R-Y77406
FTDNA Comment: Shares 2 SNPs with a man from Norway. Forms branch down of R-BY30235 (L448). New branch = R-Y77406
mtDNA: J1b1a1a

Sample: VDP-A6
Location: Vatnsdalur, West, Iceland
Study Information: Boat grave with seven skeletal remains (three females and four males), along with a dog skeleton. Grave goods included a knife, thirty beads, a silver Thor’s hammer, a fragmented Cufic coin (ca. 870–930 C.E.) and jewelry.
Age: Pre-Christian 850-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-YP1120
mtDNA: H1c3a

Sample: VDP-A7
Location: Vatnsdalur, West, Iceland
Study Information: Boat grave with seven skeletal remains (three females and four males), along with a dog skeleton. Grave goods included a knife, thirty beads, a silver Thor’s hammer, a fragmented Cufic coin (ca. 870–930 C.E.) and jewelry.
Age: Pre-Christian 850-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-FT209682
FTDNA Comment: Shares 7 SNPs with a man from Sweden. Forms branch down of R-BY71305 (Z18). New branch = R-FT209682
mtDNA: H4a1a1

Sample: YGS-B2
Location: Ytra-Garðshor, North, Iceland
Study Information: The site included the disturbed remains of nine human skeletons (four males, two females, one child and two individuals whose sex could not be inferred based on morphological analysis). There were grave goods in all graves.
Age: Pre-Christian <1000 CE
Y-DNA: R-Y98267
FTDNA Comment: Split the R-Y84777 block (L238). Derived only for Y98267
mtDNA: J1c1a

_____________________________________________________________

Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Products and Services

Genealogy Research

MyHeritage Updates Theories of Family Relativity – Who is Waiting for You?

I always love to receive e-mails from Daniel Horowitz, Genealogy Expert at MyHeritage, because I know there is always something good waiting for me.

Today, it was the announcement that MyHeritage has refreshed the Theories of Family Relativity database again. The last time was mid-May.

If you recall, Theories of Family Relativity (TOFR) provide you with theories, aka, hints, as to how you and other people whose DNA you match may be related to each other – through which common ancestor.

According to Daniel:

Since the last update, the number of theories on MyHeritage has grown by 64%, from 20,330,031 to 33,373,070! The number of MyHeritage users who now have at least one Theory of Family Relativity™ for their DNA Matches has increased by 28%.

MyHeritage reruns the connections periodically and updates customer results.

By signing on to your account and clicking on “View Theories,” you can view only the matches that have an associated theory.

I have a total of 67 theories, 5 of which are new.

In my case, I create a note for each match, so I can scroll down my match list and easily identify which people have new TOFR

click to enlarge

You can see in the screenshot that my match, David, has a note, indicated by the purple icon, but Sarah does not. She also has a “New” indication for the TOFR which will remain for 30 days.

I’m excited. I can’t guess based on the 13 people in her tree how we might be connected, which is a little game I like to play, so I’m going to have to click on “View Theory” to make that discovery.

click to enlarge

Aha – William Crumley through daughter Mary who married William Testerman. I’m glad to see this, and I suspect this new connection may be due to the fact that I optimized my trees to enable TOFR to make connections by adding all of the children and grandchildren of my ancestors, with their spouses. This facilitates the “spanning trees” connections, indicated by the red arrows above, where Mary Brown “Polly” Crumley 1803-1881 connects in another tree with Mary Brown 1803-1881 and then further down that tree, James Harold Mitchell 1899-1961 connects with James Harold Mitchell born 1899-deceased. In other words, the theory is that these are the same people and those connections allow us to “cross and connect trees” and walk down them like a genealogical ladder.

Now, of course, I need to verify the connection both genetically and genealogically as well as reach out to my new cousin.

Sarah only has 13 people in her tree. She might be a new researcher. I’d like to provide her with my articles about our common ancestor, assuming the connection verifies. There were multiple William Crumleys and there is a lot of misinformation out there, waiting for unsuspecting genealogists. Maybe my articles will help her avoid the sand traps I landed in and who knows what information she might have to share. Like, if there is a graveyard on her Testerman ancestor’s property – which might be where William is buried. You never know and hope springs eternal!

If you already have DNA results at MyHeritage, sign in, and see if you have new Theories of Family Relativity.

If you don’t have DNA results there, you can transfer from elsewhere for free by clicking here and then either try a trial MyHeritage subscription, here or unlock the advanced features that include TOFR for $29. Or you can order a DNA test from MyHeritage, here.

We don’t know in advance when MyHeritage is going to refresh the database for new TOFR connections, so it’s important to be in the database when that happens.

If you’d like to know more about Theories of Family Relativity, I wrote about how to work with them here, here, and here.

Have fun!!!

_____________________________________________________________

Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Products and Services

Genealogy Research

FamilyTreeDNA’s myOrigins Version 3 Rollout

As the fall leaves change colors and people are turning more to inside activities, FamilyTree DNA began rolling out MyOrigins version 3 today.

That’s the good news. The bad news is that everyone is trying to sign on at the same time, so the system is quite slow right now. Maybe that’s actually good news too because it means people are interested AND maybe they will take this opportunity to add trees and link matches if they have not already done so!

What’s Happening?

Yesterday, the following email was sent to group project administrators.

If you’d like to view the list of all populations reported, click here.

The Rollout

I really like the process of prioritizing people who have signed in most recently. They are clearly the most interested in their results.

If you’re wondering if your results have been updated, sign on to your account. Look at your messages to the left of your Autosomal DNA Results.

click to enlarge

If you don’t see this message, then you have the new MyOrigins 3 results, so simply click on MyOrigins.

More Results Coming

Not only are more people going to be receiving results soon, but additional features will be released over time:

  • Population-based chromosome painting, including trace amounts less than 1%. I expect this feature will be released after everyone has received updated results – but that’s my assumption – not from FTDNA.
  • Some people may receive additional population trace amounts not reported in this initial release to facilitate chromosome painting – so check back every couple weeks to see if your results have changed.

My Results

click to enlarge

I have multiple kits at Family Tree DNA – one tested there and one from Ancestry that I use when I write about twins and siblings. Ancestry uses a different chip when processing their DNA tests, and my results at FamilyTreeDNA are somewhat different for the two tests. Keep in mind that the two tests test some of the same locations, but not all.

click to enlarge

I have a 23andMe test I could upload as well. I may do that, simply to compare results, especially since 23andMe also shows my Native segments. Once Family Tree DNA releases their ethnicity chromosome painting, I’ll want to see if the tests report the same locations.

My Comparison

My British Isles are much more specific now. Much of my genealogy from the British Isles is somewhat ambiguous. I know positively that some lines are from there – just not exactly where.

Trace amounts do not contribute to the totals. I wasn’t sure quite how to handle this since we don’t know how much the trace amount actually is – and if it’s noise in some cases.

Here’s the comparison of the four major vendors and their current results, above and below.

I can’t discern the exact amount of Native, although it’s clearly small. I know it’s present and not noise because I’ve proven these segments to the ancestors whose Y and mitochondrial DNA prove their Native origins.

Furthermore, MyOrigins3 essentially matches my Native segments at 23andMe. I know this because I was fortunate enough to have had that sneak peek earlier this year when MyOrigins3 was in beta. You can take a look at Dr. Maier’s presentation about MyOrigins3, here.

Population-based chromosome painting is coming for everyone after the MyOrigins3 rollout is complete. No, I couldn’t pry a more specific date out of anyone😊

How Can Ethnicity Help Your Genealogy?

By clicking on the Shared Origins tab, you can see a list of your matches that have some of the same populations and locations. Of course, this doesn’t mean that your match is because of that population, or within that population, but it does provide you with a place to start – especially if the population is a minority population to you – like my Native American.

I can view the list of my Shared Origins matches, view our matching segments in the chromosome browser to see how we triangulate and share matches with others – hopefully identifying our common ancestor.

In my case, I’ve also painted my known matches at DNAPainter, so most of my segments map to an ancestral line. I compare segment with a specific match to my identified segments at DNAPainter and I’ll probably be able to determine if our matching segment could be assigned that ethnicity by identifying the ancestral line.

Caveats

You all know the caveats I always preach, right?

  • Ethnicity is only an estimate!
  • Just because you don’t show a specific ethnicity doesn’t mean you don’t have that heritage.
  • You don’t inherit exactly half of the DNA of your ancestors. In fact, you may or may not inherit anything measurable from any specific ancestor(s) several generations back in time.
  • Small amounts of ethnicity can be noise.
  • You cannot have an ethnicity that neither of your parents have, although it may be named as something else from the same region. Chromosome painting will help unravel this immensely.
  • Did I mention that ethnicity is only an estimate?

Levity

Now for some much-needed levity

I had forgotten about this, but today, my friend mentioned that this is his favorite ad ever. Yes, an ad. It’s well worth the watch – only a minute or so and I guarantee, it will make you laugh out loud!!!

Go Thor!!!!!!

_____________________________________________________________

Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Products and Services

Genealogy Research

Ancestry Releases Updated Ethnicity Estimates – Hope You Still Have Your Kilt!

Ancestry has been rolling out their new DNA ethnicity results over the past couple of weeks. By now, pretty much all customers have updated results.

When you sign on and click on your DNA tab, you’ll see a message at the top that tells you whether you have new results or they are coming soon.

I wrote about how ethnicity results are calculated in the article, Ethnicity Testing – A Conundrum. You might want to take a minute and read the article because it applies to methods generally and is not specific to any one vendor.

Ethnicity analysis is quite accurate at the continental level, plus Jewish, but less so within continents like Europe. Your results will vary from vendor to vendor and from update to update with the same vendor over time.

To be very clear, your DNA doesn’t change – and neither does your genealogy, obviously – but the evaluation methods used by various vendors change as more people test, reference populations grow, and the vendors improve their algorithms.

Of course, “improve” is subjective. Changes that “improve” one person’s results have the exact opposite effect on other people.

The Eye of the Beholder

Every time vendors release new population or ethnicity results, everyone runs to check. Then – queue up either “they finally got it right” or teeth gnashing! 😊

Everyone hopes for “better” results – but expectations vary widely and how people determine what “better” means to them is quite subjective.

So yes, the accuracy of the results is truly in the eye of the beholder and often related to how much genealogy they’ve actually done. Surprises in your genealogy can equal surprises in your ethnicity too.

Quantitative Analysis

First, let’s be very clear – you do NOT inherit exactly half of the DNA of each of your distant ancestors in each generation. So you might have NO DNA of an ancestor several generations back in time and multiple segments contributed by another ancestor in the same generation. I wrote about how inheritance actually works in the article, Concepts: Inheritance.

Obviously, if you don’t carry a specific ancestor’s DNA, you also don’t carry any genetic markers for any portion of their ethnic heritage either.

Measuring

The best you can do in terms of ancestral ethnicity percentage expectations is to methodically analyze your tree for the geographic and ethnic heritage of your ancestors.

I explained how I calculated realistic ethnicity estimate percentages in the article, Concepts – Calculating Ethnicity Percentages.

In summary, I made a spreadsheet of my 64 great-great-great-great-great-grandparents, each of which, if the DNA was divided in exactly half and passed to the next generation, would contribute 1.56% of my DNA.

Vendors can typically measure geographically-associated DNA less than 1%. At some point, however, the segments are simply too small to reliably identify and associate with a geographic location or population.

Over time, how different vendors refer to and label different parts of the world both vary and change.

Region Names and Ancestral Assignment

I created a spreadsheet where I track both my “expected” DNA based on my genealogy and the amount of reported DNA from that region by each vendor. As I added vendor results, I sometimes had to add categories since their categories aren’t exactly the same as mine. You’ll observe this in the following sections.

You might notice the “inferred” category. I wrote about this in the Calculating Ethnicity Percentages article, but the inferred locations stem from situations like an unknown wife of a man who is living in England or Germany. We can probably infer that they are from that same country.

In the US, an earlier era spouse’s ethnicity might be inferred from marrying a Scot’s-Irish person, living in a Scots-Irish community or being a member of a Scots-Irish church, for example. Chances are very high that a Scots-Irish man’s wife is also from the “British Isles” someplace.

When creating my spreadsheet, I was intentionally conservative in my genealogical estimates.

Ancestry Update in General

Are there any trends or themes in this most recent Ancestry update? As a matter of fact, yes.

Everybody’s Scottish it seems. I hope you didn’t trade your kilt in for that liederhosen a few years ago, because it looks like you just might need that kilt again.

In fact, Ancestry wrote a blog article about why so many people now have Scotland as an ethnicity location, or have a higher percentage if they already showed Scotland before. I had to laugh, because let me summarize the net-net of the Ancestry article for you, the British Isles is “all mixed up,” meaning highly admixed of course. That’s pretty much the definition of my genealogy!

Another theme is that many testers have Scandinavian origins again.

Back in 2012, Ancestry had a “Scandinavian problem,” and pretty much everyone was Scandinavian in that release, even if they had nary a drop of Scandinavian ancestry. And no, not every person has an unknown paternity event and if they did, the Scandinavians cannot possibly be responsible for all of them. The Viking prowess was remarkable, but not THAT remarkable.

Eight years later, Scandinavian is back.

So, how did Ancestry do on my percentages?

Well, I’m Not Scottish…

In the greatest of ironies, I now show no Scottish at all. My calculations show 5.46%, and it’s probably higher because I descend from Scots-Irish that I can’t place in a location.

I guess I need to turn in my Campbell tartan along with a few others.

I do, however, have Norway back again, but no Scandinavian genealogy.

This chart shows all of the Ancestry updates over time, including this latest, plus a range column for this update.

In addition to the 2020 percentage numbers, I’ve included the ranges shown by Ancestry in the far right column for the 2020 update.

Ranges

When viewing your own results, be sure to click on the right arrow for a population to view the range.

You’ll be able to view the range and additional information.

In this case, Ancestry is confident that I have at least 35% DNA from England & Northwest Europe, and perhaps as much as 41%.

You’ll note that my range for the questionable Scandinavia is 0-5. The only two ethnicities that have ranges that do not include zero are England & Northwestern Europe and Germanic Europe.

My Opinion

I know that I have Native American heritage and that it’s reflected in my ethnicity – or should be.

23andMe results, below, shows me the chromosome locations of Native American segments, and when I track those segments back in time, they track to the ancestors in the Acadian population known to have married Native American partners as reflected in church records. Those ancestors were proven as Native through Y and mitochondrial DNA of their descendants which you can view in the Acadian AmerIndian DNA Project, here.

I wrote about using ethnicity segments identified at 23andMe with DNAPainter to triangulate ancestors in the article, Native American and Minority Ancestors Identified Using DNAPainter Plus Ethnicity Segments.

For me personally, including my Native heritage in my ethnicity results is important. I can’t “do” anything much with that at Ancestry, other than view my match’s shared ethnicity. Since my Native heritage doesn’t show at Ancestry, I can’t use it at all genetically.

Why is this important? Looking at a match on my Acadian line and seeing that we share at least some Native heritage MIGHT, just MIGHT be a hint about a common ancestor. Of course, that’s just a clue, because we might both be native from different sources. If my Native ethnicity is missing at Ancestry, I can’t do that. It’s worth noting that in 2017, Ancestry did report my Native heritage and other vendors do as well.

