About Roberta Estes

Scientist, author, genetic genealogist. Documenting Native Heritage through contemporaneous records and DNA.

The Surprise Reunion – 52 Ancestors #173

The retirement party invitation came in the mail a month or so ago.

A year before that, the veterinary practice that I had been frequenting since 1983 had been sold to a corporation. That’s common in the veterinary medicine practice as young doctors graduate from medical school with hundreds of thousands of dollars of debt and can no longer afford to purchase practices of older veterinarians wanting to retire.

Combine that with increasingly complex laws and regulations, along with an unfriendly small business environment in Michigan, and the only way out profitably for a veterinarian is to sell to a corporation who runs the practice from afar as one of many offices. I hated to see it, because much of the small office feel disappears and the doctors’ ability to use some amount of discretionary judgement is curtailed.

This month’s invitation was to a bittersweet celebration – a retirement party for Gary, a veterinarian who had just graduated from veterinary medical school when I first began with the practice 34 years ago. When the older vet retired, Gary and another younger vet bought the practice a few years later.

34 years. Where did those years go?

It’s wonderful that Gary gets to retire, something he richly deserves, but sad because one of the rocks, the foundations, the safety nets for the animals and their humans is gone. Gary’s partner retired a few years ago. The slow whittling away of a safe haven. Gary not only treated pets, but horses and wildlife too with compassion and humanity – often a thankless job.

Unlike a “normal” customer, I have had a bond with Gary that transcends normal.

Just to be clear, none of you are still suffering from the illusion that I’m “normal,” are you? I hope not. If so, just put that thought out of your mind. It’s much easier to understand me if you’re not saddled with that expectation.

In 1983, I was young mother, a professional in the computer field and a volunteer with the local Humane Society who did not have a shelter at that time, fostering animals in private homes like mine. I was also on my way to becoming a licensed wildlife rehabilitator.

I blame Gary, personally, for his encouragement.

There were days I saw Gary more than I saw my family – and that’s no joke. There was one month I saw Gary every day.  Every. Single. Day.  That says something about him and me both.

But I wasn’t the only one that Gary encouraged. There was a cadre!

The photo above includes Gary, dead center, which I explained to him was his just punishment – and 5 ladies who hadn’t seen each other in decades.

Picture this if you will.

My husband and I are behaving ourselves, acting properly, at the reception today. I was striving for normal.

See the woman in the red coat?

She’s a troublemaker. Extraordinaire.

I have not seen said troublemaker in at least 20 years, but at one time she and I were “partners,” not in crime, but in rescue operations. In fact, she had the key to my (previous) house and she had the NERVE to leave “surprises” for me. You know, like pregnant animals ready to deliver, or whatever she deemed in need at the moment.

And you don’t even want to know what she told my mother about me, but I digress.

So, like I said, I’m standing there behaving myself when some female in a red coat is pointing at me from across the room accusingly and proclaims, “You, Bobbi Estes.”

The volume of the room quickly dropped as conversation stopped and people began staring at me. I was relieved for just a moment that no one said “there’s the cat lady,” or “the DNA Lady,” like happened in the restroom at the Tennessee State archives one time.

Now, given that she used my nickname, I knew there was no use in denying that she knew me, but I looked around behind me just in case anyway to see if there was anyone else I could blame.

My husband slowly walked away. This is not his first rodeo.

Taking a closer look at the woman in red, I realized that this was indeed my former partner – and I quickly scanned through the stories in my mind to take stock of how much trouble I was actually in.

Ummm….potentially a lot. But then, so is she. That knife cuts two ways.

I decided to fess up to being me, because people were still staring at me, and made my way through the crowd in her direction. I hugged Linda – it really was great to see her – and she said, “look behind you.”

I turned around to see the lady at far right, Chris, sitting across the room. I almost didn’t recognize her.

I don’t think I’ve seen Chris since before 1993 when my own life took a tragic left turn, and I had to resign from the Humane Society board as well as volunteer activities.

Chris was at that time the tireless President of the organization, saving countless animals and ushering in a new environment that ultimately led to the Humane Society as it stands today.

As I excitedly traversed the room to hug Chris, she said, “Did you see Caroline?”

“Caroline who?” I asked, as Chris pointed behind me to yet another part of the room.

Then, I saw the lady in the brown coat at far left.

Caroline is probably single-handedly responsible for the salvation of more small heartbeats than any other person I’ve ever known. She has worked unceasingly for more than 50, if not 60, years saving animals discarded by others – and still does! I can’t count the number of trips in the middle of the night she made to scoop some poor unfortunate up off the road – and then to the dark office to meet Gary, the vet who could always be counted upon to help any animal in need.

Sometimes we weren’t successful, and we cried – together with our rescue partner if someone was available to help when the call came in. Sometimes in the otherwise dark office with Gary. Sometimes in our car alone. Soldiers together in an unending, never-finished war. Those were our days in the trenches.

When I motioned for Linda to come and join us in our glorious hug-fest, the lady in black, Sharon, standing beside Gary in the photo, was talking to Linda.

Sharon works at the vet’s office, but she has also been involved with rescue and dog training for so long that I can’t remember not knowing her – at least 20 years.

What are the chances of all of us attending the reception at the same time?

Synchronicity? Divine intervention? Our just punishment? Veterans in a holy war.

Sometimes life just happens – moves fast and we drift apart.

Nothing intentional – but the reunion was akin to being raised from the dead.

However, we’re not done with this story yet, because that troublemaker in the red coat – the one who was such a BAD influence on me for so long. The one who owned “Linda House” on her family land in Tennessee that we visited together – the Moore family land. That one.

You see it coming don’t you???

Yep, you guessed it. We’re cousins, or at least we think we are. A possibility discovered by other genealogists sharing information back and forth – DNA projects – deciphering which Moore lines are which – when invariably someone from Alabama sent her my name as a resource. You see, I have a Moore family too and the Moores are a tangled-up mess. I was the one trying to sort through the various families using Y DNA when Linda began doing genealogy after she retired.

Since we’ve been fortunate enough to reconnect, even though the party was SUPPOSED to be for Gary (although you’d never know that by looking at our picture below), we’ve made arrangements to resume our unplanned reunion.

Regularly.

Beginning a week from Monday. Preferably this time not in the midst of the blood and the mud and constant anguish over not being able to do enough, fast enough…but at a restaurant where we will commence telling stories about one another.

