DNA from 459 Ancient British Isles Burials Reveals Relationships – Does Yours Match?

In December 2021, two major papers were released that focused on the ancient DNA of burials from Great Britain. The paper, A high-resolution picture of kinship practices in an Early Neolithic tomb by Fowler et al provided a genetic analysis of 35 individuals from a Cotswold Neolithic burial who were found to be a multi-generational family unit. In Large-scale migration into Britain during the Middle to Late Bronze Age by Patterson et, the authors generated genome-wide data for 793 ancient burials from the British Isles and continental Europe to determine who settled Great Britain, from where, and when.

Of course, the very first thing genealogists want to know is, “Am I related?”

If we are related, it’s far too distant for the reach of autosomal DNA, but Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA might just be very interesting. If you haven’t yet tested your mother’s line mitochondrial DNA for males and females both, and paternal line Y DNA for males only, you’re in luck because you can purchase those tests here.

These two papers combined provide a significant window into the past in Great Britain; England, Scotland, Wales, and nearby islands.

First, let’s take a look at the Cotswold region.

The Cotswolds

Ancient DNA was retrieved from a cairn burial in the Cotswolds, a hilly region of Southwest England.

By Saffron Blaze – Own work, CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=15675403

Even today, the paused-in-time stone houses, fences, and ancient gardens harken back to earlier times.

By Peter K Burian – Own work, CC BY-SA 4.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=70384620

Stunningly beautiful and historically important, the Cotswolds is a protected landscape that includes Neolithic burial chambers (3950-2450 BCE), Bronze and Iron Age forts, Roman villas, and eventually, the Celtic pathway known as Fosse Way.

The Hazelton North Long-Tomb Burial Site

The Fowler paper explores the kinship practices and relationships between the Cotswolds burials.

Click to enlarge images

The North Hazelton site was endangered due to repeated plowing in a farmer’s field. Excavation of the tomb occurred in 1981. A book was published in 1990 with a pdf file available at that link. The photo from 1979 on page 3 shows that the burial cairn only looks to be a slight rise in the field.

You can see on the map below from the UK Megalithic site map that there are many other locations in close proximity to the Hazelton North site, some with similarly arranged burials.

The paper’s authors state that there are 100 long cairns within 50 km of Hazelton North, and one only 80 meters away. Excavation in those tombs, along with archaeological evaluation would be needed to determine the ages of the cairns, if burial practices were the same or similar, and if any of the individuals were related to each other or the individuals in the North Hazelton cairn. In other words, were these separate cemeteries of an extended family, or disconnected burial grounds of different groups of people over time.

While the North Hazelton site no longer exists, as it was entirely excavated, on the same page, you can see photos before excavation, along with the main chamber which now resides in the Corinium Museum in Cirencester, just a few kilometers away.

The Fowler team analyzed 35 individuals who lived about 5,700 years ago, at least 100 years after cattle and cereal cultivation was introduced to Britain along with the construction of megalithic monuments. Stonehenge, the most well-known megalith, is located about 90 miles away and is estimated to be about 5,100 years old. The burials from Stonehenge indicate that they were primarily Early European Farmers (EEF) from Anatolia who first moved to Iberia, then on to Britain.

The remains analyzed in this paper were excavated from the Hazelton North Megalithic long-cairn type tomb.

The tomb was built between 5,695 and 5,650 years ago, with the stonework of the north passage collapsing and sealing off the north chamber between 5,660 and 5,630 years ago. All burials stopped in this location about 5,620 years ago, so the site was only in use for about 80 years.

The tomb seems to have been built with multiple passages in anticipation of planned burials by genealogical association. The arrangement of burials was determined by kinship, at least until the passage wall of the North chamber collapsed. The southern and northern chambers each housed two females’ descendants, respectively. While the male progenitor was significant in that this entire tomb was clearly his family tomb, the arrangement of the burials within the chambers suggests that the women were socially significant in the community, and to their families as well.

Osteological analysis reveals at least 41 individuals, 22 of whom were adults. Strontium isotope analysis indicates that most of the individuals had spent time in their childhood at least 40 km away. Authors of a 2015 paper interpret this to mean that the population as a whole was not sedentary, meaning that they may have moved with their livestock from place to place, perhaps based on seasons. Of course, this also calls into question what happened if an individual died while the group was not in the location of the burial cairn.

Of those individuals, 27 people were part of a 5-generation family with many interrelationships.

Of the 15 intergenerational genetic transmissions, all were through men, meaning every third, fourth or fifth generation individual was connected to the original patriarch through only males, suggesting that patrilineal descent determined who was buried in a Neolithic tomb. This also tells us that patrilineal social practices were persistent.

26 of 35 people with genetic data were male. Male burials in other Cotswold tombs outnumber females 1.6 to 1. The remains of some women must have been treated differently.

No adult lineage daughters were present in the tomb, although two infant daughters were, suggesting that adult daughters were out-married, outside of either the community or this specific family lineage. They would have been buried in their husband’s tomb, just as these women were buried here.

The male progenitor reproduced with 4 females, producing 14 adult sons who were buried in the tomb. All four females were buried in the tomb, in two chambers, suggesting that women, at least high-status women were buried with their partners and not in their father’s tomb.

The lineages of two of those women were buried in the same half of the tomb over all generations, suggesting maternal lineages were socially important.

The burials included four men who did not descend from the male progenitors of the clan lineage but DID descend from women who also had children with the progenitors. The authors state that this suggests that the progenitor men adopted the four children of their mates into their lineage, but it also raises the possibility that the progenitor men were not aware that those four men were not their descendants.