23andMe provides detailed, downloadable, segment information that translates into useful genealogical information. FamilyTreeDNA has announced that they will be providing ethnicity segment information as well after their new myOrigins release.

The Big 4

How do the Big 4 vendors stack up relative to my genealogy and ethnicity?

And for Native American heritage?

I took the liberty of highlighting which vendor is the closest to my estimated genealogy percentages, but want to remind you that these percentages will only be exactly accurate if the DNA is passed exactly in half in each generation, which doesn’t happen. Therefore, my genealogy is an educated estimate as well. Still, the results shouldn’t be WAY off.

An appropriate sanity check would be that my genealogy analysis and the DNA ethnicity results are relatively close. Many people think they are a lot more of something because those are the family stories they heard – but when they do the analysis, they realize that they might expect a different mixture. For example, my aunt told me that my paternal grandmother’s Appalachian family line was German and Jewish – and they are neither. However, German and Jewish lived in my head for a long time and that was what I initially expected to find.

What’s Next?

Both MyHeritage and Family Tree DNA are slated to release new versions of their population genetics tools – so you’ll be seeing new estimates from both vendors “soon.” Both announced at RootsTech they would deliver new results later in the year, and while I don’t have a release date for either vendor – keep in mind that both FamilyTreeDNA and MyHeritage have brought new labs online from scratch in record time in a humanitarian effort to fight Covid. This critically important work has assuredly interrupted their development schedules. You can read about that here and here.

Kudos to both vendors. Ethnicity can wait.

_____________________________________________________________

Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Products and Services

Genealogy Research

442 Ancient Viking Skeletons Hold DNA Surprises – Does Your Y or Mitochondrial DNA Match? Daily Updates Here!

Yesterday, in the journal Nature, the article “Population genomics of the Viking world,” was published by Margaryan, et al, a culmination of 6 years of work.

Just hours later, Science Daily published the article, “World’s largest DNA sequencing of Viking skeletons reveals they weren’t all Scandinavian.” Science magazine published “’Viking’ was a job description, not a matter of heredity, massive ancient DNA study shows.” National Geographic wrote here, and CNN here.

Vikings Not All Scandinavian – Or Blonde

Say what??? That’s not at all what we thought we knew. That’s the great thing about science – we’re always learning something new.

442 Viking skeletons from outside Scandinavia were sequenced by Eske Willerslev’s lab, producing whole genome sequences for both men and women from sites in Scotland, Ukraine, Poland, Russia, the Baltic, Iceland, Greenland and elsewhere in continental Europe. They were then compared to known Viking samples from Scandinavia.

Not the grave where the sample was taken, but a Viking cemetery from Denmark.

One Viking boat burial in an Estonian Viking cemetery shows that 4 Viking brothers died and were buried together, ostensibly perishing in the same battle, on the same day. Based on their DNA, the brothers probably came from Sweden.

Vikings raiding parties from Scandinavia originated in Norway, Sweden and Denmark. At least some Viking raiders seem to be closely related to each other, and females in Iceland appear to be from the British Isles, suggesting that they may have “become” Vikings – although we don’t really understand the social and community structure.

Genes found in Vikings were contributed from across Europe, including southern Europe, and as afar away as Asia. Due to mixing resulting from the Viking raids beginning at Lindisfarne in 793 , the UK population today carries as much as 6% Viking DNA. Surprisingly, Swedes had only 10%.

Some Viking burials in both Orkney and Norway were actually genetically Pictish men. Converts, perhaps? One of these burials may actually be the earliest Pict skeleton sequenced to date.

Y DNA

Of the 442 skeletons, about 300 were male. The whole genome sequence includes the Y chromosome along with mitochondrial DNA, although it requires special processing to separate it usefully.

Goran Runfeldt, a member of the Million Mito team and head of research at FamilyTreeDNA began downloading DNA sequences immediately, and Michael Sager began analyzing Y DNA, hoping to add or split Y DNA tree branches.

Given the recent split of haplogroup P and A00, these ancient samples hold HUGE promise.

Michael and Goran have agreed to share their work as they process these samples – providing a rare glimpse real-time into the lab.

You and the Tree

Everyone is so excited about this paper, and I want you to be able to see if your Y or mitochondrial DNA, or that of your relatives matches the DNA haplogroups in the paper.

The paper itself uses the older letter=number designations for Y DNA haplogroup, so FamilyTreeDNA is rerunning, aligning and certifying the actual SNPs. The column FTDNA Haplogroup reflects the SNP Y haplogroup name.

Note that new Y DNA branches appear on the tree the day AFTER the change is made, and right now, changes resulting from this paper are being made hourly. I will update the haplogroup information daily as more becomes available. Pay particular attention to the locations that show where the graves were found along with the FamilyTreeDNA notes.

Goran has also included the mtDNA haplogroup as identified in the paper. Mitochondrial DNA haplogroups have not been recalculated, but you just might see them in the Million Mito Project😊

Here’s what you’ll need to do:

  • Go to your Y or mitochondrial DNA results and find your haplogroup.

  • Do a browser search on this article to see if your haplogroup is shown. On a PC, that’s CTRL+F to show the “find” box. If your haplogroup isn’t showing, you could be downstream of the Viking haplogroup, so you’ll need to use the Y DNA Block Tree (for Big Y testers) or public haplotree, here.
  • If you’ve taken the Big Y test, click on the Block Tree on your results page and then look across the top of your results page to see if the haplogroup in question is “upstream” or a parent of your haplogroup.

click to enlarge

If you don’t see it, keep scanning to the left until you see the last SNP.

click to enlarge

  • If the haplogroup you are seeking is NOT shown in your direct upstream branches, you can type the name of the haplogroup into the search box. For example, I’ve typed I-BY3428. You can also simply click on the FTDNA name haplogroup link in the table, below, considerately provided by Goran.

click to enlarge

I don’t see the intersecting SNP yet, between the tester and the ancient sample, so if I click on I-Y2592, I can view the rest of the upstream branches of haplogroup I.

click to enlarge

By looking at the Y DNA SNPs of the tester, and the Y DNA SNPs of the ancient sample, I can see that the intersecting SNP is DF29, roughly 52 SNP generations in the past. Rule of thumb is that SNP generations are 80-100 years each.

How About You – Are You Related to a Viking?

Below, you’ll find the information from Y DNA results in the paper, reprocessed and analyzed, with FamilyTreeDNA verified SNP names, along with the mitochondrial DNA haplogroup of each Viking male.

Are you related, and if so, how closely?

I was surprised to find a sister-branch to my own mitochondrial J1c2f. J1c2 and several subclades or branches were found in Viking burials.

I need to check all of my ancestral lines, both male and female. There’s history waiting to be revealed. What have you discovered?

Ancient Viking Sample Information

Please note that this information will be updated on business days until all samples have been processed and placed on the Y DNA tree – so this will be a “live” copy of the most current phylogenetic information.

Link to the locations to see the locations of the excavation sites, and the haplogroups for the tree locations. Michael Sager is making comments as he reviews each sample.

Enjoy!

Sample: VK14 / Russia_Ladoga_5680-12
Location: Ladoga, Russia
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-BY3428
mtDNA: J1c1a

Sample: VK16 / Russia_Ladoga_5680-2
Location: Ladoga, Russia
Age: Viking 11-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-M253
mtDNA: X2b4

Sample: VK17 / Russia_Ladoga_5680-17
Location: Ladoga, Russia
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: T-Y138678
FTDNA Comment: Shares 5 SNPs with a man from Chechen Republic, forming a new branch down of T-Y22559 (T-Y138678)
mtDNA: U5a2a1b

Sample: VK18 / Russia_Ladoga_5680-3
Location: Ladoga, Russia
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-YP1370
mtDNA: H1b1

Sample: VK20 / Russia_Ladoga_5680-1
Location: Ladoga, Russia
Age: Viking 11th century CE
Y-DNA: I-Y22478
FTDNA Comment: Splits the I-Z24071 branch, positive only for Y22478. New path = I-Y22486>I-Y22478>I-Z24071
mtDNA: H6c

Sample: VK22 / Russia_Ladoga_5680-13
Location: Ladoga, Russia
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-A8462
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: VK23 / Russia_Ladoga_5680-9
Location: Ladoga, Russia
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-M253
mtDNA: U4a1a

Sample: VK24 / Faroe_AS34/Panum
Location: Hvalba, Faroes
Age: Viking 11th century
Y-DNA: R-FGC12948
mtDNA: J1b1a1a

Sample: VK25 / Faroe_1
Location: Church2, Faroes
Age: Early modern 16-17th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-FT381000
FTDNA Comment: Splits the R-BY11762 branch, positive for 5 variants ancestral for ~14, new path = R-A8041>R-BY11764>BY11762
mtDNA: H3a1a

Sample: VK27 / Faroe_10
Location: Church2, Faroes
Age: Early modern 16-17th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-L513
mtDNA: U5a1g1

Sample: VK29 / Sweden_Skara 17
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-S7642
mtDNA: T2b3b

Sample: VK30 / Sweden_Skara 105
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-S2857
mtDNA: U5b1c2b

Sample: VK31 / Sweden_Skara 194
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: I4a

Sample: VK34 / Sweden_Skara 135
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY111759
mtDNA: HV-T16311C!

Sample: VK35 / Sweden_Skara 118
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-CTS4179
mtDNA: T2f1a1

Sample: VK39 / Sweden_Skara 181
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: G-Z1817
mtDNA: T2b4b

Sample: VK40 / Sweden_Skara 106
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY166438
FTDNA Comment: Shares 10 SNPs with a man with unknown origins (American) downstream of R-BY1701. New branch R-BY166438
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: VK42 / Sweden_Skara 62
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: J-FGC32685
mtDNA: T2b11

Sample: VK44 / Faroe_17
Location: Church2, Faroes
Age: Early modern 16-17th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-S658
mtDNA: H3a1a

Sample: VK45 / Faroe_18
Location: Church2, Faroes
Age: Early modern 16-17th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-CTS8277
mtDNA: H3a1

Sample: VK46 / Faroe_19
Location: Church2, Faroes
Age: Early modern 16-17th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY202785
FTDNA Comment: Forms a branch with VK245 down of R-BY202785 (Z287). New branch = R-FT383000
mtDNA: H5

Sample: VK48 / Gotland_Kopparsvik-212/65
Location: Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-FGC52679
mtDNA: H10e

Sample: VK50 / Gotland_Kopparsvik-53.64
Location: Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: I-Y22923
mtDNA: H1-T16189C!

Sample: VK51 / Gotland_Kopparsvik-88/64
Location: Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: N-L1026
mtDNA: U5b1e1

Sample: VK53 / Gotland_Kopparsvik-161/65
Location: Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: I-CTS10228
mtDNA: HV9b

Sample: VK57 / Gotland_Frojel-03601
Location: Frojel, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-L151
mtDNA: J1c6

Sample: VK60 / Gotland_Frojel-00702
Location: Frojel, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-YP1026
mtDNA: H13a1a1b

Sample: VK64 / Gotland_Frojel-03504
Location: Frojel, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-BY58559
mtDNA: I1a1

Sample: VK70 / Denmark_Tollemosegard-EW
Location: Tollemosegård, Sealand, Denmark
Age: Early Viking Late Germanic Iron Age/early Viking
Y-DNA: I-BY73576
mtDNA: H7d4

Sample: VK71 / Denmark_Tollemosegard-BU
Location: Tollemosegård, Sealand, Denmark
Age: Early Viking Late Germanic Iron Age/early Viking
Y-DNA: I-S22349
mtDNA: U5a1a

Sample: VK75 / Greenland late-0929
Location: V051, Western Settlement, Greenland
Age: Late Norse 1300 CE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: H54

Sample: VK87 / Denmark_Hesselbjerg Grav 41b, sk PC
Location: Hesselbjerg, Jutland, Denmark
Age: Viking 850-900 CE
Y-DNA: R-Z198
mtDNA: K1c2

Sample: VK95 / Iceland_127
Location: Hofstadir, Iceland
Age: Viking 10-13th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-S658
mtDNA: H6a1a3a

Sample: VK98 / Iceland_083
Location: Hofstadir, Iceland
Age: Viking 10-13th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-BY3433
FTDNA Comment: Splits I-BY3430. Derived for 1 ancestral for 6. New path = I-BY3433>I-BY3430
mtDNA: T2b3b

Sample: VK101 / Iceland_125
Location: Hofstadir, Iceland
Age: Viking 10-13th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY110718
mtDNA: U5b1g

Sample: VK102 / Iceland_128
Location: Hofstadir, Iceland
Age: Viking 10-13th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-Y96503
FTDNA Comment: Shares 3 SNPs with a man from Sweden. Forms a new branch downstream of R-FGC23826. New branch = R-Y96503
mtDNA: J1c3f

Sample: VK110 / Iceland_115S
Location: Hofstadir, Iceland
Age: Viking 10-13th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-FGC21682
mtDNA: H10-x

Sample: VK117 / Norway_Trondheim_SK328
Location: Trondheim, Nor_Mid, Norway
Age: Medieval 12-13th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-S9257
mtDNA: H1a3a

Sample: VK123 / Iceland_X104
Location: Hofstadir, Iceland
Age: Viking 10-13th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-Y130994
FTDNA Comment: Shares 17 SNPs with a man from the UAE. Creates a new branch downstream of R2-V1180. New branch = R-Y130994
mtDNA: J1c9

Sample: VK127 / Iceland_HDR08
Location: Hringsdalur, Iceland
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-BY92608
mtDNA: H3g1b

Sample: VK129 / Iceland_ING08
Location: Ingiridarstadir, Iceland
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-BY154143
FTDNA Comment: Shares 3 SNPs with a man from Sweden. Forms a new branch downstream of R1a-YP275. New branch = R-BY154143
mtDNA: U5b1b1a

Sample: VK133 / Denmark_Galgedil KO
Location: Galgedil, Funen, Denmark
Age: Viking 8-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-Z8
mtDNA: K1a4a1a3

Sample: VK134 / Denmark_Galgedil ALZ
Location: Galgedil, Funen, Denmark
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY97519
mtDNA: H1cg

Sample: VK138 / Denmark_Galgedil AQQ
Location: Galgedil, Funen, Denmark
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-S1491
mtDNA: T2b5

Sample: VK139 / Denmark_Galgedil ANG
Location: Galgedil, Funen, Denmark
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY32008
mtDNA: J1c3k

Sample: VK140 / Denmark_Galgedil PT
Location: Galgedil, Funen, Denmark
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: G-M201
mtDNA: H27f

Sample: VK143 / UK_Oxford_#7
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: R-Y13833
FTDNA Comment: Splits R-Y13816. Derived for 6 ancestral for 3. New path = R-Y13816>R-Y13833
mtDNA: U5b1b1-T16192C!

Sample: VK144 / UK_Oxford_#8
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: I-Y2592
mtDNA: V1a1

Sample: VK145 / UK_Oxford_#9
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: R-YP1708
mtDNA: H17

Sample: VK146 / UK_Oxford_#10
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: I-M6155
mtDNA: J1c3e1

Sample: VK147 / UK_Oxford_#11
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: R-Y75899
mtDNA: T1a1q

Sample: VK148 / UK_Oxford_#12
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: I-M253
mtDNA: H6a1a

Sample: VK149 / UK_Oxford_#13
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: I-M253
mtDNA: H1a1

Sample: VK150 / UK_Oxford_#14
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: I-FT4725
mtDNA: H1-C16239T

Sample: VK151 / UK_Oxford_#15
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: I-S19291
mtDNA: T2b4-T152C!