But Linda, troublemaker Linda, she gets to swab for DNA before she gets to eat!

This amazing day certainly didn’t end the way it began.

Nothing bittersweet here.

Maybe Gary’s retirement involved more destiny than we knew. He solidified our purpose for all those years and we bracketed his career.

Old friends really are the best blessing! What a glorious day. I think we’re the ones who received the gift.

Thanks for one last favor, Gary!

Black Friday, Holiday and DNA Sales by Any Other Names

Now that DNA testing has gone mainstream, with more and more people interested and testing – it’s the perfect time to purchase kits for yourself and family.

Remember, genetic genealogy is a team sport and the more people who test, the more successful everyone will be!

This is the first year that there have been numerous companies having pre-holiday sales, Black Friday sales, Cyber Sales and any other kind of sale they can have to attract attention.  A rose by any other name is still a sale😊

My first suggestion is to stay mainstream.  Because of the popularity of DNA testing, many new companies are jumping on the bandwagon with somewhat questionable products.  Don’t get caught up purchasing something you really didn’t mean to purchase and whose results are sketchy, at best.

Therefore, I’m listing the companies I consider to be mainstream below, whether or not I’m 100% comfortable with their products or terms and conditions.  As always, the companies I link to, I do recommend and feel that their products bring the best value to consumers transparently and without other agendas.  You can read more about the individual companies and their products as I’ve discussed their products and services over time by utilizing the little search icon at the right hand side of the blog page.

Who To Test With?

My recommendation is to unquestionably take the following genealogy tests, minimally:

  • Autosomal DNA (Family Finder test) at Family Tree DNA includes ethnicity, matching and advanced tools
  • Y DNA Test (males only) at Family Tree DNA for patrilineal line, includes haplogroup estimate and matching
  • Mitochondrial DNA Test at Family Tree DNA for matrilineal line includes matching and haplogroup
  • AncestryDNA autosomal test includes ethnicity and matching

There is an entire range of secondary testing companies that I would add after that, with the autosomal matching tests the highest priority:

  • MyHeritage autosomal test includes matching and ethnicity
  • 23andMe autosomal test includes matching, ethnicity and haplogroups

Other tests don’t provide matching, but do provide interesting features:

Not a testing company, but genealogy research provided by:

Last, a new startup company with cool DNA gear:

If you want to research the pros, cons and details of the tests and what each company offers, please read these two articles:

If you’re an adoptee or looking for an unidentified parent or grandparent, you’ll want to test at all 4 companies that provide matching to other testers:

Ready, set, go….sales!

The Sales

Let’s look at the sales being offered at each company.

Family Tree DNA

Family Tree DNA has announced a Black Friday sale on their Family Finder autosomal test priced at $49 which you can order here.

However, many other tests are on sale as well and will continue to be on sale throughout the holiday season.

Family Tree DNA’s holiday sale began on November 12th and will continue through the end of the year.  Sale items include Y and mitochondrial DNA, their autosomal Family Finder test, and some upgrades – most notably – the Big Y which includes a free upgrade to a 111 STR test.

Their autosomal Family Finder test includes ethnicity, matching to relatives as well as a dozen or so tools to help you with your genealogy.

Family Tree DNA is definitely the most sophisticated testing company, providing the most tools without the need for an added subscription.

In addition to their Holiday Sale, they post a Holiday Rewards coupon to the personal page of everyone who have already tested.  I provide mine from the multiple accounts I manage weekly for people to share.

Recent articles about the Big Y testing and sales include:

If you’ve every considered Y DNA testing (for males) or you have already tested and would like to purchase the Big Y, now is definitely the time.

Ancestry

Ancestry.com autosomal DNA kits are on sale for $79 in the US.

Ancestry’s Black Friday/Cyber Monday sale provides the same kit for £49 in the UK.

These kits include both ethnicity and matching, but please be aware that only about half of the features are available without at least a minimal subscription.

Be sure to review the terms and conditions carefully before purchase to assure that you are comfortable with the ways in which your DNA may be shared with other entities.

MyHeritage

The MyHeritage autosomal test is on sale for $49 but the sale only runs through November 27th. They are also offering free shipping on 3 kits or more.

You can order here.

23andMe

23andMe is offering their autosomal test which includes ethnicity and matching at the price of 2 for $49 each for their Ancestry Service kit which is genealogy only, without the health traits.  Their Health plus Ancestry remains at its normal price.

Be sure to review the terms and conditions carefully before purchase to assure that you are comfortable with the ways in which your DNA may be shared with other entities.

Genographic Project

The Genographic Project kit which provides ethnicity plus Y (males only) and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups (males and females) regularly for $99.95, but reduced to $69 this weekend. The Genographic project does not provide matching but does support open research.

This price reflects that the Helix processing and kit is actually free, and you are only paying for the Genographic app.

LivingDNA

The LivingDNA test which provides ethnicity results focused on the British Isles plus Y (males only) and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups (males and females) is regularly offered for $159, but is $89 for Black Friday.

Insitome

First purchase only, $80 off plus free shipping.  What this really means is that you are receiving the Helix text kit for free and are only paying for the Insitome app, which is ALSO on sale.

I recently reviewed the Neanderthal and Metabolism apps here.

Insitome is announcing today that they are adding a third product focusing on Regional Ancestry.

Want a sneak peek? Here you go, compliments of Insitome!

In addition to the map above, testers will be receiving a migration map as well

I don’t have my own results yet to share with you, but as soon as I do, guaranteed, I’ll be writing an article.

You can order the Regional Ancestry product now for $19.99, but results won’t be available for delivery until around January 8th. The best deal is this weekend, but after Cyber Monday, the Ancestry Regional app is still on sale, as follows

  • From Black Friday – Cyber Monday
    • You get a free Helix DNA kit + shipping
    • First time purchasers get it for $19.99
    • 2nd time purchasers get it for $19.99
  • From Tuesday, November 28th – December 12th
    • You get free shipping from Helix
    • First time purchasers get it for $59.99
    • 2nd time purchasers get it for $19.99

I don’t think the $19 price is supposed to be available until Black Friday, but I notice it’s available now if you click on the “Order for myself” button through this link.  The price is adjusted in the shopping car. Click here to order.

Legacy Tree Genealogists

Legacy Tree Genealogists doesn’t do DNA testing, but they do a great job of genealogy research, especially if you have a brick wall.  In my case, this occurs with overseas research where I don’t know the language, the customs or even where records are kept.