Multiple reproductive partners of men were not related to each other, but multiple reproductive partners of women were.

Eight individuals found within the tomb were not closely related to the main lineages. This could mean that they were partners of men who did not reproduce, or who had only adult daughters. It could also mean they were socially important, but not biologically related to either each other nor the tomb’s family members whose DNA was sampled.

Of those who are related, inbreeding had been avoided meaning the parents of individuals were not related to each other based on runs of homozygosity (ROH).

Some of the remains from the north chamber had been gnawed by scavengers, apparently before burial, and three cremations were buried at the entrance including an infant, a child, and an adult. This might answer the question of what happened if someone died while the group was away from the burial site.

Individuals in the north tomb exhibited osteoarthritis typical of other burials in southern England, and signs of nutritional stress in childhood.

The south chamber burials were more co-mingled and dispersed among neighboring compartments.

In the Guardian article, World’s oldest family tree revealed in 5,700-year-old Cotswolds tomb, a genetic pedigree chart was drawn based on the burials, their relationship to each other, and burial locations.

As discussed in this PNAS paper, Megalithic tombs in western and northern Neolithic Europe were linked to a kindred society, other Neolithic tomb burials in Europe were also reflective of a kinship system.

The question remains, where did the Cotswold settlers come from? Who were they descended from and related to? The second paper provides insights to that question.

Who Migrated into Britain, and When?

Patterson et al tell us that their DNA analysis of 793 individuals increased the data from the Middle (1550-1150 BCE) to Late Bronze (1150-750 BCE) and Iron Age (70-BCE-43CE) in Britain by 12-fold, and from Western and Central Europe by 3.5 times.

They also reveal that present-day people from England and Wales carry more ancestry derived from Early European Farmers than people from the Early Bronze Age.

The DNA contributed from Early European Farmers (EEF) increased over time in people in the southern portion of Britain and Wales, which includes the Cotswold region, but did not increase in northern Britain (Scotland,) nor in Kent. Specifically, from 31% in the Early Bronze Age to 34% in the Middle Bronze Age to 35% in the Late Bronze Age to 38% in the Iron Age.

While the EEF DNA increased over time in the Southwest area of Britain, it decreased in other regions. This means that the increase could not be explained by migration from northern continental Europe in the medieval period because those early migrants carried even less Early European Farmer ancestry than the inhabitants of Southwest Britain. Therefore, if those two populations had admixed, the results would be progressively lower EEF in Southwest Britain, not higher.

To fully evaluate this data, the team sequenced earlier samples from both Britain and mainland Europe in addition to the Cotswold burials, targeting 1.2 million SNP locations.

In addition to DNA sequencing, they also utilized radiocarbon dating to confirm the age of the remains.

Results for low-coverage individuals, meaning those with less than 30,000 SNPs scanned at least once, were removed from the data set.

123 individuals were identified as related to each other from 48 families within the third degree. Third-degree relatives share approximately 12.5% of their DNA and would include first cousins, great-grandparents/children, granduncles/aunts, half uncles/aunts/nieces/nephews.

Lactase persistence, the ability to digest the lactose in milk was significantly higher in this population than in either the rest of Britain or Central and Western Europe by a factor of 5 or greater.

The DNA of the Cotswold burial groups and others found from this early timeframe in Southwest Britain and Wales is most similar to ancient burials from France.

A Eupedia megalithic culture page shows a map of various major megalithic sites in both Europe and the British Isles.

Based on charts in Figure 4 of the paper, the location in Europe with the highest percentage of EEF about 4300 years ago (2300 BCE) was the Iberian Peninsula – Spain and Portugal, a location that neighbors France. Lactase persistence began increasing about that time and dramatically rose about 3500 years ago (1500 BCE.)

Y DNA haplogroup R-L21/M529 went from 0% in the Neolithic era (3950-2450 BCE,) or about 5950-4450 years ago) in Britain to 90% in all of Britain in the Early Bronze Era (2450-1550 BCE or 4450-3550 years ago), then dropped slowly to about 70% in the Iron Age in Western England and Wales, then 50% in western Britain and Wales and 20% in Central and Eastern Britain in the Modern Era.

You can read more about this research in this Phys.org article: Geneticists’ new research on ancient Britain contains insights on language, ancestry, kinship, milk, and more about Megalithic burials in France in this Smithsonian Magazine article: Europe’s Megalithic Monuments Originated in France and Spread by Sea Routes, new Study Suggests.

Are You Connected?

The paper authors made the resequenced Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA information available for analysis.

Of course, we all want to know if we are connected with these people, especially if our families have origins in the British Isles.

The R&D team at FamilyTreeDNA downloaded the Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA sequences and linked them to mapped locations. They also correlated samples to Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA haplogroups and linked them to their respective public trees here and here. The Y DNA sometimes contained additional SNP information which allowed a more granular haplogroup to be assigned.

I want to specifically thank Goran Runfeldt, head of R&D, for making this valuable information available and useful for genealogists by downloading, reformatting, and mapping the data, and Michael Sager, phylogeneticist in the FamilyTreeDNA lab, for reanalyzing the Y DNA results and refining them beyond the papers.

Now, let’s get to the best part.

The Map

This map shows the locations of 459 ancient British Isles burials included in the papers, both in the Cotswolds and throughout the rest of Great Britain.

There are significantly more mitochondrial DNA haplogroups represented than Y DNA. Of course, everyone, males and females both have mitochondrial DNA, so everyone can test, but only males carry Y DNA.

The next map shows the distribution of the base mitochondrial haplogroups.