Sample: VK153 / Poland_Bodzia B1
Location: Bodzia, Poland
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-M198
mtDNA: H1c3

Sample: VK156 / Poland_Bodzia B4
Location: Bodzia, Poland
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-Y9081
mtDNA: J1c2c2a

Sample: VK157 / Poland_Bodzia B5
Location: Bodzia, Poland
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-S2077
mtDNA: H1c

Sample: VK159 / Russia_Pskov_7283-20
Location: Pskov, Russia
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-A7982
mtDNA: U2e2a1d

Sample: VK160 / Russia_Kurevanikka_7283-3
Location: Kurevanikha, Russia
Age: Viking 10-13th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-YP1137
mtDNA: C4a1a-T195C!

Sample: VK163 / UK_Oxford_#1
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: I-M253
mtDNA: U2e2a1a1

Sample: VK165 / UK_Oxford_#3
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: I-S18218
mtDNA: U4b1b1

Sample: VK166 / UK_Oxford_#4
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: R-BY67003
FTDNA Comment: Splits R-BY45170 (DF27). Derived for 2, ancestral for 7. New path = R-BY67003>R-BY45170
mtDNA: H3ag

Sample: VK167 / UK_Oxford_#5
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: I-BY34674
mtDNA: H4a1a4b

Sample: VK168 / UK_Oxford_#6
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: R-Z18
mtDNA: H4a1a4b

Sample: VK170 / Isle-of-Man_Balladoole
Location: Balladoole, IsleOfMan
Age: Viking 9-10th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-S3201
mtDNA: HV9b

Sample: VK172 / UK_Oxford_#16
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: R-FT7019
mtDNA: I1a1e

Sample: VK173 / UK_Oxford_#17
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: I-FT13004
FTDNA Comment: Splits I2-FT12648, derived for 5, ancestral for 7. New path FT13004>FT12648
mtDNA: U5a1b-T16362C

Sample: VK174 / UK_Oxford_#18
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: R-FGC17429
mtDNA: H1-C16239T

Sample: VK175 / UK_Oxford_#19
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: R-Y47841
FTDNA Comment: Shares 6 SNPs with man from Sweden down of R-BY38950 (R-Y47841)
mtDNA: H1a1

Sample: VK176 / UK_Oxford_#20
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: I-FT3562
mtDNA: H10

Sample: VK177 / UK_Oxford_#21
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: R-FT31867
FTDNA Comment: Shares 3 SNPs with a man from Greece. Forms a new branch downstream of R-BY220332 (U152). New branch = R-FT31867
mtDNA: H82

Sample: VK178 / UK_Oxford_#22
Location: St_John’s_College_Oxford, Oxford, England, UK
Age: Viking 880-1000 CE
Y-DNA: R-BY176639
FTDNA Comment: Links up with PGA3 (Personal Genome Project Austria) and FTDNA customer from Denmark. PGA and FTDNA customer formed a branch earlier this week, VK178 will join them at R-BY176639 (Under L48)
mtDNA: K2a5

Sample: VK179 / Greenland F2
Location: Ø029a, Eastern Settlement, Greenland
Age: Early Norse 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-F3312
mtDNA: K1a3a

Sample: VK183 / Greenland F6
Location: Ø029a, Eastern Settlement, Greenland
Age: Early Norse 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-F3312
mtDNA: T2b21

Sample: VK184 / Greenland F7
Location: Ø029a, Eastern Settlement, Greenland
Age: Early Norse 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-YP4342
mtDNA: H4a1a4b

Sample: VK186 / Greenland KNK-[6]
Location: Ø64, Eastern Settlement, Greenland
Age: Early Norse 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-Y79817
FTDNA Comment: Shares 3 SNPs with a man from Norway downstream of I-Y24625. New branch = I-Y79817
mtDNA: H1ao

Sample: VK190 / Greenland late-0996
Location: Ø149, Eastern Settlement, Greenland
Age: Late Norse 1360 CE
Y-DNA: I-FGC15543
FTDNA Comment: Splits I-FGC15561. Derived 11 ancestral for 6. New path = I-FGC15543>I-FGC15561
mtDNA: K1a-T195C!

Sample: VK201 / Orkney_Buckquoy, sk M12
Location: Buckquoy_Birsay, Orkney, Scotland, UK
Age: Viking 5-6th century CE
Y-DNA: I-B293
mtDNA: H3k1a

Sample: VK202 / Orkney_Buckquoy, sk 7B
Location: Buckquoy_Birsay, Orkney, Scotland, UK
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-A151
mtDNA: H1ai1

Sample: VK203 / Orkney_BY78, Ar. 1, sk 3
Location: Brough_Road_Birsay, Orkney, Scotland, UK
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-BY10450
FTDNA Comment: FT83323-
mtDNA: H4a1a1a1a1

Sample: VK204 / Orkney_Newark for Brothwell
Location: Newark_Deerness, Orkney, Scotland, UK
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-BY115469
mtDNA: H1m

Sample: VK205 / Orkney_Newark 68/12
Location: Newark_Deerness, Orkney, Scotland, UK
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-YP4345
mtDNA: H3

Sample: VK210 / Poland_Kraków-Zakrzówek gr. 24
Location: Kraków, Poland
Age: Medieval 11-13th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-Z16971
mtDNA: H5e1a1

Sample: VK211 / Poland_Cedynia gr. 435
Location: Cedynia, Poland
Age: Medieval 11-13 centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: W6

Sample: VK212 / Poland_Cedynia gr. 558
Location: Cedynia, Poland
Age: Viking 11-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-CTS11962
mtDNA: H1-T152C!

Sample: VK215 / Denmark_Gerdrup-B; sk 1
Location: Gerdrup, Sealand, Denmark
Age: Viking 9th century CE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: J1c2k

Sample: VK217 / Sweden_Ljungbacka
Location: Ljungbacka, Malmo, Sweden
Age: Viking 9-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-L151
mtDNA: J1b1b1

Sample: VK218 / Russia_Ladoga_5680-4
Location: Ladoga, Russia
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY2848
mtDNA: H5

Sample: VK219 / Russia_Ladoga_5680-10
Location: Ladoga, Russia
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-Y22024
mtDNA: T2b6a

Sample: VK220 / Russia_Ladoga_5680-11
Location: Ladoga, Russia
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-FT253975
FTDNA Comment: CTS2208+, BY47171-, CTS7676-, Y20288-, BY69785-, FT253975+
mtDNA: J2b1a

Sample: VK221 / Russia_Ladoga_5757-14
Location: Ladoga, Russia
Age: Viking 9-10th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-Y5473
mtDNA: K1d

Sample: VK223 / Russia_Gnezdovo 75-140
Location: Gnezdovo, Russia
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-BY67763
mtDNA: H13a1a1c

Sample: VK224 / Russia_Gnezdovo 78-249
Location: Gnezdovo, Russia
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: N-CTS2929
mtDNA: H7a1

Sample: VK225 / Iceland_A108
Location: Hofstadir, Iceland
Age: Viking 10-13th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY92608
mtDNA: H3v-T16093C

Sample: VK232 / Gotland_Kopparsvik-240.65
Location: Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-Y16505
FTDNA Comment: Speculative placement – U106+, but U106 (C>T) in ancient samples can be misleading. LAV010, NA34, I7779, ble007, R55 and EDM124 are all non-R ancient samples that are U106+. More conservative placement is at R-P310
mtDNA: N1a1a1

Sample: VK234 / Faroe_2
Location: Church2, Faroes
Age: Early modern 16-17th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-FT381000
FTDNA Comment: Same split as VK25. They share one marker FT381000 (26352237 T>G)
mtDNA: H3a1a

Sample: VK237 / Faroe_15
Location: Church2, Faroes
Age: Early modern 16-17th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-S6355
mtDNA: J2a2c

Sample: VK238 / Faroe_4
Location: Church2, Faroes
Age: Early modern 16-17th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-YP396
mtDNA: H3a1a

Sample: VK239 / Faroe_5
Location: Church2, Faroes
Age: Early modern 16-17th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: H5

Sample: VK242 / Faroe_3
Location: Church2, Faroes
Age: Early modern 16-17th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-S764
mtDNA: H3a1a

Sample: VK244 / Faroe_12
Location: Church2, Faroes
Age: Early modern 16-17th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-CTS4179
mtDNA: H2a2a2

Sample: VK245 / Faroe_16
Location: Church2, Faroes
Age: Early modern 16-17th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY202785
FTDNA Comment: Forms a branch with VK46 down of R-BY202785 (Z287). New branch = R-FT383000
mtDNA: H3a1

Sample: VK248 / Faroe_22
Location: Church2, Faroes
Age: Early modern 16-17th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-M253
mtDNA: H49a

Sample: VK251 / Gotland_Kopparsvik-30.64
Location: Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-M459
mtDNA: U5b1e1

Sample: VK256 / UK_Dorset-3722
Location: Ridgeway_Hill_Mass_Grave_Dorset, Dorset, England, UK
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-YP5718
mtDNA: H1c7

Sample: VK257 / UK_Dorset-3723
Location: Ridgeway_Hill_Mass_Grave_Dorset, Dorset, England, UK
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-Y19934
mtDNA: H5a1c1a

Sample: VK258 / UK_Dorset-3733
Location: Ridgeway_Hill_Mass_Grave_Dorset, Dorset, England, UK
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-YP1395
FTDNA Comment: Shares 5 SNPs with a man from Norway. Forms a new branch down of R-YP1395. New branch = R-PH420
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: VK259 / UK_Dorset-3734
Location: Ridgeway_Hill_Mass_Grave_Dorset, Dorset, England, UK
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-FT20255
FTDNA Comment: Both VK449 and VK259 share 3 SNPs with a man from Sweden. Forms a new branch down of R-FT20255 (Z18). New branch = R-FT22694
mtDNA: I2

Sample: VK260 / UK_Dorset-3735
Location: Ridgeway_Hill_Mass_Grave_Dorset, Dorset, England, UK
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: Q-BY77336
mtDNA: H1e1a

Sample: VK261 / UK_Dorset-3736
Location: Ridgeway_Hill_Mass_Grave_Dorset, Dorset, England, UK
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY64643
mtDNA: H52

Sample: VK262 / UK_Dorset-3739
Location: Ridgeway_Hill_Mass_Grave_Dorset, Dorset, England, UK
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-FT347811
FTDNA Comment: Shares 2 SNPs with an American of unknown origins. Forms a new branch down of Y6908 (Z140). At the same time a new branch was discovered that groups this new Ancient/American branch with the established I-FT274828 branch. New ancient path = I-Y6908>I-FT273257>I-FT347811
mtDNA: J1c4

Sample: VK263 / UK_Dorset-3742
Location: Ridgeway_Hill_Mass_Grave_Dorset, Dorset, England, UK
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-Z16372
mtDNA: K1a4d

Sample: VK264 / UK_Dorset-3744
Location: Ridgeway_Hill_Mass_Grave_Dorset, Dorset, England, UK
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY30937
mtDNA: N1a1a1a2

Sample: VK267 / Sweden_Karda 21
Location: Karda, Sweden
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-L23
mtDNA: T2b4b

Sample: VK268 / Sweden_Karda 22
Location: Karda, Sweden
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: K1c1

Sample: VK269 / Sweden_Karda 24
Location: Karda, Sweden
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: H1e1a

Sample: VK273 / Russia_Gnezdovo 77-255
Location: Gnezdovo, Russia
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY61747
mtDNA: U5a2a1b1

Sample: VK274 / Denmark_Kaargarden 391
Location: Kaagården, Langeland, Denmark
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-PH3519
mtDNA: T2b-T152C!

Sample: VK275 / Denmark_Kaargarden 217
Location: Kaagården, Langeland, Denmark
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: I-BY74743
mtDNA: H

Sample: VK279 / Denmark_Galgedil AXE
Location: Galgedil, Funen, Denmark
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: I-Y10639
mtDNA: I4a

Sample: VK280 / Denmark_Galgedil UO
Location: Galgedil, Funen, Denmark
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-Y3713
mtDNA: H11a

Sample: VK281 / Denmark_Barse Grav A
Location: Bårse, Sealand, Denmark
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: I-FGC22153
FTDNA Comment: Splits I-Y5612 (P109). Derived for 8, ancestral for 2. New path = I-Y5612>I-Y5619
mtDNA: T2

Sample: VK282 / Denmark_Stengade I, LMR c195
Location: Stengade_I, Langeland, Denmark
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-CTS1211
mtDNA: H4a1a4b

Sample: VK286 / Denmark_Bogovej Grav BJ
Location: Bogøvej, Langeland, Denmark
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-S10708
mtDNA: J1c-C16261T

Sample: VK287 / Denmark_Kaargarden Grav BS
Location: Kaagården, Langeland, Denmark
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-S22676
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: VK289 / Denmark_Bodkergarden Grav H, sk 1
Location: Bødkergarden, Langeland, Denmark
Age: Viking 9th century CE
Y-DNA: R-U106
mtDNA: J2b1a

Sample: VK290 / Denmark_Kumle Hoje Grav O
Location: Kumle_høje, Langeland, Denmark
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-FT264183
FTDNA Comment: Shares at least 4 SNPs with a man from Sweden, forming a new branch downstream R-FT263905 (U106). New branch = R-FT264183. HG02545 remains at R-FT263905
mtDNA: I1a1

Sample: VK291 / Denmark_Bodkergarden Grav D, sk 1
Location: Bødkergarden, Langeland, Denmark
Age: Viking 9th century CE
Y-DNA: I-Y20861
mtDNA: U5a1a2b

Sample: VK292 / Denmark_Bogovej Grav A.D.
Location: Bogøvej, Langeland, Denmark
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-M417
mtDNA: J1c2c1

Sample: VK295 / Denmark_Hessum sk 1
Location: Hessum, Funen, Denmark
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-Y4738
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: VK296 / Denmark_Hundstrup Mose sk 1
Location: Hundstrup_Mose, Sealand, Denmark
Age: Early Viking 660-780 CE
Y-DNA: I-S7660
mtDNA: HV6

Sample: VK297 / Denmark_Hundstrup Mose sk 2
Location: Hundstrup_Mose, Sealand, Denmark
Age: Early Viking 670-830 CE
Y-DNA: I-Y4051
mtDNA: J1c2h

Sample: VK301 / Denmark_Ladby Grav 4
Location: Ladby, Funen, Denmark
Age: Viking 640-890 CE
Y-DNA: I-FT105192
mtDNA: R0a2b

Sample: VK306 / Sweden_Skara 33
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-FT115400
FTDNA Comment: Shares 3 mutations with a man from Sweden. Forms a new branch down of I-S19291. New branch = I-FT115400. VK151 has no coverage for 2 of these mutations
mtDNA: H15a1

Sample: VK308 / Sweden_Skara 101
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY33037
mtDNA: H1c

Sample: VK309 / Sweden_Skara 53
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-YP6189
mtDNA: K1b1c

Sample: VK313 / Denmark_Rantzausminde Grav 2
Location: Rantzausminde, Funen, Denmark
Age: Viking 850-900 CE
Y-DNA: R-JFS0009
mtDNA: H1b

Sample: VK315 / Denmark_Bakkendrup Grav 16
Location: Bakkendrup, Sealand, Denmark
Age: Viking 850-900 CE
Y-DNA: I-Y98280
FTDNA Comment: Shares 1 SNP with a man from the Netherlands. Forms a new branch downstream of I-Y37415 (P109). New branch = I-Y98280
mtDNA: T1a1b

Sample: VK316 / Denmark_Hessum sk II
Location: Hessum, Funen, Denmark
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-Y130659
FTDNA Comment: Splits I-Y130594 (Z59). Derived for 1 ancestral for 6. New path = I-Y130659>I-Y130594>I-Y130747. Ancient sample STR_486 also belongs in this group, at I-Y130747
mtDNA: K1a4

Sample: VK317 / Denmark_Kaargarden Grav BF99
Location: Kaagården, Langeland, Denmark
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: J-BY62479
FTDNA Comment: Splits J2-BY62479 (M67). Derived for 9, ancestral for 3. New path = J-BY62479>J-BY72550
mtDNA: H2a2a1

Sample: VK320 / Denmark_Bogovej Grav S
Location: Bogøvej, Langeland, Denmark
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: I-Y103013
FTDNA Comment: Shares 3 SNPs with a man from Sweden. Forms a new branch down of I-FT3562 (P109). New branch = I-Y103013
mtDNA: U5a1a1

Sample: VK323 / Denmark_Ribe 2
Location: Ribe, Jutland, Denmark
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-S10185
mtDNA: K2a6

Sample: VK324 / Denmark_Ribe 3
Location: Ribe, Jutland, Denmark
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY16590
FTDNA Comment: Splits R-BY16590 (L47). Derived for 7, ancestral for 3. New path = R-S9742>R-BY16950
mtDNA: N1a1a1a2

Sample: VK326 / Denmark_Ribe 5
Location: Ribe, Jutland, Denmark
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-Y52895
mtDNA: U5b1-T16189C!-T16192C!