Legacy Tree’s DNA related specialty is with adoptee and missing parent searches.  Their staff does include an awesome specialist in this type of research, Paul Woodbury.

To purchase genealogy research, or to obtain a quote, click here and use the code CYBER100 to obtain $100 off through November 29th. If you miss the Cyber Sale, you can always get $50 off by using this link and telling them Roberta referred you.

DNAGeeks

New to the scene, DNAGEEKS, founded by geneticists David Mittelman and Razib Kahn, doesn’t offer a DNA test, but does offer DNA themed garb, gadgets and coming soon, educational items. As everyone knows, I’m a HUGE fan of education and anything to encourage people to ask questions and become interested in DNA and DNA testing is wonderful

Also, DNAGEEKS gets the 2017 award for the coolest website picture, above!

My personal favorite item is the orange helix t-shirt – and yes, I’m ordering one.  Not even waiting for Santa!

I suggested to David Mittelman, that I would really like a helix cover for my iPhone.  A few hours later, he e-mailed me with this new product. I’m so geeked – pardon the pun. The great news is that you can order one too!

What do you think?  Your phone is the ONE thing everyone sees – so why not make a statement!

To order either the t-shirt or the phone case, click on this link, then Products, then Science Outreach Gear – but wait, there’s a coupon too.

A big thank you to DNAGEEKS for a special coupon only for my blog followers that gets you 15% off of anything Black Friday through Cyber Monday – just enter the following coupon code at checkout:

dnaexplained17

You can click here to view all of DNAGEEKS cool items and don’t forget the code.

_____________________________________________________________________

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This standard disclosure appears at the bottom of every article in compliance with the FTC Guidelines.

Hot links are provided to Family Tree DNA, where appropriate.  If you wish to purchase one of their products, and you click through one of the links in an article to Family Tree DNA, or on the sidebar of this blog, I receive a small contribution if you make a purchase.  Clicking through the link does not affect the price you pay.  This affiliate relationship helps to keep this publication, with more than 900 articles about all aspects of genetic genealogy, free for everyone.

I do not accept sponsorship for this blog, nor do I write paid articles, nor do I accept contributions of any type from any vendor in order to review any product, etc.  In fact, I pay a premium price to prevent ads from appearing on this blog.

When reviewing products, in most cases, I pay the same price and order in the same way as any other consumer. If not, I state very clearly in the article any special consideration received.  In other words, you are reading my opinions as a long-time consumer and consultant in the genetic genealogy field.

I will never link to a product about which I have reservations or qualms, either about the product or about the company offering the product.  I only recommend products that I use myself and bring value to the genetic genealogy community.  If you wonder why there aren’t more links, that’s why and that’s my commitment to you.

Thank you for your readership, your ongoing support and for purchasing through the affiliate link if you are interested in making a purchase at Family Tree DNA, or one of the affiliate links below:

Affiliate links are limited to:

Thanksgiving Suggestions From a Dysfunctional Family

I hope that you are enjoying or preparing to enjoy your Thanksgiving with family and friends.

I also hope that you are getting a breather – although if you’re the host or hostess, probably not. And if you’re the turkey, you’ve already breathed your last.

I have distinct memories of my Mom making herself crazy with food prep for company that we only saw once a year – at Thanksgiving. Some family members we were so glad to see…and then there were a couple of others.

I always felt terrible for Mom, but as a child, I really couldn’t do anything about the situation except to set the table and stay out from underfoot.

That’s changed, of course, and now I’m in her shoes, so, here are my (and my evil twin’s) Thanksgiving suggestions to get you through the day:

  • Help the hostess clean her house the day before, especially if she works outside the home which means her time is quite limited, or if she is older. In this case, “older” starts about age 30.
  • If you don’t want to do that, consider having Thanksgiving at your house and all of a sudden vacuuming at the hostess’s house will seem really attractive.
  • Have family members DNA swab BEFORE eating – that way if they begin to discuss politics during the meal and someone half the family stomps out – you’ll already have collected their DNA.
  • As soon as DNA swabbing is over, consider serving, as an appetizer, the brownies brought by your really laid-back cousin who lives in a medical marijuana state. There’s a reason why he smiles all the time. Thanksgiving will go much more smoothly.
  • Lend a hand – meaning be helpful. Do not be a smart-aleck and clap your hands. Otherwise, you’ll never know what is really in your food.
  • Do not give the hostess who has been up since 5 AM wrestling with a turkey and has not eaten anything all day long an alcoholic beverage, or one of those brownies.
  • Bring a dish – preferably with enough food in the dish to feed more than a goldfish. Yes, uncle, this means you.
  • Bring flowers for the table – nice flowers, not leftover half-dead mums from the frost earlier in the week.
  • Set the table before the meal with real, not paper, plates. Forks go on the left, knife at right closest to the plate and spoon to the right of that. Just put a roll of paper towels on the table for napkins.
  • If the hostess replaces the paper towels with cloth napkins, do not blow your nose on them.
  • It’s impolite to hang out on your cell phone during the meal. Also impolite anytime conversation is taking place. Yes, we can tell what you are doing in your lap or under the table.
  • However, it’s OK to go in the bathroom and discretely search for recipes that include Xanax, possibly as frosting for brownies. Christmas is only a month away and you have get to see these folks again.
  • The reason there is now a timer installed in the bathroom is because you took up residence in the ONLY bathroom last Thanksgiving for an hour and a half. Not cool. #notyouroffice
  • Clear the table after the meal. Don’t let the dog lick the plates even if you are done with them. At least not where anyone can see.
  • Help with the dishes. No, you cannot just throw the plates away. Also, see above.
  • Don’t disappear onto the couch leaving everything for someone else – especially not the same someone who cooked the meal. People have died for less.
  • If you do this and are married to the hostess, let’s just say you will have had your last child whether you meant to or not.
  • Watch the kids. Yes, your kids and someone else’s if need be. And that does not mean watch them get into trouble.
  • Do not feed said children your cousin’s special brownies. Or alcoholic beverages. That does not count as watching them.
  • Take a deep breath and drink in the scene, because everyone may not be here next year. It’s considered bad form to fantasize about who you would like to be absent next year.
  • Love them while you can, if you can.
  • Take a moment to remember those who have departed, but are still among the family in spirit this year. To honor them, discuss their most memorable moments. Like the summer Mom got her false teeth stuck in a corn cob, or maybe when she was cheering so hard for her grandson running at the state track meet that her dentures fell out of her mouth, onto the track below – causing him to be embarrassed and emotionally scarred for life. To hear him tell it anyway. He did have to go and hunt for them and pick them up as an auditorium full of people laughed. He waved those things like a trophy as he trotted off the track, waving at Grandma. She, on the other hand, was utterly mortified and tried to disappear into nothing. Yep, they will love haunt you for this.
  • On the other hand, there are the “other” still-living relatives. You know who you are.
  • Speaking of which, if you are the lecherous uncle, this might not be the year. Just saying…
  • On second thought, if you’re the lecherous uncle, become suddenly vegetarian and stay home, because knives are sharp and so are memories.
  • If you’re not the lecherous uncle, but he has the bad judgement to attend, again, spend your time walking from person to person, whisper behind your hand into their ear, look at him furtively and nod in his direction as you’re whispering.
  • Write #metoo on postit notes and leave them where Uncle Lecherous will find them at the most inopportune times. Or, better yet, stick one on the bottom of his cup where he won’t see it, but others will. Every. Time. He. Takes. A. Drink. Act surprised and after an hour or two, say aloud “I wonder what that is stuck to your cup” and everyone else can chime in, “Me too.”
  • It is not OK to out grandma at the dinner table, no matter how happy you are to have discovered that Uncle Lecherous is only your half uncle. This massive faux pas will cause you to become immediately and permanently exiled to the “bad” list as well as the children’s table. Just be silently grateful to grandma.
  • Try really hard to appreciate everyone’s differences. If you can’t do that, attempt to be tolerant, unless Uncle Lecherous acts up again. If tolerance doesn’t work, or Uncle Lecherous needs his comeuppance, try not to get blood on anything. It makes a mess and stains.
  • If the family member with whom you have an altercation is genetically related and did not DNA swab before the altercation, attempt to recover some of their blood, so long as it’s not mixed with yours. (Just kidding, sortof.)
  • If you must altercate, do so preferably after dinner, outside. Do not upset the Thanksgiving table or use a drumstick or cast iron skillet as a weapon. Drumsticks are ineffective and you won’t have leftovers tomorrow, and you might damage the  skillet.
  • If the police arrive due to the altercation, hope that the officers are related (to you) and be prepared to feed them. I don’t know about donuts in the afternoon, but chocolate anything has been known to work as has pumpkin pie. However, do NOT allow anyone to give the officers the special brownies.
  • If the officers begin to ask questions about the brownies, tell them how happy you are that Uncle Lecherous brought his special secret-recipe brownies. Again, everyone can chime in with, “me too.” Watching the results will provide world-class entertainment and stories for decades!