  • H=light green (181 samples)
  • U=rust (70 samples)
  • K=burgundy (68 samples)
  • J=yellow (46 samples)
  • T=dark green (43 samples)
  • V=grey (16 samples)
  • X=dark teal (9 samples)
  • I=orange (6 samples)
  • W=purple (6 samples)
  • N=brown (2 samples)

The most common mitochondrial haplogroup found is H which is unsurprising given that H is the most common haplogroup in Europe as well.

It’s interesting to note that there is no clear haplogroup distribution pattern for either Y DNA or mitochondrial  DNA, with the exception of the North Hazelton burials themselves as outlined in the paper.

There were only three ancient major Y DNA haplogroups discovered.

  • R=green (179 samples)
  • I=gold (50 samples)
  • G=blue (5 samples)

225 total samples were female and had no Y chromosome. A few male Y chromosomes were not recoverable.

Of course, some samples on the maps fall directly beneath other samples, so it’s difficult to discern multiple samples from the same location.

For that, and for more granular haplogroups, we need to refer to the data itself.

How to Use the Data

Each sample is identified by:

  • A sample ID from the papers
  • Sex
  • Location with a google map link.
  • Age calibrated to BCE, before current era, which means roughly how many years before about the year 1 that someone lived. To determine approximately how long ago one of these people lived, add 2000 to the BCE date. For example, 3500 BCE equates to 5500 years ago.
  • Y DNA haplogroup for male samples where recoverable, linked to FamilyTreeDNA’s public Y DNA haplotree.
  • Mitochondrial DNA haplogroup for all but 2 samples where mitochondrial results were not recoverable, linked to FamilyTreeDNA’s public mitochondrial DNA haplotree.

If you have tested your full sequence mitochondrial DNA, you can use the browser search function (ctrl+F) on a PC to search for your haplogroup. For example. Searching for haplogroup H61 produces 5 results. Click on the sample locations to view where they were found. Are they in close proximity to each other? In the same burial?

Four were found at the same location in the Channel Islands, and one in Kent. Where is your ancestor from?

For Y DNA, you can search for your haplogroup, but if you’ve taken the Big Y test and don’t find your specific haplogroup, you might want to use the Y DNA tree to search for successive upstream haplogroups to see where your closest ancient match might be found. Of course, if you’re haplogroup G, it’s pretty easy to just take a look without searching for each individual haplogroup. Just search for “G-“.

For each sample, be sure to click on the haplogroup name itself to view its location on the tree and where else in the world this haplogroup is found. Let’s look at a couple of examples.

Sample: I26628 (Female)
Location: Channel Islands, Alderney, Longis Common
Age: 756-416 calBCE
mtDNA: H61

Mitochondrial haplogroup H61, above, is fairly rare and currently found sparsely in several countries including England, Germany, Hungary, Belarus, Ireland, Netherlands, the UK, and France. The flags indicate the location of FamilyTreeDNA testers’ earliest known ancestor of their mitochondrial, meaning direct matrilineal, line.

Click on the haplogroup link to view the results in the Y or mtDNA trees.

Next, let’s look at a Y DNA sample.

Sample: I16427 (Male)
Location: Channel Islands, Guernsey, Vale, Le Déhus
Age: 4234-3979 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-M423
mtDNA: X2b-T226C

Haplogroup I-M423 itself is found most frequently in Germany, Poland, Ukraine, Scotland and Ireland, but note that it also has 648 downstream branches defined. You may match I-M423 by virtue of belonging to a downstream branch.

Do you match any of these ancient samples, and where were your ancestors from?

Sample: I26630 (Male)
Location: Channel Islands, Alderney, Longis Common
Age: 749-403 calBCE
mtDNA: H61

Sample: I16430 (Female)
Location: Channel Islands, Alderney, Longis Common
Age: 337-52 calBCE
mtDNA: H61

Sample: I16505 (Female)
Location: Channel Islands, Alderney, Longis Common
Age: 174-45 calBCE
mtDNA: H61

Sample: I26629 (Female)
Location: Channel Islands, Alderney, Longis Common
Age: 170 calBCE – 90 calCE
mtDNA: U5a1b1

Sample: I16437 (Female)
Location: Channel Islands, Guernsey, Vale, Le Déhus
Age: 4241-4050 calBCE
mtDNA: K1b1a1

Sample: I16444 (Male)
Location: Channel Islands, Guernsey, Vale, Le Déhus
Age: 4228-3968 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-FT376000
mtDNA: J1c1b1

Sample: I16429 (Male)
Location: Channel Islands, Guernsey, Vale, Le Déhus
Age: 3088-2914 calBCE
mtDNA: K1

Sample: I16425 (Female)
Location: Channel Islands, Guernsey, Vale, Le Déhus
Age: 3083-2912 calBCE
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I16438 (Male)
Location: Channel Islands, Guernsey, Vale, Le Déhus
Age: 2567-2301 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-L623
mtDNA: J1c8

Sample: I16436 (Male)
Location: Channel Islands, Herm, The Common
Age: 3954-3773 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-CTS7213
mtDNA: HV

Sample: I16435 (Male)
Location: Channel Islands, Herm, The Common
Age: 3646-3527 calBCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I16597 (Male)
Location: England, Bedfordshire, Broom Quarry
Age: 404-209 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF49
mtDNA: H1-C16355T

Sample: I21293 (Female)
Location: England, Bedfordshire, Broom Quarry
Age: 425-200 BCE
mtDNA: J1c1b

Sample: I11151 (Male)
Location: England, Bedfordshire, Broom Quarry
Age: 379-197 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FT44983
mtDNA: K1a-T195C!