Sample: VK327 / Denmark_Ribe 6
Location: Ribe, Jutland, Denmark
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-BY463
mtDNA: H6a1a5

Sample: VK329 / Denmark_Ribe 8
Location: Ribe, Jutland, Denmark
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-S18894
mtDNA: H3-T152C!

Sample: VK332 / Oland_1088
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 858 ±68 CE
Y-DNA: I-S8522
FTDNA Comment: Possibly falls beneath I-BY195155. Shares one C>T mutation with a BY195155* sample
mtDNA: T2b24

Sample: VK333 / Oland_1028
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 885 ± 69 CE
Y-DNA: R-Z29034
mtDNA: H2a2a1

Sample: VK335 / Oland_1068
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY39347
FTDNA Comment: Shares 8 SNPs with a man from France. Forms a new branch down of R-BY39347 (U152). New branch = R-FT304388
mtDNA: K1b2a3

Sample: VK336 / Oland_1075
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 853 ± 67 CE
Y-DNA: R-BY106906
mtDNA: K2a3a

Sample: VK337 / Oland_1064
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 858 ± 68 CE
Y-DNA: I-BY31739
FTDNA Comment: Possible Z140
mtDNA: U5a1b3a

Sample: VK338 / Denmark_Bogovej Grav BV
Location: Bogøvej, Langeland, Denmark
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-A6707
mtDNA: W3a1

Sample: VK342 / Oland_1016
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-BY78615
FTDNA Comment: Shares 2 SNPs with a man from Finland. Forms a new branch down of I2-Y23710 (L801). New branch = I-BY78615
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: VK343 / Oland_1021
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-Y7232
mtDNA: H3h

Sample: VK344 / Oland_1030
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY32357
mtDNA: J1c2t

Sample: VK345 / Oland_1045
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-FT148754
FTDNA Comment: Splits R-FT148754 (DF63). Derived for 8, ancestral for 6. New path = R-FT148796>R-FT148754
mtDNA: H4a1

Sample: VK346 / Oland_1057
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: J-Z8424
mtDNA: H2a2b

Sample: VK348 / Oland_1067
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-Z171
mtDNA: T2b28

Sample: VK349 / Oland_1073
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 829 ± 57 CE
Y-DNA: R-BY166065
FTDNA Comment: Shares 2 SNPs with a man from England. Forms a branch down of R-BY166065 (L1066). New branch = R-BY167052
mtDNA: H1e2a

Sample: VK352 / Oland_1012
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-FGC35755
FTDNA Comment: Possibly forms a branch down of I-Y15295. 2 possible G>A mutations with a I-Y15295* sample
mtDNA: H64

Sample: VK354 / Oland_1026
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 986 ± 38 CE
Y-DNA: R-S6752
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: VK355 / Oland_1046
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 847 ± 65 CE
Y-DNA: L-L595
FTDNA Comment: Joins 2 other ancients on this rare branch. ASH087 and I2923
mtDNA: U5b1b1a

Sample: VK357 / Oland_1097
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 1053 ± 60 CE
Y-DNA: I-FT49567
FTDNA Comment: Shares 4 SNPs with a man from England. Forms a new branch down of I-A5952 (Z140). New branch = I-FT49567
mtDNA: J2b1a

Sample: VK362 / Denmark_Bogovej LMR 12077
Location: Bogøvej, Langeland, Denmark
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: E-CTS5856
FTDNA Comment: Possibly E-Z16663
mtDNA: V7b

Sample: VK363 / Denmark_Bogovej BT
Location: Bogøvej, Langeland, Denmark
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: I-BY198083
FTDNA Comment: Shares 2 SNPs with a man from Switzerland. Forms a new branch down of I-A1472 (Z140). New branch = I-BY198083
mtDNA: U4b1a1a1

Sample: VK365 / Denmark_Bogovej BS
Location: Bogøvej, Langeland, Denmark
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-BY34800
mtDNA: U8a2

Sample: VK367 / Denmark_Bogovej D
Location: Bogøvej, Langeland, Denmark
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: I-BY67827
FTDNA Comment: VK506 and VK367 split the I-BY67827 branch. Derived for 2 SNPs total. They also share one unique marker (26514336 G>C). New branches = I-Y16449>I-BY72774>I-FT382000
mtDNA: J1b1a1

Sample: VK369 / Denmark_Bakkendrup losfund-2, conc.1
Location: Bakkendrup, Sealand, Denmark
Age: Viking 850-900 CE
Y-DNA: R-FGC7556
FTDNA Comment: Shares 13 SNPs with an American. Forms a new branch down of R-FGC7556 (DF99). New branch = R-FT108043
mtDNA: H1a

Sample: VK373 / Denmark_Galgedil BER
Location: Galgedil, Funen, Denmark
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-L20
mtDNA: J2b1a

Sample: VK379 / Oland_1077
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Early Viking 700 CE
Y-DNA: I-FGC22048
mtDNA: U3b1b

Sample: VK380 / Oland_1078
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-Y22923
mtDNA: H27

Sample: VK382 / Oland_1132
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Early Viking 700 CE
Y-DNA: I-L813
mtDNA: H3g1

Sample: VK384 / Denmark_Hesselbjerg Grav 14, sk EU
Location: Hesselbjerg, Jutland, Denmark
Age: Viking 850-900 CE
Y-DNA: R-FGC10249
mtDNA: H3g1

Sample: VK386 / Norway_Oppland 5305
Location: Oppland, Nor_South, Norway
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-S695
mtDNA: J1b1a1

Sample: VK388 / Norway_Nordland 253
Location: Nordland, Nor_North, Norway
Age: Viking 8-16th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-Y22507
FTDNA Comment: Splits I-Y22507. Derived for 1 ancestral for 5. New path = I-Y22504>I-Y22507
mtDNA: J1c5

Sample: VK389 / Norway_Telemark 3697
Location: Telemark, Nor_South, Norway
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-Z27210
FTDNA Comment: Splits R-Z27210 (U106). Derived for 1 ancestral for 2. New path = R-Y32857>R-Z27210
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: VK390 / Norway_Telemark 1648-A
Location: Telemark, Nor_South, Norway
Age: Iron Age 5-6th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-FT7019
mtDNA: K2a3

Sample: VK394 / Norway_Hedmark 4460
Location: Hedmark, Nor_South, Norway
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-YP5161
FTDNA Comment: Shares 1 SNP with a man from Denmark. Forms a new branch down of R-YP5161 (L448). New branch = R-BY186623
mtDNA: H13a1a1a

Sample: VK395 / Sweden_Skara 275
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: N-BY21973
mtDNA: X2c1

Sample: VK396 / Sweden_Skara 166
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY18970
FTDNA Comment: Splits R-BY18970 (DF98). Derived for 2, ancestral for 4 (BY18964+?). New path = R-BY18973>R-BY18970
mtDNA: J1c2t

Sample: VK397 / Sweden_Skara 237
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-S7759
mtDNA: J1b1a1

Sample: VK398 / Sweden_Skara 231
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: T-BY215080
mtDNA: H1b1-T16362C

Sample: VK399 / Sweden_Skara 276
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: N-FGC14542
mtDNA: H4a1a1a

Sample: VK400 / Sweden_Skara 236
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-FGC21682
mtDNA: H1-C16239T

Sample: VK401 / Sweden_Skara 229
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-YP5155
FTDNA Comment: Splits R-YP5155. Derived for 4, ancestral for 1. New path = R-YP5155>R-Y29963
mtDNA: H2a2b

Sample: VK403 / Sweden_Skara 217
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY3222
mtDNA: K1a4a1a2b

Sample: VK404 / Sweden_Skara 277
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-BY55382
FTDNA Comment: Shares 3 SNPs with a man from Sweden. Forms a new branch down of I-BY55382 (L22). New branch = I-BY108664
mtDNA: U4a2

Sample: VK405 / Sweden_Skara 83
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: K1a10

Sample: VK406 / Sweden_Skara 203
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: N-Y7795
FTDNA Comment: Shares 2 SNPs with a man from Sweden. Forms a new branch down of N-Y7795. New branch = N-FT381631
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: VK407 / Sweden_Skara 274
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-Y18232
mtDNA: H1c21

Sample: VK408 / Russia_Ladoga_5757-18
Location: Ladoga, Russia
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-CTS11962
mtDNA: H74

Sample: VK409 / Russia_Ladoga_5680-14
Location: Ladoga, Russia
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-DF29
mtDNA: H3h

Sample: VK410 / Russia_Ladoga_5680-15
Location: Ladoga, Russia
Age: Viking 11-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-M253
mtDNA: X2b-T226C

Sample: VK411 / Denmark_Galgedil TT
Location: Galgedil, Funen, Denmark
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: H1a1

Sample: VK414 / Norway_Oppland 1517
Location: Oppland, Nor_South, Norway
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-PH12
FTDNA Comment: Splits R1a-PH12. Derived for 2, ancestral for 1. New path R-Y66214>R-PH12
mtDNA: H6a1a

Sample: VK418 / Norway_Nordland 1502
Location: Nordland, Nor_North, Norway
Age: Iron Age 4th century CE
Y-DNA: R-CTS5533
mtDNA: J1c2c1

Sample: VK419 / Norway_Nordland 1522
Location: Nordland, Nor_North, Norway
Age: Viking 6-10th centuries CE
Y-DNA: N-S9378
FTDNA Comment: Shares 2 SNPs with a man from France. Forms a new branch down of N-S9378 (L550). New branch = N-BY160234
mtDNA: U5b1b1g1

Sample: VK420 / Norway_Hedmark 2813
Location: Hedmark, Nor_South, Norway
Age: Viking 8-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-FGC15560
FTDNA Comment: Shares 8 SNPs with an American man. Forms a new branch down of I-BY158446. New branch = I-FT118954
mtDNA: I4a

Sample: VK421 / Norway_Oppland 3777
Location: Oppland, Nor_South, Norway
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-M198
mtDNA: U5b2c2b

Sample: VK422 / Norway_Hedmark 4304
Location: Hedmark, Nor_South, Norway
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-YP390
mtDNA: J1b1a1a

Sample: VK424 / Sweden_Skara 273
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: K2b1a1

Sample: VK425 / Sweden_Skara 44
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-Z331
mtDNA: U3a1

Sample: VK426 / Sweden_Skara 216
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: U6a1a1

Sample: VK427 / Sweden_Skara 209
Location: Varnhem, Skara, Sweden
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-Y5362
mtDNA: K1a4

Sample: VK430 / Gotland_Frojel-00502
Location: Frojel, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: N-S18447
mtDNA: T1a1b

Sample: VK431 / Gotland_Frojel-00487A
Location: Frojel, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: VK438 / Gotland_Frojel-04498
Location: Frojel, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-CTS11962
mtDNA: H1

Sample: VK443 / Oland_1101
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-A20404
mtDNA: U5b2b5

Sample: VK444 / Oland_1059
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 847 ± 65 CE
Y-DNA: R-PH1477
mtDNA: K1a

Sample: VK445 / Denmark_Gl Lejre-A1896
Location: Gl._Lejre, Sealand, Denmark
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-Z2040
mtDNA: U3b

Sample: VK446 / Denmark_Galgedil LS
Location: Galgedil, Funen, Denmark
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-BY19383
FTDNA Comment: Shares 1 SNP with a man from England. Forms a new branch down of I-BY19383 (Z2041). New branch = I-BY94803
mtDNA: U5a1a1-T16362C

Sample: VK449 / UK_Dorset-3746
Location: Ridgeway_Hill_Mass_Grave_Dorset, Dorset, England, UK
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-FT20255
FTDNA Comment: Both VK449 and VK259 share 3 SNPs with a man from Sweden. Forms a new branch down of R-FT20255 (Z18). New branch = R-FT22694
mtDNA: H6a2a

Sample: VK452 / Gotland_Kopparsvik-111
Location: Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-CTS11962
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: VK453 / Gotland_Kopparsvik-134
Location: Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-YP256
mtDNA: H8c

Sample: VK461 / Gotland_Frojel-025A89
Location: Frojel, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: N-Y5005
FTDNA Comment: Possibly down of Y15161. Shares 2 C>T mutations with a Y15161* kit
mtDNA: H7b

Sample: VK463 / Gotland_Frojel-019A89
Location: Frojel, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-Y13467
mtDNA: H1b5

Sample: VK466 / Russia_Gnezdovo 77-222
Location: Gnezdovo, Russia
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-PF6162
mtDNA: H6a1a4

Sample: VK468 / Gotland_Kopparsvik-235
Location: Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-BY125166
mtDNA: H1a1

Sample: VK469 / Gotland_Kopparsvik-260
Location: Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-FGC17230
mtDNA: H3ac

Sample: VK471 / Gotland_Kopparsvik-63
Location: Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-M417
mtDNA: H1m

Sample: VK473 / Gotland_Kopparsvik-126
Location: Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: I-S14887
mtDNA: N1a1a1a1

Sample: VK474 / Gotland_Kopparsvik-137
Location: Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: E-Y4971
FTDNA Comment: Possible E-Y4972 (Shares 1 G>A mutation with a E-Y4972* sample)
mtDNA: J1d

Sample: VK475 / Gotland_Kopparsvik-187
Location: Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: R-BY27605
mtDNA: H1a