I hope this has made you smile. Feel free to add your own “suggestions” in the comments!

The holidays are special and family gatherings are the time and place to share memories and swab family members while everyone is still in a good mood and before the fight begins.

Thanksgiving is a good time to prepare for the Christmas holidays by asking people to bring photos and other memorabilia to share.  Bring a scanner along with DNA swab kits.  Sharing gets everyone thinking about genealogy and they’ll be a lot more willing to swab if they are excited about their common family history and understand that their DNA is an important part of the puzzle.

Friday, and for some even later on Thanksgiving day, the great shopping rat-race begins. Here’s hoping you get to spend quality time with family and make Thanksgiving a day of peace and joy.

Safe journey and see you overhome!

Insitome’s Fun Neanderthal and Metabolism Apps

Insitome, pronounced In-sight-ome, as described here, a startup by Spencer Wells, former Director of The Genographic Project, is offering two (and soon more) apps that I found quite interesting.

Insitome partners with Helix, so you’re really working with two different companies, but it’s relatively transparent to the consumer.  Helix sequences your exome for a one time cost that is significantly under market price.

This article explains the relationship between Helix and Insitome.  If you google the title of the article, shown in the link below, you can then see the article behind the paywall for free. Yes, I’m quoted in the article, along with Spencer Wells, of course.

https://www.genomeweb.com/sequencing/insitome-launches-first-app-helix-questions-remain-about-impact-ancestry-test-providers

However, with Helix, you CANNOT obtain your raw Exome data to download and use as you wish.  The reason that Exome sequencing is offered by Helix at an artificially low price ($80 versus about $500) is that Helix provides a new marketplace model where Helix and their various partners are hoping to recoup Helix’s Exome processing investment when you purchase multiple application products from their partners – kind of like the Apple app store.

Hence, the Insitome motto “One and never done.”

This marketplace model means that you sequence your Exome once through Helix, and then purchase applications from partner developers like Insitome who utilize your Exome sequence to provide you with an array of results. You don’t purchase the Exome sequencing separately, it’s generally included with your first app purchase, and then future app purchases are simply add-ons.

By way of example, let’s just say that all apps cost $50. (They actually range widely from lower to higher.)  Your first app would cost $50 plus $80 for the Exome test for a total of $130.  Your second and all future apps would only cost $50.

I do have some thoughts to share on the Helix model, which I will do in a future article, but for now, I just want to share with you my Neanderthal and Metabolism results that I purchased through Insitome.

These were a lot of fun!

Neanderthal

As a history buff, I have always been very interested in Neanderthals – an interest which was multiplied exponentially when it was discovered that Neanderthals didn’t die out, just another dead branch on the human tree. Instead, Neanderthals assimilated into the European and Asian populations, along with their cousins, the Denisovans to become part of who we are today, assuming you have any European or Asian heritage.

I wrote about the Neanderthal discovery and what it means to us in the following articles:

Insitome Insights

Insitome’s platform is called Insights and is focused on providing you, the consumer, with insights into yourself.

Today, you can purchase two apps, the Neanderthal and Metabolism apps, and as you can see, there are more apps in the development stages. That’s the blurred out block.  I strained to see, but no luck!

Let’s see what the two apps available today tell me about myself.

I’m always looking for more insight, pardon that pun😊

Neanderthal

I was excited to see what Insitome had to say about my Neanderthal heritage.  Let that sink in for a minute.

Neanderthal HERITAGE.

Yes, in me.  I’ll never know their names, but pieces of those ancestors from tens of thoursands of years ago remain inside of me today – running in my veins! Enough to be recognizable when compared to the genomes recovered from Neanderthal and Denisovan bones.

When I was tested several years ago by the Genographic project, I received an initial Neanderthal percentage breakdown, but now, I’m going to be able to identify which of my traits are thanks to my Neanderthal ancestors.