Sample: I11150 (Male)
Location: England, Bedfordshire, Broom Quarry
Age: 381-197 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FT335377
mtDNA: H15a1

Sample: I19047 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Babraham Research Campus (ARC05), ARES site
Age: 1-50 CE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: H2a

Sample: I19045 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Marshall’s Jaguar Land Rover New Showroom (JLU15)
Age: 388-206 calBCE
Y-DNA: G-S23438
mtDNA: U4a2

Sample: I19046 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Marshall’s Jaguar Land Rover New Showroom (JLU15)
Age: 383-197 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H1t

Sample: I19044 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Marshall’s Jaguar Land Rover New Showroom (JLU15)
Age: 381-199 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FT50512
mtDNA: K1a-T195C!

Sample: I11152 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Over
Age: 355-59 calBCE
Y-DNA: G-Z16775
mtDNA: U3a1

Sample: I11149 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Teversham (Marshall’s) Evaluation
Age: 733-397 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z156
mtDNA: V

Sample: I11154 (Female)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Trumpington Meadows
Age: 743-404 calBCE
mtDNA: H5a1

Sample: I13729 (Female)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Trumpington Meadows
Age: 512-236 calBCE
mtDNA: H1ag1

Sample: I11153 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Trumpington Meadows
Age: 405-209 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FGC33066
mtDNA: H3b

Sample: I13727 (Female)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Trumpington Meadows
Age: 389-208 calBCE
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I13728 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Trumpington Meadows
Age: 381-179 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: T2a1a

Sample: I13687 (Female)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Trumpington Meadows
Age: 368-173 calBCE
mtDNA: W1c

Sample: I11156 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Whittlesey, Bradley Fen
Age: 382-200 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-CTS8704
mtDNA: J1c3

Sample: I11997 (Male)
Location: England, Cambridgeshire, Whittlesey, Bradley Fen
Age: 377-197 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FGC36434
mtDNA: X2b-T226C

Sample: I16620 (Female)
Location: England, Co. Durham, Hartlepool, Catcote
Age: 340 BCE – 6 CE
mtDNA: H1bs

Sample: I12790 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Tregunnel
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: I12793 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Tregunnel
Age: 400-100 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: I12792 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Tregunnel
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: I16387 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Trethellan Farm
Age: 300 BCE – 100 CE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: N/A

Sample: I16456 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Trethellan Farm
Age: 300 BCE – 100 CE
mtDNA: T1a1’3

Sample: I16455 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Trethellan Farm
Age: 300 BCE – 100 CE
Y-DNA: R-Z290
mtDNA: T1

Sample: I16386 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Trethellan Farm
Age: 300 BCE – 100 CE
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I16458 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Trethellan Farm
Age: 300 BCE – 100 CE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: T2c1d-T152C!

Sample: I16457 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Trethellan Farm
Age: 300 BCE – 100 CE
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I16450 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Newquay, Trethellan Farm
Age: 300 BCE – 100 CE
Y-DNA: R-FT32396
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I16424 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 2285-2036 calBCE
mtDNA: R1b

Sample: I6769 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 754-416 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY168376
mtDNA: H6a1b2

Sample: I16380 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 800 BCE – 43 CE
Y-DNA: R-ZP298
mtDNA: U4b1a1a1

Sample: I16388 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 800 BCE – 43 CE
mtDNA: J1c1

Sample: I16440 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 800 BCE – 43 CE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: T2c1d-T152C!

Sample: I16441 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 800 BCE – 43 CE
mtDNA: J1c2e

Sample: I16442 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 800 BCE – 43 CE
mtDNA: U4b1a1a1

Sample: I16439 (Female)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 800 BCE – 43 CE
mtDNA: T2c1d-T152C!

Sample: I12772 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, Padstow, St. Merryn, Harlyn Bay
Age: 800 BCE – 43 CE
Y-DNA: G-CTS2230
mtDNA: T2c1d-T152C!

Sample: I16453 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, St. Mawes, Tregear Vean
Age: 800-1 BCE
Y-DNA: I-M253
mtDNA: U5a2a1

Sample: I16454 (Male)
Location: England, Cornwall, St. Merryn, Constantine Island
Age: 1381-1056 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z290
mtDNA: U5b2b2

Sample: I20997 (Male)
Location: England, Cumbria, Ulverston, Birkrigg Common
Age: 2450-1800 BCE
Y-DNA: R-A286
mtDNA: X2b4a

Sample: I12776 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Brassington, Carsington Pasture Cave
Age: 1918-1750 calBCE
mtDNA: U4a2c

Sample: I12774 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Brassington, Carsington Pasture Cave
Age: 758-416 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H10b

Sample: I12771 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Brassington, Carsington Pasture Cave
Age: 513-210 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FT5780
mtDNA: U5b2a2a

Sample: I12778 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Brassington, Carsington Pasture Cave
Age: 381-203 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF5
mtDNA: H4a1a2

Sample: I3014 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Brassington, Carsington Pasture Cave
Age: 377-177 calBCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I12775 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Brassington, Carsington Pasture Cave
Age: 361-177 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY9405
mtDNA: U5a1b1e

Sample: I12770 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Brassington, Carsington Pasture Cave
Age: 390-171 calBCE
mtDNA: H3b1b1

Sample: I12779 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Brassington, Carsington Pasture Cave
Age: 370-197 calBCE
mtDNA: T2b4c

Sample: I20620 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 382-204 calBCE
mtDNA: T2a1b1