Sample: VK479 / Gotland_Kopparsvik-272
Location: Kopparsvik, Gotland, Sweden
Age: Viking 900-1050 CE
Y-DNA: G-Y106451
mtDNA: H1a1

Sample: VK480 / Estonia_Salme_II-E
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: R-YP617
mtDNA: U4a2a1

Sample: VK481 / Estonia_Salme_II-F
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: N-FGC14542
FTDNA Comment: Shares 1 SNP with a man from Sweden. Forms a new branch down of N-FGC14542. New branch = N–BY149019. VK399 possibly groups with these two as well
mtDNA: T2a1a

Sample: VK482 / Estonia_Salme_II-P
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-SK1234
mtDNA: H1a

Sample: VK483 / Estonia_Salme_II-V
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-Y141089
FTDNA Comment: Said to be brother of VK497 at I-BY86407 which is compatible with this placement, although no further Y-SNP evidence exists due to low coverage
mtDNA: H16

Sample: VK484 / Estonia_Salme_II-Q
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: R-FT103482
FTDNA Comment: VK484 and VK486 both split R-FT103482 (Z283). Derived for 9 ancestral for 6. New path = R-FT104609>R-FT103482
mtDNA: H6a1a

Sample: VK485 / Estonia_Salme_II-O
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-BY266
FTDNA Comment: Said to be brother of VK497 at I-BY86407 which is compatible with this placement, although no further Y-SNP evidence exists due to low coverage
mtDNA: H16

Sample: VK486 / Estonia_Salme_II-G
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: R-FT103482
FTDNA Comment: VK484 and VK486 both split R-FT103482 (Z283). Derived for 9 ancestral for 6. New path = R-FT104609>R-FT103482
mtDNA: U4a2a

Sample: VK487 / Estonia_Salme_II-A
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: R-YP4932
FTDNA Comment: Joins ancient Estonian samples V9 and X14
mtDNA: H17a2

Sample: VK488 / Estonia_Salme_II-H
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-L813
mtDNA: H5c

Sample: VK489 / Estonia_Salme_II-Ä
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: N-Y21546
mtDNA: T2e1

Sample: VK490 / Estonia_Salme_II-N
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-FGC8677
FTDNA Comment: Said to be brother of VK497 at I-BY86407 which is compatible with this placement, although no further Y-SNP evidence exists due to low coverage
mtDNA: H16

Sample: VK491 / Estonia_Salme_II-Õ
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-Y141089
mtDNA: H6a1a

Sample: VK492 / Estonia_Salme_II-B
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-Z73
mtDNA: H1b5

Sample: VK493 / Estonia_Salme_II-Š
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: R-S6353
FTDNA Comment: Shares 1 SNP with a man from Finland. Forms a new branch down of R-S6353. New branch = R-BY166432
mtDNA: H2a2a1

Sample: VK494 / Poland_Sandomierz 1/13
Location: Sandomierz, Poland
Age: Viking 10-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY25698
mtDNA: X2c2

Sample: VK495 / Estonia_Salme_II-C
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-BY98617
FTDNA Comment: Shares 1 SNP with a man from Romania. Forms a branch down of I-BY98617 (L22). New branch = I-FT373923
mtDNA: H1b

Sample: VK496 / Estonia_Salme_II-W
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-BY198216
mtDNA: H1a

Sample: VK497 / Estonia_Salme_II-Ö
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-BY86407
mtDNA: H16

Sample: VK498 / Estonia_Salme_II-Z
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: R-S6752
mtDNA: H1q

Sample: VK504 / Estonia_Salme_I-1
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: N-S23232
mtDNA: H28a

Sample: VK505 / Estonia_Salme_I-2
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: N-Y30126
mtDNA: J1b1a1b

Sample: VK506 / Estonia_Salme_I-3
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-BY67827
FTDNA Comment: VK506 and VK367 split the I-BY67827 branch. Derived for 2 SNPs total. They also share one unique marker (26514336 G>C). New branches = I-Y16449>I-BY72774>I-FT382000
mtDNA: J1c2

Sample: VK507 / Estonia_Salme_I-4
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-CTS8407
FTDNA Comment: Shares 1 SNP with a man from Denmark. Forms a branch down of I-CTS8407 (P109). New branch = I-BY56459
mtDNA: HV6

Sample: VK508 / Estonia_Salme_I-5
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: N-Y10933
mtDNA: J1c5

Sample: VK509 / Estonia_Salme_I-6
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-Y36105
mtDNA: H1n-T146C!

Sample: VK510 / Estonia_Salme_I-7
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-Y19932
FTDNA Comment: Shares 8 SNPs with a man from Russia. Creates a new branch down of I-Y19932 (L22). New branch = I-BY60851
mtDNA: H10e

Sample: VK511 / Estonia_Salme_II-X
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-Y132154
mtDNA: T2a1a

Sample: VK512 / Estonia_Salme_II-Ü
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: N-Y21546
mtDNA: H2a2b1

Sample: VK513 / Greenland F8
Location: Ø029, East_Settlement, Greenland
Age: Early Norse 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-S2886
mtDNA: J1c1b

Sample: VK514 / Norway_Nordland 5195
Location: Nordland, Nor_North, Norway
Age: Viking 6-10th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-YP4963
mtDNA: K2b1a1

Sample: VK515 / Norway_Nordland 4512
Location: Nordland, Nor_North, Norway
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: I-FGC8677
mtDNA: H52

Sample: VK516 / Norway_Sor-Trondelag 4481
Location: Sor-Trondelag, Nor_Mid, Norway
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: R-CTS8746
mtDNA: H6a1a

Sample: VK517 / Sweden_Uppsala_UM36031_623b
Location: Skämsta, Uppsala, Sweden
Age: Viking 11th century
Y-DNA: I-BY78615
mtDNA: J1c3f

Sample: VK519 / Norway_Nordland 4691b
Location: Nordland, Nor_North, Norway
Age: Viking 6-10th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-M253
mtDNA: HV0a1

Sample: VK521 / Sol941 Grav900 Brondsager Torsiinre
Location: Brondsager_Torsiinre, Sealand, Denmark
Age: Iron Age 300 CE
Y-DNA: I-FGC43065
mtDNA: H16b

Sample: VK524 / Norway_Nordland 3708
Location: Nordland, Nor_North, Norway
Age: Viking 10th century CE
Y-DNA: I-M6155
mtDNA: HV0a1

Sample: VK528 / Norway_Troms 4049
Location: Troms, Nor_North, Norway
Age: Viking 8-9th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-BY135243
mtDNA: K1a4a1b

Sample: VK529 / Norway_Nordland 642
Location: Nordland, Nor_North, Norway
Age: Viking 8-9th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-BY106963
mtDNA: H7

Sample: VK531 / Norway_Troms 5001A
Location: Troms, Nor_North, Norway
Age: LNBA 2400 BC
Y-DNA: R-Y13202
mtDNA: U2e2a

Sample: VK532 / Kragehave Odetofter XL718
Location: Kragehave Odetofter, Sealand, Denmark
Age: Iron Age 100 CE
Y-DNA: I-S26361
FTDNA Comment: Shares 5 SNPs with a man from Sweden. Forms a new branch down of I-S26361 (Z2041). New branch = I-FT273387
mtDNA: U2e2a1a

Sample: VK533 / Oland 1076 28364 35
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Viking 9-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: N-BY21933
FTDNA Comment: Splits N-BY21933 (L550). Derived for 1 ancestral for 13. New path = N-BY29005>N-BY21933
mtDNA: H13a1a1e

Sample: VK534 / Italy_Foggia-869
Location: San_Lorenzo, Foggia, Italy
Age: Medieval 11-13th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-FGC71023
mtDNA: H1

Sample: VK535 / Italy_Foggia-891
Location: San_Lorenzo, Foggia, Italy
Age: Medieval 12-13th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-Z2109
mtDNA: T1a5

Sample: VK538 / Italy_Foggia-1249
Location: Cancarro, Foggia, Italy
Age: Medieval 11-13th centuries CE
Y-DNA: L-Z5931
mtDNA: H-C16291T

Sample: VK539 / Ukraine_Shestovitsa-8870-97
Location: Shestovitsa, Ukraine
Age: Viking 10-12th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-BY61100
FTDNA Comment: Splits I-BY61100 (Z2041). Derived for 5 ancestral for 3. New path I-BY65928>I-BY61100
mtDNA: V

Sample: VK541 / Ukraine_Lutsk
Location: Lutsk, Ukraine
Age: Medieval 13th century
Y-DNA: R-YP593
mtDNA: H7

Sample: VK542 / Ukraine_Chernigov
Location: Chernigov, Ukraine
Age: Viking 11th century
Y-DNA: I-S20602
mtDNA: H5a2a

Sample: VK543 / Ireland_EP55
Location: Eyrephort, Ireland
Age: Viking 9th century CE
Y-DNA: R-S2895
mtDNA: I2

Sample: VK545 / Ireland_SSG12
Location: Ship_Street_Great, Dublin, Ireland
Age: Viking 7-9th centuries CE
Y-DNA: R-DF105
mtDNA: H1bb

Sample: VK546 / Ireland_08E693
Location: Islandbridge, Dublin, Ireland
Age: Viking 9th century CE
Y-DNA: R-L448
mtDNA: HV6

Sample: VK547 / Norway_Nordland 4727
Location: Nordland, Nor_North, Norway
Age: Viking 8-11th centuries CE
Y-DNA: I-FT8660
FTDNA Comment: Splits I-FT8660 (L813) Derived for 3, ancestral for 3. New path = I-FT8660>I-FT8457
mtDNA: V

Sample: VK549 / Estonia_Salme_II-J
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-P109
mtDNA: T2b5a

Sample: VK550 / Estonia_Salme_II-D
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: N-Y4706
mtDNA: V

Sample: VK551 / Estonia_Salme_II-U
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: R-CTS4179
mtDNA: J2a1a1a2

Sample: VK552 / Estonia_Salme_II-K
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-Z2900
mtDNA: H10e

Sample: VK553 / Estonia_Salme_II-M
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-FGC22026
FTDNA Comment: Splits I-FGC22026. Derived for 1, ancestral for 7. New path = I-FGC22035>I-FGC22026
mtDNA: K1c1h

Sample: VK554 / Estonia_Salme_II-L
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-M253
mtDNA: W6a

Sample: VK555 / Estonia_Salme_II-I
Location: Salme, Saaremaa, Estonia
Age: Early Viking 8th century CE
Y-DNA: I-Z73
mtDNA: U3b1b

Sample: VK579 / Oland 1099 1785/67 35
Location: Oland, Sweden
Age: Iron Age 200-400 CE
Y-DNA: N-L550
mtDNA: H1s

Sample: VK582 / SBM1028 ALKEN ENGE 2013, X2244
Location: Alken_Enge, Jutland, Denmark
Age: Iron Age 1st century CE
Y-DNA: I-L801
mtDNA: H6a1b3

Update History:

  • 9-17-2020 – updated 3 times, approximately one-third complete
  • 9-18-2020 – updated in afternoon with another 124 analyzed
  • 9-19-2020 – updated with 142 analyzed
  • 9-21-2020 – updates with 240 analyzed – only 60 to go!
  • 9-22-2020 – last update – A total of 285 entries analyzed and placed on the FTDNA tree where appropriate. 15 were too low quality or low coverage for a reliable haplogroup call, so they were excluded.

____________________________________________________________

Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Products and Services

Genealogy Research

Johann Adam Kirsch (c1677 – 1734/1739), Mayor, Elder and the Free Village Wine Tavern – 52 Ancestors #307

Johann Adam Kirsch was born about 1677 to Johann Georg Kirsch, known as Jerg, and Margaretha Koch who were married in 1650 in Durkheim, now Bad Durkheim.

Given that Jerg Kirsch was a leaseholder of the Jostens estate in 1660, in Fussgoenheim, we know that the couple would have been living there at that time. By 1673, the French were once again ravaging the landscape, and between then and 1689, this area of the Pfalz was once again depopulated.

Durkheim Perhaps

Did the Kirsch family leave in 1674 when other families in this region sought refuge elsewhere, or were they still trying to stick it out in Fussgoenheim when Johann Adam Kirsch was born about 1677? There’s no way to know.

Did Jerg’s family go back to Durkheim where Johann Adam’s brother, Johann Wilhelm Kirsch was married in 1695? That’s the most likely scenario, not only because we know Wilhelm was living there in 1695, but also because we know that their parents were married there in 1650. They knew the landscape, probably had family there and would have gone someplace where they had at least some resources.

Johann Wilhelm Kirsch’s marriage entry in the church records indicates that his father, Jerg Kirsch, was deceased. Of course, Jerg was Adam’s father too. We don’t know when Jerg died, or if Adam’s mother was still living.

If Johann Wilhelm Kirsch, approximate age 25 in 1695, was living in Durkheim, then it’s likely that his younger brother who would have been 18 at that time was living in Durkheim as well.

The Nine Year’s war ended in 1689, officially, but it’s unlikely that former residents returned immediately. Houses and barns had been burned across the countryside – fields, vineyards, and orchards ruined.

The Kirsch brothers may have been in Durkheim in 1695, but six years later, we know that Adam had returned to Fussgoenheim.

Mayor

By 1701, Johann Adam Kirsch, then about age 24, was Mayor of the northern half of Fussgoenheim. I have to wonder how many residents were living in Fussgoenheim at that time. It would only have been repopulated for a decade, maybe less.

By 1720, the entire village only consisted of 150-200 people, or about 15-20 homes. The number of families that had returned by 1701 was probably only a handful. It had been nearly a quarter-century since they had left – again – after only living in Fussgoenheim about 15 years after returning after the 30 Years’ War. Altogether, in the 100 years between 1618 and 1718, the Kirsch family had lived elsewhere for about 66 years.

It makes me wonder why they came back at all. Perhaps it had to do with reclaiming their father’s leasehold estate rights. Something is better than nothing, and that leasehold offered at least some opportunity, even if it did require a significant amount of elbow grease.

Seeking Resources

If I can find a copy of the book, Ortsgeschichte von Fußgönheim by Ernst Merk, published in 1925, the answer might be there on page 153 where Adam’s testimony is recorded. I’m working on that task, but the book is only available at the Family History Library in Salt Lake City, which is closed due to Covid, and a library in Buffalo, NY. Fingers crossed for inter-library loan.

Another publication, Heimat-Blätter für Ludwigshafen am Rhein und Umgebung, issue 1921 No. 10 reportedly contains additional information. My German friend told me that Heimat-Blätter für Ludwigshafen am Rhein und Umgebung was a journal published from 1912 to 1939 and might well hold additional information not only about Fussgoenheim, but this region. I’m attempting to find out if this is available anyplace digitally, in a pdf file that I can copy/paste into a translator.

The answer to another mystery may be held in these documents.

Who Was Johann Adam’s First Wife?

Walter Schnebel, now deceased, researched the Kirsch family for decades with access to original records in Fussgoenheim and other German locations.

Walter’s birth year for Johann Adam was given as (about) 1677  and his death before 1740.