Drum roll….

So, I carry 1.1% Neanderthal DNA. That’s less than I thought.

It’s absolutely imperative that you click on the “Begin Story” blue link just below your percentages.  In fact, this may just be the very best part of this app.  I would expect no less from Spencer Wells.

Your story is also interactive so in the section where the story discusses the adaptations for hair and skin color (pigmentation), and why they occurred, you can click to see your own result at the proper place.

It’s interesting that my Neanderthal results are smaller with Insitome than they were with the Genographic Project where I’m reported to be .8% Neanderthal and 1.4% Denisovan for a combined total of 2.2%.

Insitome refers to Denisovans as Eastern Neanderthal, so their 1.1% combines the Neanderthal and Denisovan.

What the Genographic Project does not provide is the breakdown of which of my traits are Neanderthal and which are Modern Human.

Insitome does.

And here’s the detail to be discovered by clicking on the trait itself, in this case, “Learning.”

I can then view my full history.

Interesting, there are 14 genes in total that comprise this cluster which I inherited from my Neanderthal forbearers.

Sure enough, further research shows that TANC1 is reported to be the center of visual learning. Isn’t it ironic that the Neanderthals were stereotyped to be lumbering, almost “pre-human,” unintelligent and their language was assumed to be a series of grunts with no perceptible words. We’re now learning more about our ancestors and they don’t seem to be nearly as primitive as first supposed.

Next, let’s look at Pathogen Recognition.

Again, clicking on “Read More” displays the full history which is just fascinating.

It’s interesting to think that my Neanderthal immune receptors for pathogen recognition may be the only reason I’m here today.  It makes me wonder how many times that this Neanderthal remnant saved the day, and no one ever knew, until now!

Metabolism

The second Insitome app that I purchased is Metabolism.

I need to tell you, up front, the same thing I told Spencer Wells. I’m extremely apprehensive about metabolism applications and claims made regarding metabolism and nutrition, especially those made by someone with something to sell you afterwards – like supplements.

Spencer told me that the Insitome app is nothing like that, so I purchased it to see.  He was right – the Insitome app tells me which of 8 metabolism traits I inherited from either the Hunter-Gatherer or the Farmer group of people.

In the history of humans, hunter-gatherers preceded farmers.  Farming began in the Fertile Crescent about 10,000 years ago and then slowly worked its way to Europe. Both of these groups had specific metabolic traits that their descendants carry today.

As with the Neanderthal app, please click on “Begin Story” for the fascinating history behind the information.

Did you know that your brain utilizes roughly 25% of your daily calorie intake?  Neither did I!

And beer, beer is a part of my heritage.

I knew it!

Well, let’s just say that explains a lot.

Look, both Alcohol Flush and Alcohol Tolerance are traits that one inherits from either their Hunter-Gatherer ancestors or their Farmer ancestors.

I carry the Hunter-Gatherer version of both alcohol related traits – meaning the more ancient versions.

This means I get sick more slowly from drinking too much alcohol.

Um, is that a good thing or a bad thing? I’m not sure.

Summary

You can see for yourself which of the following traits are inherited from your Neanderthal ancestors:

  • Pigmentation
  • Sun Damage Repair
  • Torso Shape
  • Learning
  • Fat Storage
  • High Altitude Adaptation
  • Interpreting Immune Signals
  • Pathogen Recognition
  • Viral Immune Response
  • Muscle Growth and Development

Which ones do you think you have that are Neanderthal?

As far as Metabolism is concerned, you will learn which of the following traits are the older Hunter-Gatherer or the younger Farmer.

  • Alcohol Flush
  • Alcohol Tolerance
  • Caffeine Metabolism
  • Calcium Absorption
  • Fat Synthesis
  • Glucose Tolerance
  • Vitamin D Absorption

If you’re going to order these tests, play a little game and write down which traits will be Neanderthal versus Modern Human and Hunter-Gatherer versus Farmer versions.

Then, order your kit or kits below and see if you were right.

  • Insitome’s Metabolism including Helix processing at $119.99 or $39.99 if you’ve already had Helix sequence your DNA.  However, right now, the Cyber Sale is in effect until November 27th and Helix processing is free, meaning the entire price for this app is only $39.99 and shipping is free too.
  • Insitome’s Neanderthal including Helix processing for $199.99 or $29.99 if you’ve already had Helix sequence your DNA.  The Cyber sale means that the total cost for this app is only $29.99 which includes Helix processing and shipping.

To get the Cyber Sale prices for these apps, just click on the blue links above and then on the “Order” button, and your promo code is automatically applied, adjusting the price accordingly.

Hmmm, I’m wondering if my kids and grandkids would like this for Christmas! Education disguised as fun. Maybe the adults could test the alcohol flush reaction as part of our own family scientific study.

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Standard Disclosure

This standard disclosure appears at the bottom of every article in compliance with the FTC Guidelines.

Hot links are provided to Family Tree DNA, where appropriate.  If you wish to purchase one of their products, and you click through one of the links in an article to Family Tree DNA, or on the sidebar of this blog, I receive a small contribution if you make a purchase.  Clicking through the link does not affect the price you pay.  This affiliate relationship helps to keep this publication, with more than 900 articles about all aspects of genetic genealogy, free for everyone.

I do not accept sponsorship for this blog, nor do I write paid articles, nor do I accept contributions of any type from any vendor in order to review any product, etc.  In fact, I pay a premium price to prevent ads from appearing on this blog.

When reviewing products, in most cases, I pay the same price and order in the same way as any other consumer. If not, I state very clearly in the article any special consideration received.  In other words, you are reading my opinions as a long-time consumer and consultant in the genetic genealogy field.

I will never link to a product about which I have reservations or qualms, either about the product or about the company offering the product.  I only recommend products that I use myself and bring value to the genetic genealogy community.  If you wonder why there aren’t more links, that’s why and that’s my commitment to you.

Thank you for your readership, your ongoing support and for purchasing through the affiliate link if you are interested in making a purchase at Family Tree DNA, or one of the affiliate links below:

Affiliate links are limited to:

Save Even MORE at Family Tree DNA – Join a Project! (Plus This Week’s Coupons)

In addition to the first three money saving discounts on Y DNA tests from Family Tree DNA, there’s yet another way to save even MORE money:

  • Holiday Sale Prices on all products – listed here
  • Free 111 marker upgrade with Big Y – described here
  • Why the Big Y Test? – discussed here
  • Weekly coupons – listed on everyone’s personal page and I’ll be sharing mine weekly – see below
  • Join a project (for those who have not yet Y DNA tested)

Yes, you can save even more money by joining a project.