Sample: I20627 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 376-203 calBCE
mtDNA: V2b

Sample: I20623 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 400-150 BCE
mtDNA: V2b

Sample: I20624 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 356-108 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: U2e1a1

Sample: I20622 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 357-60 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3713
mtDNA: T2c1d1

Sample: I20634 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: K2b1a1a

Sample: I20630 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H1au1b

Sample: I20632 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: V2b

Sample: I20621 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: T2c1d1

Sample: I20631 (Female)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: V2b

Sample: I20628 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 351-52 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: I2a

Sample: I20626 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 346-53 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-P222
mtDNA: H7b

Sample: I20625 (Male)
Location: England, Derbyshire, Fin Cop
Age: 343-49 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I27382 (Male)
Location: England, Dorset, Long Bredy, Bottle Knap
Age: 774-540 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY116228
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I27383 (Female)
Location: England, Dorset, Long Bredy, Bottle Knap
Age: 750-411 calBCE
mtDNA: U4c1

Sample: I27381 (Female)
Location: England, Dorset, Long Bredy, Bottle Knap
Age: 748-406 calBCE
mtDNA: U4c1

Sample: I20615 (Female)
Location: England, Dorset, Worth Matravers, Football Field
Age: 100 BCE – 50 CE
mtDNA: H1i

Sample: I22065 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Burstwick
Age: 351-55 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H

Sample: I22052 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, East Coast Pipeline (field 16)
Age: 344-52 calBCE
mtDNA: U2e2a1a

Sample: I22060 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, East Coast Pipeline (field 9)
Age: 343-1 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY154824
mtDNA: H4a1a3a

Sample: I0527 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, East Riding, North Ferriby, Melton Quarry
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: U2e1

Sample: I0525 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Melton
Age: 100 BCE – 50 CE
mtDNA: U2e1e

Sample: I7629 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, North Ferriby, Melton Quarry
Age: 1201-933 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H17

Sample: I5503 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Nunburnholme Wold
Age: 334-42 calBCE
mtDNA: U5b1c2

Sample: I5502 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Nunburnholme Wold
Age: 196-4 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FT96564
mtDNA: H3

Sample: I11033 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 717-395 calBCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I14100 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 409-229 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: J1c9

Sample: I12412 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 387-205 calBCE
mtDNA: K1c1a

Sample: I5507 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 387-206 calBCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I5506 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 358-111 calBCE
mtDNA: K1c1a

Sample: I5504 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I5505 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: V16

Sample: I14103 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H53

Sample: I5510 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: K1c1a

Sample: I13755 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I5509 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-PH4760
mtDNA: K1c1a

Sample: I13758 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L2
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I14107 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-CTS6919
mtDNA: K1c1a

Sample: I13760 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I13751 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I13754 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: U5b2b3

Sample: I13757 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: T2c1d1a

Sample: I13756 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: K1c1a

Sample: I13753 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-Z251
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I14099 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I14101 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I14105 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I14102 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-FT84170
mtDNA: K1c1a

Sample: I14108 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: V2a

Sample: I14104 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H

Sample: I13759 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-BY3865
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I11034 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I12411 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I12415 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: J1c9

Sample: I12413 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-BY50764
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I12414 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H2a3b

Sample: I5508 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-BY11863
mtDNA: J1c9

Sample: I5511 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 400-50 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF63
mtDNA: J1c9

Sample: I13752 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 346-53 calBCE
mtDNA: J1c9

Sample: I14106 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Pocklington (Burnby Lane)
Age: 176 calBCE – 6 calCE
mtDNA: K1c1a

Sample: I18606 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, East Coast Pipeline (field 10)
Age: 1919-1742 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: K1b1a1

Sample: I19220 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, East Coast Pipeline (field 10)
Age: 1894-1695 calBCE
mtDNA: H3g1

Sample: I14326 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, East Coast Pipeline (field 13)
Age: 3074-2892 calBCE
mtDNA: H1c

Sample: I22056 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, East Coast Pipeline (field 16)
Age: 391-201 calBCE
mtDNA: H4a1a3a

Sample: I22055 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, East Coast Pipeline (field 16)
Age: 391-201 calBCE
mtDNA: K1b1a1c1

Sample: I14327 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, East Coast Pipeline (field 16)
Age: 340-47 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY41416
mtDNA: H5

Sample: I22064 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, East Coast Pipeline (field 16)
Age: 105 calBCE – 64 calCE
mtDNA: H4a1a3a

Sample: I22057 (Female)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, East Coast Pipeline (field 16)
Age: 104 calBCE – 65 calCE
mtDNA: H2a1k

Sample: I22062 (Male)
Location: England, East Riding of Yorkshire, Thornholme, Town Pasture
Age: 50 calBCE – 116 calCE
Y-DNA: R-BY23382
mtDNA: K1a-T195C!