Walter’s exact verbiage is as follows:

(?) N.N. Greulich (* um 1680 † vor 1706, T.v. Adam Greulich); seit ca. 1677 in Fgh. (OG Merk, siehe Weistuhm 1717 Vern. 1717)

This translated to:

(?) N.N. Greulich (* about 1680 † before 1706, T.v. Adam Greulich); since about 1677 in Fgh. (OG Merk, see Weistuhm 1717 Vern. 1717)

I interpret this to mean that Walter wasn’t sure that Adam had a first wife, or possibly that he didn’t know her first name. Someplace, Walter obviously found a record.

Adam’s second wife was Anna Maria Koob.

Here’s the quandry for me.

Johann Adam Kirsch’s first recorded child, Johann Michael Kirsch born about 1700 is my ancestor.

If in fact, Johann Adam Kirsch was married to Miss Greulich before her death in 1706, and Johann Michael Kirsch’s birth year is roughly accurate, then Ms. Greulich was his mother, not Anna Maria Koob.

I’d surely like to know!

This matters – a lot.

1717 in Fussgoenheim

There’s painfully little information available for Fussgoenheim during the time that Adam lived there. The villagers would have been rebuilding following warfare from 1618-1650 and again from approximately 1673-1690.

In 1733, Jakob Tilman von Halberg, the “Lord” of the land complained that the residents refused to pay for the new church. That, combined with the fact that church records begin in 1726, suggests that rebuilding even the basics of society took more than 20 years and maybe closer to 30.

In 1717, the village elders attempted to recompile at least some portion of what had been lost. I purchased a booklet transcribed in 1968 in German that included a portion of the original 1717 record.

I scanned and utilized Deepl translator to gain at least a small window into what happened 303 years ago. When that didn’t go well, due to a somewhat archaic font, I typed the entire document, word for German word. I think I might just have inherited my German ancestors’ tenacity.

Johann Wilhelm Kirsch was the court clerk, cognate, or “court man” who, along with a few elders recorded as much of their history and customs as could be reconstructed. I asked a native German-speaker to see if he could give an assist to the translation, but his comment was that the challenge is that the German words themselves were archaic, and even in German, he wasn’t sure what some of it meant – let alone trying to translate into English.

I’ve included the transcribed/translated document, in total, below using both the Deepl translator and Google translate. I translated this once by copying the text into the translator, but given that the font was difficult for the translator to recognize, I eventually retyped the entire 10 pages. I discovered how difficult it is to type words that you don’t understand or know how to spell. So, in reality, this document has been translated 4 times and I’ve combined the pieces that make the most sense from all 4 versions. The crazy things we do for genealogy!

If anyone can improve on this version, PLEASE feel free😊. I have included the actual scanned pages in German for reference.

Some of this is very awkward and nuance is lost, but I think the idea is conveyed from both 1628, almost 400 years ago, and 1717, with footnotes at the end of each section. The fact that we have any of this is amazing! Thanks to Christoph for finding this book for me and his assistance.

Fussgoenheim History from Pfalzische Weistumer

This document begins with the history of Fussgoenheim.

W. Ludeigshefen. first sure mention in 1291 as violin home, 1343 as foot home (Christman, settlement names I, s 171 ff. in the 14th century, the n oberdorff and underdorf divided place belonged partly to the count of leiningen, partly to the lords of falkenstein, whereby both lords of the village used their own mayors. The Liningingian part of the lower village, from 1385 to the middle of the 16th century in the fiefdom of the Knights of Meckenheim, was bought by the lords of Hallberg in 1729/31 and since 1731 by Baron von Hallberg (Chancellor Jakob Tillmann von Hallbert.) The Falkenstein’s, in the course of time several times as fiefdoms, lastly 1629-1726 to the family Kessler von Sarmsccheim, granted rights to Ober and Unterdorf to the Duchy of Lorraine in 1667 with the County of Falkenstein; 1728/29 as Lorraine fiefdom to the family von Hallbert. In the agriculturally rich district, since time immemorial extensive property of various spiritual foundations (Seebach Monastery, Limburg, Lobenfeld, Schonfeld, Neustadt Monastery, etc.) Petry, Rheinland-Pfalz, S, 109, E Merk, local history of F (1925) K. Kreuter, local history of F., in: Heimatbl. Ludwigshafen 1925 Nr 20 Fabricius, Unt. Nearby area, S, 499 f.

StARch. Speyer WS or Kreigverlust. Dr. bei Ernst Merk, Ortsgeschischte von F (1925) S 156 ff (A) and by K. Kreuter in Heimatbl. Ludwigshafen Jg. 1921 Nr. 9 (B) In the following reprint of the text A which seems to be more true to the original spelling than B.

1628

Copia Fussgenheimer wiesumbs, according to the falkenstein chancellery, was sent in 1628.

  1. Item one assigns the community four days of the full court, the first on the Monday after the twelfth, the second on the Monday after Easter Monday 1), the third on the Monday after St. Peter’s Day 2), the fourth on the Monday after St. Michaelmas 3), and the four days of court shall be uncommitted.

  1. Item has the commonwealth a little bit of money to give away, that it may lend it to whom it will, and when a schoolboy is born, it should be granted to him for another, when he does what is proper, i.e., a commoner’s bidding for nothing.
  2. Item the same request of the commoner shall turn their way for a mile, and what he goes further, one shall give him for a mile six pfenning.
  3. Item directs the community to the junk twenty-eight (year old?) malter korns to the beedt below and above.
  4. Item is shown in the upper part in Seebach well atz, front and governing service.
  5. Items are rejected by two men from every court, since people are in them, the junker. a) [Note that a) and other letters or numbers with ) are references to endnotes.]
  6. The lower part of the item is similar to Seebacher court. b)
  7. Item they, the lordship, came here and find no hay and straw in the scrubbing, so they shall mow down to the meadows outside a town up to the Schauerheim 4) market, and if it is expedient that they do not save enough, so they shall mow outside again one more time than long and much, until their opportunity is again to travel home.
  8. Item one points at the lower part of the same as the Seebacher guth uf der thumbherrn well. [This did not translate entirely.]
  9. If it was a matter of fact that an unusual 5) man was coming to the village, the schoolmaster shall take him home where he belongs,
  10. Item indicates a common one a free bakehouse, if it is otherwise free. 6)
  11. The same beaker [baker?] shall have two sifters and two sieves and two baggages, who are good, which he shall lend to the people, the poor men as the rich, due to bake to him, and it is so, which bakes two malt, he shall give three loaves.
  12. Item which bakes an age, he shall give 3 c) breads, and which bakes half an age, he shall give according to number, and the woman may make the breads small or large as she wishes; and if it is proper to point out that the breads are becoming too small, the woman shall put on her pouch (bag) and give six bright defenses before the three breads; And if it were proper for the baker to put much flour under the bread, the woman shall put on her purse (pouch), and shall give two bright (light-colored) protections before the mead (meel), and the woman shall lift up her mead (meel), and the woman shall be punished by the basin.

[Note that a second translation of a given word is shown in (). Also note that the last sentence beginning with “and the woman…”, replaced with “and sell the woman with impunity from baker.”]

  1. The same baker shall bake the same bread properly, and if it is pertinent that the same bread was not baked properly, then the same man shall carry the bread before the churches and shall let the bread be seen and shall pay the bread to the pitcher according to honorable men’s knowledge. d)
  2. Item it is to have also the same baker some horse, with it he is to take the dough from the people and bring home the bread.
  3. The same baker shall not draw more cattle in his yard, than what he needs in his yard, and if it is pertinent that the backer (baker) did not hold such a thing, he has broken his freedom and she may bake whatever she wants.
  4. Item shows the common one way to the bitz 7) between Henn Beckern e) and the bakehouse, that a donkey may go in with two heretics.
  5. Item is assigned to the bachstaden eight schuch far from the Genheimer mark to the common wag.
  6. Item is assigned eight schuch far from the woge to the Dornferrt.
  7. Items are rejected by water f), and the one who oppresses them does violence and no right.

[Alternate translation: Item shall be put to one’s charge and thrown to the commoner. He does violence and no right.]

  1. Item you know: which in the community has no field in the mark, which should dig two times wide from the streets glue ditch unfriendly.
  2. When they have done this, they shall heap the grain without harm, and after that they shall ask g) the people of God (the court) for every kind of grain, and shall not refuse them, and when they have done this h), they shall give every driver a week, and should say to them: just thank your master. (Thank only your master.)
  3. They shall also give the community two quarters of wine, they shall not be angry or lazy (foolish.)
  4. Item shows the way through the German Herm court to the the thumbherm garden.

  1. Item the landlords shall have four oxen go into the long meadows, they shall have their yoke, they shall eat where they like to eat, and when a someone came into the marks and stopped there, one shall help out with it
  2. Item they shall have a farmhand to keep the oxen, and he shall have a basket in his arm, and what the oxen shit, he shall pick up, that the martens (maddies,madmen?) may (do) not beat the scythes with (on) it.
  3. Item the same servant shall have a staff, he shall have two kickhel, one he shall put on one foot, the other under the thuhnn; whatever he may deign to do, that shall be pleasing (given) to him.
  4. Item there are two meadows marked in Fussgoenheimer, which are to be from St. Georgentag 8) on up to St. Johannstag 3); they shall be pacified; the community shall have its way, and if it is proper that a beast (cattle) should come unscrupulously (unwholesomely) to him, and if he came to whom (meadow, lady) they were directed, he shall shout out three times: If no one comes to drive the beast out, he shall take his right handler in his hand, and shall drive the cattle out unharmed.
  5. Item it is supposed to hold the hospital property of Durkheim a footbridge over the brook.

Item es soll das spitalguy von Durkheim halten ein steg uber die bach.

Footnotes for above:

1) 6. Januar.
2) 24. Juni.
3) 29. Sept.
4) Schauernheim, so. Fussgoenheim.
5) too unfinished – naughty, unjust, wrong, vicious as opposed to justified? DWB. XI, 3, Sp. 538 ff.; or as much as ungeberdig = undisciplined, unruly, unruly in the gene set? DWB, ibid. Sp. 621 ff.; or as much as ungeberdig = unreliable, unruly, disobedient? Cf. DWB, ibid. Sp. 908 and IV, 1,3, Sp. 5349
6) i.e. the village lord
7) Bitz, Bitze = good meadow style, (fenced, surrounded) meadow garden. Zink, Pfalz field names
8) April 23rd

a) Probably misprints instead of real junk.
b) Deviating from a reads Art. 7 in B: Item also today and straw on the Seebacher yard.
c) Reading “3” after Merk doubtful.
d) More respectable (honorable).
e) Henn Beckern Gembackern.
f) follows for alpine pastures.
g) follows the.
h) follows ride.

Part II.

1717

St Arch. Speyer, Gemeindearchiv Fussgonheim No. 1. notarial instrument Or., 36 parchment leaves in 3 layers, sheets 1, 2, 11, 12, 17-22 missing; the writing is heavily faded in places and difficult to read. Dr. in extracts by K. Kreuter in Heimatbl. Ludwigshafen 1921 No. 10. No genuine Weistum, but one after the loss of all older legal records (in the Palatinate Succession Circle) of Schultheiss and court in F. arranged notarial statement of the village right, whereby obviously in the way one proceeded in such a way that the Schltheiss on Grunt of collected reports (from whom?) and recorded the transferred rights in writing and a notary then questioned seven aged parishioners about the correctness of the individual sentences (seats) asked. In the following,

Dr. Schultheiss and the court’s remarks introducing the document (about the request of the mayor and the court) and the “instructed” legal sentences (seats) without the statements of the seven interviewees attached to the individual articles and under exclusion of the articles – only incompletely preserved in the presentation – in which the property of the community is described.

(Alternate translation of the last portion of this item:

A notary public then questioned seven elderly parishioners of tiber about the correctness of the individual seats. 1m following Dr. the remarks introducing the document (tiber the request of Sehultheij3 and Gerieht) and the “designated” legal seats without the seats assigned to the individual articles statements of seven interviewees and under the appearance of those – only incompletely preserved in the submission – articles in which…the community’s property will be torn up.)

Fusgenheimer wisdom from 1717

…a) Christoph Hauck and Willhelm Kirsch, men of the court, also Andreas Kirsch, Dieter Coob and Hanss Jacob Spannier, together with seven other inherited burgers from the court and the community of Fussgenheim, took some of the items from the court and the community of Fussgenheim with them, when they immediately presented too old acquaintances and witnesses, still pre-registered in the morning in the presence of the yoke noble, vest and highly distinguished gentleman

Johann Philipp Falcken, churpfaltzichen ausfauths of the lobli(che)n chief magistrate Neustadt, also gentleman Johann Melchior Faeth, at the time of his schooldays in Schauernheim, as a particularly bedded gentleman witnessed by a written presentation of thickly painted village righteousness oral recitation, who, in the french war, created for the village of Fussgenheim all the judicial protocols.

Alternate translation of the above paragraph:

Johann Philipp Falcken, churpfaltzisehen ausfauths of the 16bli[che]n oberampts Neustadt, also lord Johann Melchior Faeth, at Schauernheim, when particularly anhero witnesses of begotten masters were thickly bemoaned by written presentation of the eggs of the justice of the village, who will design and the village of FuBgenheim in the french 6) war, all court records, white thumb and other written documents, according to which the rights and justices of the village were to be proven to the best of their ability, leyder (b made a deal and was (a total) completely lost, whereas they provided and foresaw that when the old people still alive in the court and out of the community passed away with death, the old, well-born village rights and customs of the village are lost with the young burgers or descendants, even contested and disputed, or at least caused by all kinds of regulations and interferences (precautions and interjections) to which dear descendants of the village inmates are subjected due to their thirst and costs at the village of Fussgoenheim.

In addition to each of the two village parts, each of part was accompanied by various land and village rulers, with whom a body ruler had to recognize one body ruler, each of whom (which) brought his own special rights and regalia to exercise in the orth, but all the community is allowed to enjoy their freedom at all times, and especially from the side of the most merciful bodily control one is instructed to put a stop to everything that is running against the old right and comes from here, and to everything that is newly praying.

For this reason, they had decided in some cases, since otherwise there would be no other way to hold means before them, as the village rights accounts are demonstrably preserved and the long use and practice are safeguarded, and to listen to the old persons and the community about such legal rights, to instrument their testimony formally, and then to put it behind court for the future good evidence of the matters.

If, therefore, I, the notary public, together with both the chief magistrates, and especially the gentlemen called upon to do so and the witnesses standing here present, would have duly bedded me, the notary public, and their gracious village and bodily lordships, they would have been paid a sum of money by the very least that would not harm them, as their high and lower jurisdiction as well as the regalia and fautheylichkeit could be recognized and there was no obstacle to assisting them, and after the village rights and freedoms were reportedly confiscated, the resident old people were allowed to be questioned and the fee was paid for one or more instrumented documenta, one exemplary on parchment, to be shared with them (to help heal.) What village rights and justice, also with regard to the same property itself, as reported above, is presented to me, the notary, by Schultheiss Englehardt;

Whereupon the following seven old men took

  1. Adam Kirsch
  2. Jacob Antes
  3. HanB Adam Hauck
  4. Theobaldt Bilrstler [probably Boerstler]
  5. Matthes MuBpach
  6. Hemp Nickel Coop and
  7. Adam Gifft

How they, the community, those in quiet possession, come and use up to now, faithfully obeyed, heard, and questioned in the presence of one instead of being mercifully listened to, whose testimony is to be diligently recorded about it and were of lasting content.