How does that work?

How Can I Save More By Joining A Project?

The free 111 marker upgrade with a Big Y test requires you to test or have tested at some level before you can order a Big Y test.

That means anyone who has tested even at the 12 marker level can purchase the Big Y and obtain the 111 upgrade for free.

Outside of a project, customers can only order a minimum of a 37 marker test – because that’s really the minimum informative test today. Typically a 12 marker test would only be useful to rule out a possible match.  But in this case, in order to purchase the Big Y for someone who has never tested before – the 12 marker test is suddenly VERY useful.

By joining a project, you can still purchase a 12 marker test and that reduces the Big Y bundle price yet again.

For people who have not done any Y DNA testing, this is an unbelievable value.

Joining A Project

To find an appropriate Y DNA project to join, go to the main Family Tree DNA page and type the surname of the man to be tested into the “Search your Surname” box.

I typed Estes.

You will then be shown various projects where the project administrators have listed Estes as one of the surname that is of interest to their project members.

I’m clicking on the Estes project, because Estes men should join the Estes project.  (You can join other projects later.)

You can see that the 12 marker Y DNA project is showing as an available purchase option for $59, above.

By clicking the orange “order now” button, you can order the 12 marker test for $59, further reducing the cost of testing.

You will automatically be joined to this project, and you can join other projects later.

It’s a Little More Complicated – But Not Much

Since the Big Y is only an upgrade test – meaning you must take any Y DNA STR test before ordering the Big Y – this means that your Y DNA test must be registered to your account before you can order the upgrade.

In Family Tree DNA lingo, this means that your order must be entered into a batch. Orders are batched at the end of the day every Monday and Wednesday, so if you will be able to upgrade to the Big Y as soon as your STR panel test, Y12 in this case, is batched.

Now, the challenge is of course that the Big Y coupons could be long gone by the time your order is batched.  You might need to order the Y12 this week, then wait until next week and hope you’re quick enough to find a Big Y coupon.

When you’re ready to upgrade, sign in to the account where you ordered the STR panel test and simply click upgrade, order the Big Y, and you’ll receive the 111 upgrade for free.

This strategy, even though it is slightly more complicated, will save you $$.

How much money, you ask?

Savings

The savings with this approach is even better. You can save a total of $424 as compared with purchasing these products individually.  And the projects will love having additional people join.  This benefits everyone, because projects are the best sources for help with your results.

There are at least some $50 Big Y discount coupons available as well as $25.

After your results are back, please be sure to join the appropriate haplogroup projects too. A haplogroup designation is part of what you receive when you test. The haplogroup project administrators are experts in their particular haplogroup – and what that means to you!

Additional Coupons

Every Monday Family Tree DNA issues Holiday Reward coupons between now and the end of the year.  If you (or someone) uses your coupon to purchase something, Family Tree DNA issues you a second Bonus Reward.

  1. First, I’d like to give a big shout out to my cousin, Jim, who contributed his coupons in addition to mine, below. You can see from the sheer number that we’re both seriously genetic genealogy addicted.
  2. Second, please do me a favor, and if you make a purchase, especially using one of the coupons, I’d really appreciate it if you use my affiliate link.  I receive a small commission if you use my link, and it doesn’t cost you a penny more. It helps keep the lights on for me (and keeps the blog free for everyone) – so if you enjoy and utilize this blog – please click through to purchase and don’t just gather the coupon numbers and post them elsewhere.
  3. Third, if you want to be among the first to receive these e-mails with coupons and other hot-off-the-presses information, subscribe by clicking on the little grey “follow” button on the upper right hand corner of the main blog page at www.dna-explained.com.

So, please click here to sign on and redeem the coupons below, purchase a product or upgrade! Thanks and enjoy the savings!

_____________________________________________________________________

Standard Disclosure

This standard disclosure appears at the bottom of every article in compliance with the FTC Guidelines.

Hot links are provided to Family Tree DNA, where appropriate.  If you wish to purchase one of their products, and you click through one of the links in an article to Family Tree DNA, or on the sidebar of this blog, I receive a small contribution if you make a purchase.  Clicking through the link does not affect the price you pay.  This affiliate relationship helps to keep this publication, with more than 850 articles about all aspects of genetic genealogy, free for everyone.

I do not accept sponsorship for this blog, nor do I write paid articles, nor do I accept contributions of any type from any vendor in order to review any product, etc.  In fact, I pay a premium price to prevent ads from appearing on this blog.

When reviewing products, in most cases, I pay the same price and order in the same way as any other consumer. If not, I state very clearly in the article any special consideration received.  In other words, you are reading my opinions as a long-time consumer and consultant in the genetic genealogy field.

I will never link to a product about which I have reservations or qualms, either about the product or about the company offering the product.  I only recommend products that I use myself and bring value to the genetic genealogy community.  If you wonder why there aren’t more links, that’s why and that’s my commitment to you.

Thank you for your readership, your ongoing support and for purchasing through the affiliate link if you are interested in making a purchase at Family Tree DNA

Why the Big Y Test?

My recent article about the Big Y test sale and coupons bundled with a free 111 marker upgrade at Family Tree DNA generated quite a number of questions about the Big Y DNA test itself, and why a male might want to take one. I’ll answer that question, along with a few more that have arisen, as well sharing some of my coupons.

Why the Big Y?

Y DNA tests test a man’s direct paternal (usually surname) line and fall into two groups.

  • STRs – Short Tandem Repeats
  • SNPs – Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms

The first group, STRs, are the typical 12, 25, 37, 67 and 111 Y DNA tests.  STR marker location values change rapidly, as compared to SNPs which mutates more slowly.

Each STR test tests the number of STR markers it’s named for. In other words, a 37 marker test tests 37 marker locations with the goal of matching other men with the same surname. Often, as you test higher levels, the results become much more specific and you “lose” matches to men with non-matching surnames. In this case, “losing” is a good thing, like weight!

The closer the STR match on more markers, the more reliable the results. Fewer matches generally mean we’re filtering out the more distant matches in time and the closer in time you shared a common ancestor with the people you match the most closely on the highest marker test you’ve both taken.