Sample: I12931 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Bishop’s Cleeve, Cleevelands
Age: 50-200 CE
Y-DNA: I-L160
mtDNA: H6a2

Sample: I12927 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Bishop’s Cleeve, Cleevelands
Age: 50-200 CE
Y-DNA: R-PR1289
mtDNA: U5b3b1

Sample: I12932 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Bishop’s Cleeve, Cleevelands
Age: 50-200 CE
mtDNA: H1bs

Sample: I12791 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Bourton-on-the-water, Greystones Farm
Age: 200-1 BCE
Y-DNA: I-BY17900
mtDNA: H1e1a

Sample: I12785 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Bourton-on-the-water, Greystones Farm
Age: 200-1 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF21
mtDNA: J1c1b2

Sample: I12926 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Fairford, Saxon Way
Age: 400-100 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H2a2a2

Sample: I21392 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: 3710–3630 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-M284
mtDNA: J2b1a

Sample: I12439 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: K1b1a

Sample: I30304 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-L1195
mtDNA: K1b1a

Sample: I13888 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: N/A
mtDNA: K1b1a

Sample: I21388 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: U8b1b

Sample: I13892 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: 3910–3630 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: T2e1

Sample: I30334 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: N/A
mtDNA: K1a3a1

Sample: I21390 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: 3950–3630 calBCE
mtDNA: U8b1b

Sample: I30300 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: N1b1b

Sample: I13899 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North chamber
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3712
mtDNA: U3a1

Sample: I13893 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North entrance
Age: 3650–3380 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: K1a4

Sample: I13897 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North entrance
Age: 3500–3340 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3712
mtDNA: V

Sample: I13898 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North entrance
Age: 3700–3530 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: K1a3a1

Sample: I12437 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, North entrance
Age: 3790–3510 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: K1a3a1

Sample: I21389 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber
Age: 3720-3520 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I30311 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: U5b1-T16189C!-T16192C!

Sample: I21387 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber
Age: N/A
mtDNA: K1d

Sample: I12440 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: K2b1

Sample: I30302 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber
Age: N/A
mtDNA: K2b1

Sample: I13889 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber
Age: N/A
mtDNA: K1b1a1d

Sample: I13896 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber
Age: N/A
mtDNA: J1c1b1

Sample: I21395 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber, south entrance
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: J1c1b1

Sample: I13891 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber, south passage
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: U5b1-T16189C!-T16192C!

Sample: I12438 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South chamber, south passage
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-L1195
mtDNA: W5

Sample: I30293 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South entrance
Age: N/A
mtDNA: U5b1-T16189C!

Sample: I30332 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South entrance
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-CTS616
mtDNA: N/A

Sample: I21385 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South entrance
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-FT344600
mtDNA: K1d

Sample: I13895 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South entrance
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: U8b1b

Sample: I30301 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South entrance
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3712
mtDNA: U5a2d

Sample: I20818 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South entrance, south passage
Age: 3970–3640 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3712
mtDNA: J1c1

Sample: I13890 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South passage
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-L1193
mtDNA: T2e1

Sample: I21393 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South passage
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-L1195
mtDNA: K1b1a

Sample: I20821 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South passage
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: H5

Sample: I30299 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, South passage
Age: N/A
Y-DNA: I-Y3709
mtDNA: K2b1

Sample: I21391 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Hazleton North Long Cairn, Uncertain
Age: N/A
mtDNA: K1b1a1

Sample: I12786 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Lechlade-on-Thames, Lechlade Memorial Hall/Skate Park
Age: 2289-2052 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: J1c2

Sample: I12935 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Lechlade-on-Thames, Lechlade Memorial Hall/Skate Park
Age: 2200-1900 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF21
mtDNA: H1ah2

Sample: I12783 (Male)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Lechlade-on-Thames, Lechlade Memorial Hall/Skate Park
Age: 783-541 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF21
mtDNA: J1c5

Sample: I12787 (Female)
Location: England, Gloucestershire, Lechlade-on-Thames, Lechlade Memorial Hall/Skate Park
Age: 539-387 calBCE
mtDNA: H2a2a1

Sample: I13717 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Barton-Stacey Pipeline
Age: 398-208 calBCE
mtDNA: U5a1a1

Sample: I16611 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 401-208 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z16539
mtDNA: H1c

Sample: I17261 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 372-175 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF63
mtDNA: R0a

Sample: I20987 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 450-1 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF63
mtDNA: U5b2b3

Sample: I20985 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 450-1 BCE
mtDNA: U4a3a

Sample: I17262 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 357-57 calBCE
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: I20983 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 450-1 BCE
mtDNA: H3b-G16129A!

Sample: I20986 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 450-1 BCE
mtDNA: HV0-T195C!

Sample: I20982 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 450-1 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L20
mtDNA: J1c3

Sample: I20984 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 450-1 BCE
mtDNA: H1j6

Sample: I16609 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Middle Wallop, Suddern Farm
Age: 341-46 calBCE
mtDNA: J1c2e

Sample: I16612 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 658-397 calBCE
mtDNA: H3

Sample: I17267 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 450-100 BCE
mtDNA: V

Sample: I20988 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 450-100 BCE
Y-DNA: I-Y3713
mtDNA: T2b19

Sample: I17264 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 450-100 BCE
Y-DNA: R-BY4297
mtDNA: U2e1f1

Sample: I20990 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 362-171 calBCE
mtDNA: J1c1b1a

Sample: I17266 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 355-60 calBCE
mtDNA: U5b1b1-T16192C!

Sample: I20989 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 354-59 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: K1c1

Sample: I16613 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 351-54 calBCE
mtDNA: J1b1a1

Sample: I17263 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Nether Wallop, Danebury
Age: 346-52 calBCE
mtDNA: J1c1c

Sample: I17260 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Stockbridge, New Buildings
Age: 800-400 BCE
Y-DNA: R-S1051
mtDNA: U5a1a2a

Sample: I17259 (Male)
Location: England, Hampshire, Stockbridge, New Buildings
Age: 725-400 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-S16030
mtDNA: H5a1

Sample: I17258 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Stockbridge, New Buildings
Age: 542-396 calBCE
mtDNA: K1a2

Sample: I19042 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Winnall Down
Age: 715-48 calBCE
mtDNA: T2b33

Sample: I19043 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Winnall Down
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: J1c1

Sample: I19037 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Winnall Down
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: J1b1a1b

Sample: I19040 (Female)
Location: England, Hampshire, Winnall Down
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: H1m

Sample: I14742 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 1011-860 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H1-T16189C!