Now follow the preregistered one, notario, handed over to me the rights, justice and property of Dorff’s Fussgenheim, also what each of the people who had been deported from it had said and gave me clear words.

  1. Firstly, in addition to the two schools, the court will be composed of burgers from the upper and lower villages, which court will have to judge and decide all matters arising in the field and elsewhere together. But what happens especially in the upper and lower villages, everyone has the power to come to a final decision and to let them be fined (2.
  2. Secondly, the servant is appointed (ordered) by the court, has his freedom from the woman, too, with annual enjoyment of a field and knowledge 3). (Alternate translation: Servant is ordered by the court also has from the community its freedom with annual enjoyment of one field and ?.)
  3. Thirdly, the community has put the bells and the clock out of its own means and belongs to them autonomously, therefore the community has to dispose of them. (4
  4. footnote (5
  5. Fifthly the people in the upper and lower villages had the complete joyfulness and the hour here, from immemorial years ago, in quiet possession and enjoyment in such a way that neither the village rulers nor the body rulers may not be entitled to it. For this reason (that is why) no one on either side has been threatened (warned) to leave the congregation (community) under what right and freedom, and against which something new is demanded (in return), the most gracious dominion of the body (rulership) is after the clausul, so to be followed after the body, guilty of vigorously manuteniring (6 the serf (bondswoman) against it ), the more so, since, according to the rights of the same liberties, too, by long possession, so running over human endings, acquiriret (7 can become (8.
  6. Sixth, the church (community) has brought the free wine tavern in the village in such a manner that every burgher is permitted to do business, to serve wine, beer, and brandy, of which neither one nor the other has to pay money, to give creutzergeld or other condition, but rather all this freely enjoys set, but enjoying all the freedom that comes from traditions from time immemorial and were therefore been kept so the community wants to keep this free right and no one has the right to interfere with them in this (9.

Ah, the German tavern – so important as a community gathering place, circa 1470, above. Bartering and trading took place between citizens. Politics were discussed, loudly, of that you can be assured. Plans were made and sealed with a handshake and a beverage. Celebratory toasts were hailed, with everyone joining in, and grief was softened there too. Friends and family are the glue of the community, and in this case, held together with a bit of wine, beer and brandy – and had been, from time immemorial, as they testified.

This 1658 tavern scene by Flemish artist David Teniers probably looked much the same throughout Europe.

Perhaps the residents, who would all have known each other well, played cards and smoked a bit.

By Chris Lake – Flickr: 16th_century_wine_press, CC BY 2.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=19365588

Fruits for distilling German brandy known as Obstbrand or Fruchtbrand and vineyards growing luscious grapes for sun-kissed wines were prevalent in this region, of course. Every home might have had its own wine press which could also be used to press apples for cider.

I don’t know where the free wine tavern was located, or if the building still exists, but Fussgoenheim wasn’t very large, so it was assuredly in one of the buildings on the main street – the only street at the time. My guess would be about dead center – equally accessible to everyone. Perhaps by the market center or shared grazing meadow for livestock.

Here’s a link to a beautiful historic German tavern that might have resembled the one in Fussgoenheim.

No machine-readable source provided. Own work assumed (based on copyright claims)., CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=384908

I can see Adam and the other bürgers, village citizens, pulling up a chair and gathering around the time-worn tables as they lift their glasses, perhaps with a beautiful, clear Riesling made from the world’s finest Pfalz white grapes, and mugs of much-loved German beer.

Here’s to the free wine tavern that was important enough to be recorded for posterity.

  1. Seventhly, the community is entitled (granted) to the freedom to hunt the free pastureland, which every commoner in the whole region is entitled to do freely and without hindrance in such a way that he is entitled to shoot, hunt, target, with or without a dog, and be able to possess, when and where he thinks fit, what justice for hunting the flock has obviously been driven by the inconceivable years and is in constant possession of that, as it were, which the daily actus possessorij testify abundantly (indicate) (10.

8-16…(11

17-19 [Concerning the properties belonging to the community; due to the loss of the preceding articles the list of wisdom in the submission is incomplete.]

The community reminded the people that it was commonplace and customary in ancient times that those who sat in the village were not supported by any craftsmen (counted among the craftsmen,) so even though the lords of the manor may have the right to set up a branch (number) and to draw the craftsmen to it, the community does not recognize itself as guilty, These people take over their work in this, and are intent on remaining in the work with such, but to keep the free hand in this, to take over frembde outside the place to villages (except for the assumption of the village) (12.

1) In the notarial deed follow:

a) Remarks of the notary about the motivations that led him to make the legitimate request of SchultheijJ and GeTicht, and about the years he had initiated: first of all, he had to approve the 7 congregational and members of the court by the Shiirjste remembers, probably all of them and read points and then to take them into account at every what they themselves know of this and what they can expect from their parents or ancestors professed to have been or to have done something; and so that all may be stable and strong, and serve the community and the descendants instead of a wisdom [!], they have been reproached to give previously hand faithfully to the aydtes instead of giving them, yes, if necessary further on to give the real aydt, which handgelobniis presents the same freely, after they had previously been pleasantly protected from false zeugniis and mayneydt warned themselves to hiiten;

b) “interrogatoria generalia” meaning the name, age, religion, status and profession of each de: 7 respondents of recent questions, whether born in F. or how long otherwise there ansiissig whether knowledge of the war loss of the Briejschajten, protocols and other evidence, including whether or not everyone is willing to testify truthfully to say what he knows himself or what he knows from his parents or others old people in the Dorj about the rights, righteousness and property

I heard from Doris F.

2) The parties all agree; one of them remarks with regard to the second sentence that he remembers that the mr. brother of KeJ31er once wanted to hold the court, but the most merciful body-ruler had forbidden it, whatever remained.

3) Is confirmed unanimously by all the respondents, but one of them adds that he himself had never had a field, and a another reports that his stepfather seye had also been a buttel (servant or farmhand), probably but did not enjoy the field.

4) The respondents affirmed read out the sentence.

5) The text of this article and statements 1-6 auj Bl, 11 and 12 are lost. Ojjenbar deals with art. 4 of taxes, because the answer of Adam Gijjt received in Bl. 13 is that dajJ it as he remembers what he heard from his father in F. and that he had only given a headline in F. and that Taxes on 3 Turks, Friulia and county taxes I know nothing.

6) i.e. to protect, preserve.

7) i.e. acquired.

8) In detailed statements, all seven respondents confirm the traditional freedom from Fronden. One of them answers that he doesn’t know that he threatened to kill someone. or only one horse biB to the village, likewise also of his old father, who turned 88 years old, never ground heard that she froze; another testifies that he knows not otherwise, but that they are joyful, that they have heard such things even from old ones, even that one not once had to go out before the village,

The answers of Adam Kirsch and Jacob Antes see in Heimatbl. Ludwigshajen 1921 No. 10 and at Merk p. 153 if. However, moreover, it is implied that every Dorjteil its 14 Malter Beethkorn (Bedekorn) jiihrlich the rulerajt auj 4 hours far (to Neustadt or Dilrkheim); the carnival pilgrims miljJJten through the youngest Bilrger after “Fremersheim” near Alzey.

My German friend, Chris’s commentary: “I tried to locate the “Heimatblätter von Ludwigshafen […]”, which is one of the sources. It seems difficult to get those, they are not online and physically only in a few libraries.”

Chris explained the above entry: “Beede” or “Bede” originally was a kind of “voluntary gift” to the lords, which over time developed in a kind of tax. “Malter” is an old corn measure.

“Chickens for carnival” maybe needs to be explained as well, he said. “In former times, taxes were usually imposed at specific times of the year. This could be New Year, Christmas, Easter… in this case Carnival time. And as many people did not have real money in coins, they gave their tax in the form of natural goods, in this case, chickens.”

Now, of course, I wonder when Carnival was held. I’m betting on the fall when wine was pressed and produce harvested. That would be a logical time for celebration and wine made everyone feel festive. Think Oktoberfest today.

Oktoberfest was born in Germany, and everyone joins in and has fun.

We know that Adam’s descendants played in the band and sang in the choir in Fussgoenheim, a century later.

Chris interprets this section to mean that, “Essentially, what Adam Kirsch and the others are telling is that they never in their lifetime had to do any compulsory labor (“Frondienst”, or in the old term used here: “Fronden”, as a verb for the service “fröhnen”, “gefröhnet”) for the landlords. To my understanding, the purpose of the “Weistum” texts was an interesting ones: Today, we would assume that every landlord just imposed the new laws on the village, as they pleased. But in medieval right and apparently even in 1717, it was even more important to keep the rights of the people based on the local habits. So, if there are several Fussgoenheim inhabitants stating that they never had to do compulsory labor, then this would be a right they would also have in the future. And this, as other things, seems to have been a matter on which the village people were fighting about with the later von Hallberg lords.”

9) The respondents confirm this freedom of the villagers, whereby one of them (Hans Nickel Coop) remarks that in the front of the village above he could not report anything else than how the same have been confessed, which freedom has also been granted there, but hiitte of such a one who rules, who is compelled to desire something, who rules there as well, after but his father, as the schoolmaster, has contradicted this same thing, his finite and no longer desired anything, but stayed away.

10) Only two responses to this article have been received in the submission, both of which are in agreement; the second respondent responded [a, as he himself had done for the 40 years of such justice in the act driven here, also heard by his father, that it came from this way seye, and seye also alhier burgers, who take it.

11) These articles (pp. 17-22 of the template) jehlen.

12) This legal sentence is also confirmed as correct by the seven interviewees; in F. it is stated that never gave Zilnjte. There follows the notarial certification with the signatures and the partially preserved seals of the notary Johann Henrich Noretuiorji, councillor of Speyer, and the two witnesses Falck and Fedth.

a) Anjang jehU, cf. the preliminary remark.

b) behind this word oiienbar a rest sign.

Johann Adam’s Death

After the 1717 reference, we know little other than Johann Adam was deceased before 1743 when the property lines were redrawn by the Hallberg family with the intention of expanding their holdings at the expense of the townspeople. Ironic that Adam’s 1717 testimony may have influenced or even saved his family 36 years later, in 1753, when the Kirsch family once again returned to Fussgoenheim and by court order, reclaimed at least some of their land.

There are no church records before 1726, and no Kirsch burials before 1734. Adam’s wife, Anna Maria Koob, is the first Kirsch burial recorded in the book.

21 March 1734 Anna Maria Kirschin, lawfully wed wife of Adam Kirsch, buried in a Christian manner?, died on the 18th of the same (month); aged 54 years.

Her burial record says, “Anna Maria Kirsch(in), wife of Adam Kirsch,” not widow, nor does it refer to him as “former” or “deceased.” This suggests that Adam is still alive in 1734.

However, his death is not recorded in the church books through 1742.

In 1743, the Kirsch families were evicted from Fussgoenheim because they refused to sanction a fraudulently drawn map by von Hallberg, but there is no indication that Adam Kirsch is one of the people booted, although I all Kirsch men seemed to have been removed. There are no Kirsch burials beginning in 1743 for the next two decades. My friend Tom checked Ellerstadt too, with no luck.

Adam could have still been living.

Adam’s son, Michael Kirsch, the Mayor, owned three properties in 1743, shown on that map, likely inherited from Adam.

Adam’s Children’s Marriages Bracket His Death

We don’t really know if Adam was married once or twice.

If Walter is right and Adam Kirsch was married first to Ms. Greulich who died in 1706, daughter of Adam Greulich, and first child Michael Kirsch was indeed born about 1700, then Adam’s first child was by his first wife.

  • Johann Michael Kirsch’s first child was born about 1725, and his second unquestionably in 1726, so it’s unlikely that Michael was born after 1706. His birth year is approximated as 1700.

Adam Kirsch’s next children with Anna Maria Koob, born in 1680, were:

  • Johann Wilhelm Kirsch born about 1706, married Maria Catharina Spanier in 1727. This marriage entry does not say that Adam is deceased, and refers to him as the sibling of the mayor.
  • Maria Catharina Kirsch 1715-1778, married Johannes Neumann on May 5, 1739. In the marriage entry, it states that she is the daughter of the “late honorable Johann Adam Kirsch, former Palatinate Unterfauth.”
  • Peter Kirsch, born about 1716, married in 1736 to Maria Barbara Spanier, died before 1760.
  • Johann Jacob Kirsch, born about 1718, married Maria Catharina Schuhmacher in February 1740, his marriage also stating that Johann Adam Kirsch, Unterfauth, was deceased.

While we have no records, children were probably being born until about 1723. Any children who were born and died before 1726 would not have been recorded, as the church books either didn’t exist or have been destroyed.

It’s certainly possible that Adam’s first wife died in about 1703 or 1704 giving birth to their second child who also perished.

If Adam Kirsch remarried in about 1705, he and Anna Maria Koob would have had approximately 9 children, only 4 of which are accounted for. They likely buried 5 babies or young children. If Anna Maria Koob was his only wife and the mother of Michael, they likely lost two additional children.

Adam died sometime between March of 1734 when his wife passed away, and May of 1739 when his daughter married.

We know that in that five year window, the family was living in Fussgoenheim, the new church had been built, and his wife was laid to rest in the churchyard. Adam likely had more children than is reflected in the marriage records. If so, several probably passed as infants and are buried in the churchyard with Adam, most of his adult children, grandchildren and wife or wives. There’s a lot of sorrow and a lot of love buried there.

Lives celebrated by the minister at the funeral, and then, later, at the wine tavern, sharing memories that made everyone laugh and cry, perhaps at once.

We know so little about Johann Adam Kirsch’s life, yet it was obviously full of adventures and challenges – although the word adventure may not be at all how he viewed the situation.

Adam grew up as a refuge, became a young mayor by 1701 when there may have been few others to serve, and was clearly a respected elder by 1717. He buried at least one wife, if not two, and children. He may have died, a refuge one again, refusing to capitulate to an overlord, resting on principle. Willing to wager for “all or nothing.”

The 1753 “accounting” document that details further information about the descendants of Johann Georg, Jerg, Kirsch, in particular those expelled from the village in 1743 for a decade, may reveal more about Johann Adam’s life, and death – and perhaps details about his first wife, if she existed, as well.

I feel that we are just so tantalizingly close to disclosing more in the buried crumbs of records that remain about the quaint vintner village of Fussgoenheim. So close, but so far away.

A toast to you, Adam! A toast to you.

___________________________________________________________

Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Products and Services

Genealogy Research

Y DNA Haplogroup P Gets a Brand-New Root – Plus Some Branches

With almost 35,000 branches comprised of 316,000 SNPs, branches on the Y DNA tree are split every day. In fact, roughly 1000 branches are being added to the Y DNA tree of mankind at Family Tree DNA each month. I wrote about how to navigate their public tree, here, and you can view the tree, here. You can also read about Y DNA terminology, here.

Splitting a deep, very old branch into subclades is unusual – and exciting. Finding a new root, taking the entire haplogroup back another notch in time is even more amazing, especially when that root is 46,000 years old.

Haplogroup P is the parent haplogroup of both Q and R.

This portion of the 2010 haplogroup poster provided to Family Tree DNA conference attendees shows the basic branching structure of haplogroup P, R and Q, with haplogroup P being defined at that time by several equivalent SNPs that had not yet been split into any other subgroups or branches of P. Notice that P295 is shown, but not F115 or PF5850 which would be discovered in years to come.