In other words, you might match 50 people at 37 markers, but only 20 at 67 markers and 4 at 111 markers.  Those 4 men are the most closely related to you on that direct paternal line – which is why we strongly suggest that people upgrade to 111 markers.

You can see in this example from the Estes project that the first two people whose surname is Estes are not biologically descended from the same male as the last four individuals – because their STR markers showing in the project are quite different.

Because STR markers mutate more rapidly, they are very useful for genealogy – and are used for that purpose.  An exact high marker match (typically 37, 67 or 111) to a male with the same surname indicates that you share a common ancestor with that man, probably within the past few generations and certainly since the advent of surnames. STR mutations sometimes happen independently in different lines, and when that happens, it’s called matching by convergence.

SNPs, on the other hand, are much more stable and mutate at a much slower rate and are therefore sometimes not as useful for traditional genealogy – BUT – they have the power to look further back in time where we have no tools other than DNA to make discoveries about our ancestors.

In general, but not always, men known to descend from a common ancestor will share the exact same “terminal SNP” – meaning the SNP mutation that happened the most recently.  Sometimes a SNP mutation will have happened in the past few generations and men who share a common ancestor since the advent of surnames will have a different terminal SNP, but not often and if they do, it’s generally only one step down the haplotree from each other. Just the “son” leaf on that branch.

On the Big Y haplotree, above, of an Estes male, five people match him on the BY490 branch, six on the BY482 branch above, and so forth. Of course, the next question is who matches him on these branches, so he will look at his Big Y match list to see those individuals.

What this means is that, in general, SNPs define more distant clan relationships, because they happen less often, and STRs define more recent surname relationships – although the more SNPs that are discovered – the more instances of some overlap we see.

The following chart shows where the two kinds of testing are the most useful – which illustrates why we need both kinds of testing.

Sometimes, there are no new SNP mutations that have occurred in a particular since the adoption of surnames. Of course, there is an exception to every guideline, and it just might be you. In fact, it could be between you and your father, or your father and his father. You don’t know what you don’t know and the only avenue to discovery is DNA testing.

What Does the Big Y Do?

While the STR panel tests specific addresses on the Y DNA to read a specific location – the Big Y test is a scan that scans the majority of the Y chromosome.

In other words, the 37 marker test provides you with results for 37 individual locations, or alleles, on the Y chromosome by measuring the number of repeats found at those locations specifically.

However, the more DNA addresses to be checked, the more expensive the test – which is why STR testing is broken into panels.

The Big Y test scans the majority of the Y chromosome to compare to a standard Y DNA pattern.  Because scan technology, known as NGS or next generation sequencing, allows us to look at tens of thousands of locations, it is not as accurate as looking at one specific location (think google satellite view versus driving down the street).  The DNA sequencing equipment scans the entire Y chromosome several times, like 25 or 30, and then reports on how many times something out of the ordinary is seen at a specific location.

If the scan spots something unusual 10 times or more, it’s called as a positive “result.”  Ten times or less, it’s considered a blip and not a high enough confidence result to consider as a valid result to report to a customer.

Why Do You Care?

As a customer, you may not care about the scans and underlying scientific processes that I just described – but you do care about the outcome which is your confirmed haplogroup closest in time to you on the tree. That information is important genealogically.

The Y DNA haplotree is the result of mutations that occurred every few hundred or few thousand years over the lifetime of mankind.  The mutation that identifies you the most closely with your closest male relatives is the last mutation that occurred that you all share – or don’t – which means a new mutation happened since the advent of your surname, assuming you do actually descend from a common ancestor and don’t just circumstantially carry the same surname. Yes, that does occasionally happen.

The result for the customer who takes the Big Y test is that the haplogroup predicted through STR testing is confirmed and generally several more branches and leaves are added to your own personal haplogroup tree.

Family Tree DNA very accurately predicts your branch haplogroup when you take an STR test, but it’s a major branch, near the tree, not a small branch and certainly not a leaf.  Smaller branches can’t be accurately predicted nor larger branches confirmed without SNP testing. The most effective way to SNP test for already discovered haplogroups – plus new ones never before found – perhaps unique to your line – is to take the Big Y.

While all of this science may not sound exciting at first glance, the results certainly can be, for a genealogist anyway.

The Big Y:

  • Confirms estimated haplogroups.
  • Provides you with your haplogroup closest in time – meaning puts twigs and leaves on your branches.
  • Helps to build the Y DNA tree, meaning you can contribute to science while learning about your own ancestors.
  • Confirms that men who do match on the same STR markers really ARE in the same haplogroup.
  • Shows matches further back in time than STRs can show.
  • Maps the migration of the person’s Y line ancestors.

Together, STR and SNP tests provide us with the closest mutations meaning the most genealogically relevant as well as (generally) older and more distant mutations, giving us at least some information before the age of surnames. This means you will match men who adopted surnames about the same time your ancestors did.  If you are a McDonald, you might match men whose surname is Campbell, as an example. Or, you might match men with Scandinavian surnames.  All of these pieces of information add to the story of your ancestors before surnames and records – the point at which your paternal line is unquestionably lost to traditional genealogy. Big Y testing is a way to reach back behind that veil.

How else will you ever learn the history of your ancestor in that timeframe? And why wouldn’t you want to?

Summary

If you are interested in discovering any of this information, the Big Y is the most thorough avenue for the genealogist.  You can purchase some SNP markers individually, but that gets expensive very quickly, and you can’t learn about any new markers your DNA might hold if you purchase only SNP markers previously known to exist. Y DNA holds hundreds or even thousands of SNPs with mutations to report.

Additionally, many men’s DNA also holds never-before-discovered SNP mutations.  You can’t discover those any way other than a Big Y test.

Who Should Purchase the Big Y?

  • Males who want to discover their ancestor’s story before the advent of surnames.
  • Men who want to confirm and extend their haplogroup.
  • Men who want to be pioneers and discover new SNPs in their DNA – never previously found.
  • Males who want to participate in research and building the Y DNA tree.
  • Males who have previously taken some level of STR tests at Family Tree DNA.

The Big Y is only an upgrade test. You can only see the Big Y as a purchase option on your account as an upgrade.  Click on the blue Upgrade button located in your Y DNA section or at the top right of your personal page.

Questions

  • I want to discover my father’s paternal line, but I’m a female. What can I do?