Sample: I14377 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 1014-836 calBCE
mtDNA: U5b1b1d

Sample: I14864 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 983-816 calBCE
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: I14862 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 982-812 calBCE
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I14865 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 967-811 calBCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I14861 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 912-808 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FGC23071
mtDNA: V

Sample: I14358 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 912-807 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H3

Sample: I14379 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 903-807 calBCE
mtDNA: T2c1d-T152C!

Sample: I14745 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 900-798 calBCE
mtDNA: X2b

Sample: I14743 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 779-524 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L151
mtDNA: I4a

Sample: I14381 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 727-400 calBCE
mtDNA: U5b2b1a1

Sample: I14857 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 719-384 calBCE
mtDNA: H3an

Sample: I14747 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 514-391 calBCE
mtDNA: H3

Sample: I14378 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 400-208 calBCE
mtDNA: I2

Sample: I14858 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 396-207 calBCE
mtDNA: J1c1

Sample: I14380 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 387-203 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FTB53005
mtDNA: T2e1

Sample: I14860 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 386-198 calBCE
mtDNA: X2b-T226C

Sample: I14859 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 377-203 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H7d3

Sample: I14866 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 372-197 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-BY152642
mtDNA: H1at1

Sample: I14863 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Cliffs End Farm
Age: 360-201 calBCE
mtDNA: U5b1b1-T16192C!

Sample: I13714 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 1533-1417 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-CTS6919
mtDNA: H1c8

Sample: I19915 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 1519-1422 calBCE
mtDNA: K1c1

Sample: I19913 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 1408-1226 calBCE
mtDNA: J1c2e

Sample: I13710 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 1411-1203 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF63
mtDNA: I4a

Sample: I13711 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 1048-920 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY28644
mtDNA: H61

Sample: I13712 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 1011-916 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: U5b2b3a

Sample: I13713 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 1055-837 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H1c

Sample: I19872 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 403-209 calBCE
mtDNA: H13a1a1

Sample: I13732 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 401-208 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-A7835
mtDNA: U5b2c1

Sample: I19873 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-BY3616
mtDNA: U5b2b

Sample: I13615 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H1c

Sample: I19907 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 400-200 BCE
mtDNA: U2e1a1

Sample: I19910 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 400-200 BCE
mtDNA: U4a2

Sample: I19911 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I19874 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 400-200 BCE
mtDNA: H1ax

Sample: I19908 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 400-200 BCE
mtDNA: K2b1a

Sample: I13731 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 393-206 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: U5a1a1g

Sample: I13730 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 390-202 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-S5668
mtDNA: H1bb

Sample: I19914 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 387-200 calBCE
mtDNA: H3g1

Sample: I19909 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 381-197 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY9003
mtDNA: T1a1-C152T!!

Sample: I19912 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 368-173 calBCE
mtDNA: H1bs

Sample: I13616 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 356-49 calBCE
mtDNA: H1b1-T16362C

Sample: I19870 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 200-1 BCE
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I19869 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, East Kent Access Road
Age: 175 calBCE – 8 calCE
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I1774 (Male)
Location: England, Kent, Isle of Sheppey, Neats Court
Age: 1879-1627 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: U4b1a2

Sample: I13716 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Margetts Pit
Age: 1391-1129 calBCE
mtDNA: H11a

Sample: I13617 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Margetts Pit
Age: 1214-1052 calBCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I18599 (Female)
Location: England, Kent, Sittingbourne, Highsted
Age: 43 calBCE – 110 calCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I3083 (Male)
Location: England, London, River Thames, Putney Foreshore
Age: 387-201 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: R

Sample: I16463 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Cockerham, Elbolton Cave
Age: 4000-3500 BCE
Y-DNA: I-L1195
mtDNA: H4a1a2

Sample: I16403 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Cockerham, Elbolton Cave
Age: 1600-1350 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: K2a

Sample: I16394 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Grassington, 3 Barrow Sites
Age: 2400-1600 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P297
mtDNA: K1c1

Sample: I16395 (Female)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Grassington, 3 Barrow Sites
Age: 2400-1600 BCE
mtDNA: U5b1

Sample: I16396 (Female)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Grassington, 3 Barrow Sites
Age: 2400-1600 BCE
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I16400 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Grassington, 3 Barrow Sites
Age: 2400-1500 BCE
Y-DNA: R-Z290
mtDNA: U3a1

Sample: I3035 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Ingleborough Hill, Fox Holes Cave
Age: 4000-3500 BCE
Y-DNA: R-A7208
mtDNA: H5a1

Sample: I12936 (Female)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Raven Scar Cave
Age: 1090-900 BCE
mtDNA: J1c5f

Sample: I16469 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Raven Scar Cave
Age: 1090-900 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H3-T152C!