Haplogroup R, a subclade of P, is the most common haplogroup in Europe, with roughly half of European men falling on some branch of haplogroup R.

Map and haplogroup R distribution courtesy of FamilyTreeDNA

In Ireland, nearly all men fall into a subgroup of haplogroup R.

A lot of progress has been made in the past decade.

This week, FamilyTreeDNA identified a split in haplogroup P, upstream of haplogroups Q and R, establishing a new root above haplogroup P-P295.

The Previous 2020 Tree

This is a 2020 “before” picture of the tree as it pertains to haplogroup P. You can see P-P295 at the top as the root or beginning mutation that defined haplogroup P. That was, of course, before this new discovery.

click to enlarge

At Family Tree DNA, according to this tree where testers self-identify the location of their most distant known patrilineal ancestor, haplogroup P testers are found in multiple Asian locations. Some haplogroup P kits may have only purchased specific SNP tests, not the full Big Y and would actually be placed on downstream branches if they upgraded. Haplogroup P itself is quite rare and generally only found in Siberia, Southeast Asia, and diaspora regions.

Subgroups Q and R are found across Europe and Asia. Additionally, some subgroups of haplogroup Q migrated across the land bridge, Beringia, to populate the Americas.

You might be wondering – if there are only a few people who fall directly into haplogroup P, how was it split?

Great question.

How Was Haplogroup P Split?

Testing of ancient DNA has been a boon to science and genealogy, both, and one of my particular interests.

Recently, Goran Runfeldt who heads the R&D team at FamilyTreeDNA was reading the paper titled Ancient migrations in Southeast Asia and noticed that in the supplementary material, several genomic files from ancient samples were available to download. Of course, that was just the beginning, because the files had to be aligned and processed – then the accuracy verified – requiring input from other team members including Michael Sager who maintains the Y DNA haplotree.

Additionally, the paper’s authors sequenced the whole genomes of two present-day Jehai people from Northern Parak State, West Malaysia, a small group of traditional hunter-gatherers, many of whom still live in isolation. One of those samples was the individual whose Y DNA provided the new root SNP, P-PF5850, that is located above the previous root of haplogroup P, P-P295.

Until this sample was analyzed by Goran, Michael and team, three SNPs, PF5850, P295 and F115, were considered to be equivalent, because no tie-breaker had surfaced to indicate which SNPs occurred in what order. Now we know that PF5850 happened first and is the root of haplogroup P.

I asked Michael Sager, the phylogeneticist at FamilyTreeDNA, better-known as “Mr. Big Y,” due to his many-years-long Godfather relationship with the Y DNA tree, how he knew where to place PF5850, and how it became a new root.

Michael explained that we know that P-PF5850 is the new root because the three SNPs that indicated the previous root, P295, PF5850 and F115 are present in all previous samples, but mutations at both P295 and F115 are absent in the new sample, indicating that PF5850 preceded what is now the old P root.

The two SNPs, P295 and F115 occurred some time later.

This sample also included more than 300 additional unique mutations that may become branches in the future. As more people test and more ancient samples are found and sequenced, there’s lots of potential for further branching. Even with more than 50,000 NGS Big-Y DNA tests in the Family Tree DNA database, there’s still so much we don’t know, yet to be discovered.

Amazingly, mutation P-PF5850 occurred approximately 46,000 years ago meaning that this branch had remained hidden all this time. For all we know, he might be the only man left alive with this particular lineage of mankind, but it’s likely more will surface eventually.

click to enlarge

Michael Sager had previously analyzed samples from The population history of northeastern Siberia since the Pleistocene by Sikora et al. You’ll notice that additional branches of haplogroup P are reflected in ancient samples Yana1 and Yana2 which split P-M45, twice.

Branch Definitions

Today, haplogroup branches are defined by their SNP name, except for base and main branches such as P, P1, P2, etc. Haplogroup P is very old and you’ll find it referred to as simply P, P1 or P2 in most literature, not by SNP name. Goran labeled the old branch names beside the current SNP names, and provided a preliminary longhand letter+number branch name with the * for explanatory purposes.

The problem with the old letter+number system is that when new upstream branches are inserted, the current haplogroup “P” has to shift down and become something else. That’s problematic when reading papers. In order to understand which SNP the paper is actually referencing, you have to know what SNP was labeled as “P” at the time the paper was written.

For example, a new P was just defined, so P becomes P1, but the previous P1 has to become something else, resulting in a domino effect of renaming. While that’s not a significant issue with haplogroup P, because it has seldom changed, it’s a huge challenge with the 17,000+ haplogroup R branches. Hence, the transition several years ago to using SNP names such as P295 instead of the older letter+number designations such as P, which now needs to become something like P1.

Haplogroup Ages

Goran was kind enough to provide additional information as well, including the estimated “Time to Most Recent Common Ancestor,” or TMRCA, a feature currently in development for all haplogroups. You can see that P-PF5850 is estimated to be approximately 46,000 years old, “ca 46 kybp,” meaning “circa 46 thousand years before present.”

The founding ancestor of haplogroup Q lived approximately 31,000 years ago, and ancestral R lived about 28,000 years ago, someplace in Asia. Their common ancestor, P-P226, lived about 33,000 years ago.

How cool is this that you can peer back in time to view these ancient lineages – the story still told in our Y DNA today.

What About You?

If you’re a male, you can upgrade to or purchase a Big Y-700 to participate, here. In addition to discovering where you fall on the tree of mankind, you’ll discover who you match on your direct patrilineal side and where their ancestors are located in the world.

_____________________________________________________________

Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Products and Services

Genealogy Research

Deleting DNA Results or Closing Your Account Does NOT Automatically = Destroying Your Original DNA Sample

First and foremost, I want to state unequivocally that I am NOT advocating closing your account at any of the testing vendor sites. That’s not the purpose of this article. In fact, I encourage everyone to use each tool to extract every drop of information possible.

The purpose is to educate and inform you that IF you close your account and/or delete your DNA RESULTS from your account, even if the vendor in question says that the action is irreversible and you will need to resubmit a new sample and purchase a new test if you change your mind, that does NOT necessarily mean that your physical DNA sample itself will be destroyed unless you take separate action to request sample destruction. It also does not automatically reverse any previously-granted research permissions.

Many people presume that if they delete their results and/or close their account, that automatically means that their original spit or swab sample is destroyed – and that’s not necessarily true.

First, we need to understand the difference between:

  • A DNA sample
  • A DNA raw data results file, also referred to as a download file
  • DNA matches or a match file

The Difference Between a DNA Sample, Results and Download Files, and Matches

There are three distinct parts of the DNA testing process that people often confuse. It’s important to understand these distinct pieces because you interact with them differently and vendors do as well. In other words, deleting your DNA results file, or closing your account does not necessarily mean that your original sample is destroyed unless you request (and confirm) that separately.

DNA Sample – The DNA sample itself is the swab or vial of spit that you submit to the vendor for processing. That sample is sent to a lab where DNA is extracted and processed on a specific DNA chip that produces a file with roughly 700,000 locations for autosomal tests.

After your DNA results are processed and the vendor knows that they do not need to rerun your sample, how or if your DNA sample is stored, and where, is a function of each specific vendor and their policies.

One vendor, Family Tree DNA archives your DNA sample vials for 25 years as a free benefit so that you (or your heirs should you pass away) can order additional products or upgrades. FamilyTreeDNA offers various levels of Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA testing along with autosomal (Family Finder) results – so there are several upgrade avenues.

This short article, 4 Kinds of DNA for Genetic Genealogy, explains the difference between various kinds of DNA tests.

It’s less obvious why a vendor who does not offer genealogical DNA products other than autosomal testing would retain a customer’s actual DNA sample. The other three vendors, while they don’t currently offer additional genealogy DNA products, do offer health upgrades and purchase options. They may be retaining samples so that their customers could potentially upgrade and they would have a sample on-hand to rerun, if necessary.

Both MyHeritage and 23andMe offer a combined ancestry/genealogy plus health product initially, or customers can purchase the health add-on later. FamilyTreeDNA offers a high-end comprehensive Exome health product for existing customers, the Tovana Genome Report, but it’s a different test altogether and requires a fresh DNA sample.

Furthermore, both Ancestry and 23andMe either conduct health/medical research internally and/or participate in research partnerships with outside entities and may be hoping that their customers will opt-in to research.

Regardless of the underlying reason why, keep in mind that your actual sample is likely being archived someplace, assuming there is any left after processing, unless you request that your sample be destroyed.

Refer to each vendor’s Terms and Conditions, their Privacy Policy along with any other linked documents to gain insight into how each vendor operates. Furthermore, one of those documents will provide instructions for how to request the destruction of your actual DNA sample, should you choose to do so.

All vendors change the contents of their Terms and Conditions along with other legal documents from time to time, so be sure to refer to the current version.

The DNA sample itself is NOT the same thing as the output from the processing, which is the DNA raw data results file.

DNA Raw Data Results File – The DNA results file contains only a small fraction of the three billion locations found in the human genome. Autosomal DNA tests include only about 700,000 (plus or minus) selected locations produced by the chip the vendor is utilizing. The output of the laboratory process is referred to as a raw data file or the DNA results file. People sometimes refer to this as the download file as well, because it’s the file you can download from each vendor.

The results in a raw data file look like this:

When you download and transfer your file from one vendor to another, the raw data file is what you are transferring. You can find instructions for downloading your data file from each vendor, here.

  • The DNA raw data or download file is NOT your actual DNA, which is what is extracted from the liquid in the vial.
  • The raw data or download file is NOT a list of your matches, which may or may not be a separate file available for downloading, depending on the vendor.

The raw data file only contains letters representing your two genotyped nucleotides (T, A, C or G) for the rsid (accession #) for each genetic address or position tested. Each genetic address contains two SNPs, or single nucleotide polymorphisms. You don’t need to understand the details, just that one nucleotide at that address is received from your mother and one from your father.

The example above shows my first 4 locations in my raw data file. You can see that I received an A from both parents at the first two locations, and a G from both parents and the second two locations.

Match File

The values in your DNA results file are compared to other people in the vendor’s database. If enough contiguous locations match, typically more than 500 matching SNPs, plus additional cM (centiMorgan) threshold match criteria, shown below, you are determined to be a match with that other person. You will each be placed on the other person’s match list, and the vendor will then provide additional processing based on the signature features they offer to their clients.

Of the four main vendors, three, Family Tree DNA, MyHeritage and 23andMe allow customers to download a match file in spreadsheet format that provides additional information about each match. Ancestry, unfortunately, does not.

You cannot upload your match file to other vendors – only your raw data file gets uploaded which the vendor then processes in the same way they would if you had tested at their company.

If someone on your match list wants to be included in the database at another vendor, they will either need to test at that vendor or transfer their file to that vendor. Every vendor has people in their database that the other vendors don’t have, so it behooves all genealogists to be in each of the four databases either by testing directly or uploading their raw data files as a transfer.

Of the four main vendors, FamilyTreeDNA and MyHeritage both accept transfers from other vendors and provide free matching, but 23andMe and Ancestry do not. Note that both FamilyTreeDNA and MyHeritage do charge for advanced features, $19 and $29, respectively, but in both cases, it’s significantly less than the cost of a test.

Deleting Results and Closing Accounts

Again, I am NOT advocating that anyone should close accounts at any vendor. In fact, I would discourage DNA deletion. Some people delete their DNA or close their accounts when other options would better serve their purposes. However, if you decide to do so, you need to be aware of the following:

  • If you have a genealogical tree/records research account at Ancestry or MyHeritage, you can delete your DNA results but maintain your genealogy research account, if you desire. You will lose the benefits of having a DNA test at that vendor if you delete your DNA test.
  • At those two vendors, if you delete your DNA, that does not automatically affect the genealogy side of your account except for combined features like ThruLines at Ancestry and Theories of Family Relativity at MyHeritage.
  • If you DOWNLOAD your DNA file, that does NOT delete the file at the original testing vendor unless you do so separately. Downloading only means that you download a copy of the file. Your original raw data results file is still at the vendor, UNLESS YOU CHOOSE TO DELETE YOUR RESULTS. Do not delete your results file unless you want to lose your matches and no longer participate in DNA testing or DNA-related features at that vendor.
  • If you are planning to delete your DNA results at a particular vendor, download a raw data file first, and verify that the file works correctly by uploading the file to one of the vendors that accepts transfers. Save the raw data file permanently on your computer. This preserves at least some of your testing investment and allows you to utilize your DNA results file elsewhere.
  • If you delete your DNA results at any of the major vendors, you cannot restore the results file at that vendor without repurchasing and resubmitting a new DNA test. For vendors who accept transfers, you could potentially re-upload your file as a transfer, but you would need to pay for advanced features.
  • If you delete your DNA results at vendors who do NOT offer additional genealogical research services, meaning at 23andMe and Family Tree DNA, there is no reason to maintain an account at that vendor.

If you delete your results or close your account at any vendor, it DOES mean that:

  • The DNA result you’ve deleted along with corresponding matches and other features are permanently gone. You cannot change your mind. Delete=permanent.
  • At FamilyTreeDNA, you can delete one kind of DNA test without deleting all types of DNA tests for a particular individual. For example, you could delete a Y DNA result but not delete mitochondrial or the autosomal Family Finder test.
  • You will have to pay to retest should you change your mind.

If you delete your results or close the DNA portion of your account, it DOES NOT necessarily mean that:

  • Your DNA sample is destroyed.
  • You’ve revoked any permissions previously given for participation in research.

You will need to perform both of these tasks separately and independently of deleting your DNA file at a vendor and/or closing your account.

Every Vendor is Different

The process of requesting sample destruction and revoking research permissions is different at each vendor, with or without closing your account.

Every vendor’s terms and conditions are separate and different. Some vendors may automatically close your account if you request sample destruction, and others won’t. Some may automatically delete your sample if you close your account, but I know for certain that’s not uniformly true.

Terms and conditions, as well as standard procedures, change over time as well.

I’m not telling you which vendors operate in which ways, because this article will someday be dated and vendor policies change. I don’t want to take the chance of leading someone astray in the future.

Therefore, if you wish to have your sample destroyed and/or revoke any research permissions previously granted, I strongly suggest that you call the vendor’s customer support and convey specifically what you want, and why. The vendor may offer alternatives to achieve what you desire without deleting your sample and account.

To delete your sample and/or account, you may need to provide your request in writing.

Request verification in writing that your sample has been destroyed and that any previously granted research authority/permission has been rescinded.

Research Permission

Please note that you can rescind previously granted research permission WITHOUT affecting your account in any other way. However, the reverse is not true – deleting your sample and closing your account does not automatically rescind previously-granted research permission.

You can only rescind permission for future research, not research already underway or completed that includes your DNA and corresponding answers to research questions.

Extra Steps

I hope you will continue to enjoy the results of your DNA tests for years to come. New features and benefits are added regularly, as are new matches – any one of which has the potential to break down that pesky brick wall. Equally as important, at least to me, is the legacy I’m leaving with my combined tree, DNA, and research work for future generations.

However, what’s right for me may not be right for you. If you make a different decision, be sure that you fully understand the different parts of DNA testing along with the various options and steps you may need to take to achieve your goal.

_____________________________________________________________

Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Products and Services

Genealogy Research