Answer – Test your father or brother, or a male relative who carries your father’s surname and descends from the common male ancestor through the direct paternal line.  The article, Concepts – Who To Test For Your Father’s DNA will help you find a male to test for your father’s line.

  • I’m a male, but I haven’t taken any Y DNA test? How can I take the Big Y?

Answer – Easy.  Just order the Y37 test at Family Tree DNA first – then add the Big Y after the Y 37 has been recorded on your account.

  • Is Family Tree DNA using the Big Y scan data to provide the 111 marker upgrade?

Answer – No, according to the lab, they can only reliably extract 72 of the 111 markers from Big Y scan data, reliably, and they do not want to have unreliable STR marker results in the data base, so they will be running the 111 upgrades on the traditional testing platform, not extracting from Big Y scanned data.

  • Is there a sale or coupons?

Answer – In fact, there is a sale, coupons AND you currently receive a free upgrade to 111 markers with the purchase of a Big Y. For example, let’s say that you have already purchased the 37 marker test, or you order that now. You can redeem a coupon (assuming you can find one) in addition to the sale price.  You can then upgrade to the Big Y, which means you receive BOTH the 67 and 111 free.  You can ALSO apply a Big Y coupon to the purchase, if you can fine one, as well.

Here’s an example.

In essence, you receive the entire Y DNA testing package, which would normally cost $912 for $569 which saves you $343.

  • I don’t want to take the Big Y test, I just want to order a 111 marker test. Can I do that?

Answer – Yes, just order the 111 marker test. It’s on sale too and you can redeem a coupon, below, for more savings.

  • I’ve already taken the 111 marker test? Do I still get a discount on the Big Y?

Answer – You still receive the sale price for the Big Y of $475 as well as a discount coupon, assuming you can find one. (See below.)

  • When I click to order the Big Y, I don’t see a free upgrade to 111 markers. How to I order the free upgrade?

Answer – You don’t have to select the free upgrade to 111 markers.  Everyone automatically receives the upgrade when you order the Big Y.  If you already ordered since the sale began, you will receive this without doing anything. Do, however, watch your account to be sure you do receive the upgrade.

  • Can I use coupons plus receive the free 111 marker upgrade when I purchase the Big Y?

Answer – Yes, you receive the sale price, plus you can use each coupon one time.  In addition, if you purchase the Big Y, you receive the 111 upgrade automatically.

  • Where can I find a discount coupon?

Answer – Every customer receives one each week on your personal page.  I will also be sharing mine each week. I shared some yesterday, at this link, and there are more below.

Click here to sign on, redeem your coupons (or mine below) and order. Happy Black Friday early!!!

_____________________________________________________________________

Standard Disclosure

This standard disclosure appears at the bottom of every article in compliance with the FTC Guidelines.

Hot links are provided to Family Tree DNA, where appropriate. If you wish to purchase one of their products, and you click through one of the links in an article to Family Tree DNA, or on the sidebar of this blog, I receive a small contribution if you make a purchase. Clicking through the link does not affect the price you pay. This affiliate relationship helps to keep this publication, with more than 850 articles about all aspects of genetic genealogy, free for everyone.

I do not accept sponsorship for this blog, nor do I write paid articles, nor do I accept contributions of any type from any vendor in order to review any product, etc. In fact, I pay a premium price to prevent ads from appearing on this blog.

When reviewing products, in most cases, I pay the same price and order in the same way as any other consumer. If not, I state very clearly in the article any special consideration received. In other words, you are reading my opinions as a long-time consumer and consultant in the genetic genealogy field.

I will never link to a product about which I have reservations or qualms, either about the product or about the company offering the product. I only recommend products that I use myself and bring value to the genetic genealogy community. If you wonder why there aren’t more links, that’s why and that’s my commitment to you.

Thank you for your readership, your ongoing support and for purchasing through the affiliate link if you are interested in making a purchase at Family Tree DNA.

Best Big Y Deal EVER – Includes FREE 111 Upgrade at Family Tree DNA

Sorry for these really short blog posts – but I’ve just heard from Elliott Greenspan about the best deal EVER at Family Tree DNA, on the Big Y test that includes a FREE STR upgrade.  I don’t think this has been announced officially, so please feel free to forward the link to this article! This deal is so good, I wish I was a male!!!

During the holiday sale which started last weekend, any customer who purchases the Big Y will receive a free upgrade to Y 111 from any level STR test.  You MUST currently have a Y DNA test either ordered or completed in the system.

This means that if you don’t currently have a Y DNA test, and you’re a male (or have a male you want to test,) you can place a Y DNA test for any level and then go in and order a Big Y test, using any coupons. This deal is in ADDITION to any coupons you may have. You may have to wait a bit to order the Big Y until your regular Y DNA test order is registered in the system.

You’ll get a coupon discount on both orders (regular test and Big Y), and you’ll receive the Big Y AND a free upgrade to 111 that you automatically receive when purchasing a Big Y.

Here are a few coupons from my kits that you can use for a purchase discount.  Check your own kit for more.

Click here to sign in and take advantage of the following specials:

  • Holiday pricing for everyone
  • Coupons
  • Free 111 upgrade with Big Y

If you have coupon numbers to share with others, feel free to list in the comments!

_____________________________________________________________________

Standard Disclosure

This standard disclosure appears at the bottom of every article in compliance with the FTC Guidelines.

Hot links are provided to Family Tree DNA, where appropriate. If you wish to purchase one of their products, and you click through one of the links in an article to Family Tree DNA, or on the sidebar of this blog, I receive a small contribution if you make a purchase. Clicking through the link does not affect the price you pay. This affiliate relationship helps to keep this publication, with more than 850 articles about all aspects of genetic genealogy, free for everyone.

I do not accept sponsorship for this blog, nor do I write paid articles, nor do I accept contributions of any type from any vendor in order to review any product, etc. In fact, I pay a premium price to prevent ads from appearing on this blog.

When reviewing products, in most cases, I pay the same price and order in the same way as any other consumer. If not, I state very clearly in the article any special consideration received. In other words, you are reading my opinions as a long-time consumer and consultant in the genetic genealogy field.

I will never link to a product about which I have reservations or qualms, either about the product or about the company offering the product. I only recommend products that I use myself and bring value to the genetic genealogy community. If you wonder why there aren’t more links, that’s why and that’s my commitment to you.

Thank you for your readership, your ongoing support and for purchasing through the affiliate link if you are interested in making a purchase at Family Tree DNA.