Sample: I16467 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Raven Scar Cave
Age: 1090-900 BCE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: U5a1g1

Sample: I16459 (Unknown sex)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Raven Scar Cave
Age: 1090-900 BCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I19587 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Scorton Quarry
Age: 195 calBCE – 7 calCE
Y-DNA: G-L140
mtDNA: K2a

Sample: I14097 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Scorton Quarry
Age: 162 calBCE – 26 calCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: H66a1

Sample: I14096 (Male)
Location: England, North Yorkshire, Scorton Quarry
Age: 101 calBCE – 59 calCE
Y-DNA: R-FTA11009
mtDNA: H4a1a2a

Sample: I20583 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 387-201 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY175423
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I20582 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 368-165 calBCE
mtDNA: H10

Sample: I21272 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 400-100 BCE
Y-DNA: R-S5488
mtDNA: V

Sample: I21276 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I21277 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 400-100 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I21274 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I21275 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I21271 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: W1c

Sample: I20584 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Stanton Harcourt, Gravelly Guy
Age: 355-54 calBCE
mtDNA: K1a4a1

Sample: I14808 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 401-209 calBCE
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I14802 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 393-206 calBCE
mtDNA: X2d

Sample: I14807 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 391-204 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF49
mtDNA: T1a1

Sample: I14804 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 387-201 calBCE
mtDNA: H1o

Sample: I14806 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 386-198 calBCE
mtDNA: H1bb

Sample: I14800 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 382-197 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z253
mtDNA: J2b1

Sample: I14803 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 370-175 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: I14801 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 362-163 calBCE
mtDNA: X2b-T226C

Sample: I14809 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Thame
Age: 358-108 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: V7

Sample: I2446 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 2454-2139 calBCE
mtDNA: K1b1a1

Sample: I2448 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 1500-1000 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF63
mtDNA: U8a2

Sample: I20585 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 800-400 BCE
mtDNA: K1c1

Sample: I21180 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 396-209 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H7a1

Sample: I19209 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 400-200 BCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I19211 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I20589 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-Z52
mtDNA: V

Sample: I20586 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: J2b1a

Sample: I21178 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 400-200 BCE
mtDNA: T2b3-C151T

Sample: I21182 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-BY15941
mtDNA: J1c2

Sample: I21181 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H3

Sample: I20587 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 389-208 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF63
mtDNA: K1a2a

Sample: I19207 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 382-205 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: H

Sample: I21179 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 381-201 calBCE
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: I20588 (Male)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 366-197 calBCE
Y-DNA: G-BY27899
mtDNA: V

Sample: I19210 (Female)
Location: England, Oxfordshire, Yarnton
Age: 355-118 calBCE
mtDNA: H1cg

Sample: I3019 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Cheddar, Totty Pot
Age: 4000-2400 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: H4a1a-T195C!

Sample: I16591 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 408-232 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z290
mtDNA: H13a1a1

Sample: I11148 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 407-211 calBCE
mtDNA: U6d1

Sample: I13685 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 400-208 calBCE
mtDNA: U5a1b1e

Sample: I11147 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 392-204 calBCE
mtDNA: U5a1b1e

Sample: I16592 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 387-199 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FGC19329
mtDNA: U5a1b1e

Sample: I17014 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 381-179 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF63
mtDNA: U5b1b1d

Sample: I17015 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 380-197 calBCE
mtDNA: H2a2a1

Sample: I17016 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 377-178 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY3231
mtDNA: U2e1a1

Sample: I17017 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Christon, Dibbles Farm
Age: 196 calBCE – 5 calCE
mtDNA: U5b1-T16189C!

Sample: I19653 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L151
mtDNA: H1n6

Sample: I19856 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 400-200 BCE
mtDNA: R2’JT

Sample: I19654 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 400-200 BCE
mtDNA: H1c3a

Sample: I19652 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 395-205 calBCE
mtDNA: J1c2a2

Sample: I19656 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 387-198 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H5’36

Sample: I16593 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 382-197 calBCE
mtDNA: H7b

Sample: I13680 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 366-176 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: U5a2a1

Sample: I19655 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: H1c3a

Sample: I19855 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 400-100 BCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H1ak1

Sample: I19854 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: J1c2a2

Sample: I11993 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: J1c2a2

Sample: I11994 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 400-100 BCE
mtDNA: U5a2c3a

Sample: I19657 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 356-59 calBCE
mtDNA: H5s

Sample: I21315 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Ham Hill
Age: 173 calBCE – 5 calCE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: T1a1’3

Sample: I13684 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Meare Lake Village West
Age: 541-391 calBCE
mtDNA: W1-T119C

Sample: I11146 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Meare Lake Village West
Age: 400-200 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: J1c1c

Sample: I13682 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Mells Down, Kingsdown Camp
Age: 793-544 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY168376
mtDNA: H5a1

Sample: I6748 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Mendip, Hay Wood Cave
Age: 3956-3769 calBCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I11145 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, North Perrott, North Perrott Manor
Age: 166 calBCE – 14 calCE
Y-DNA: R-Z251
mtDNA: H1q

Sample: I11144 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, North Perrott, North Perrott Manor
Age: 149 calBCE – 65 calCE
Y-DNA: R-A9857
mtDNA: H5’36

Sample: I5365 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, Priddy
Age: 103 calBCE – 107 calCE
mtDNA: U5a1b1e

Sample: I11995 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, South Cadbury, Cadbury Castle
Age: 742-399 calBCE
mtDNA: H2a5

Sample: I21303 (Female)
Location: England, Somerset, South Cadbury, Cadbury Castle
Age: 153 calBCE – 25 calCE
mtDNA: H2a5

Sample: I21302 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, South Cadbury, Cadbury Castle
Age: 46 calBCE – 117 calCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: K1a-T195C!

Sample: I6776 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Storgoursey, Wick Barrow
Age: 2400-2000 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: R

Sample: I21306 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Tickenham, Diamond Cottage
Age: 2200-1400 BCE
Y-DNA: R-BY31082
mtDNA: H1an1

Sample: I21305 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Weston-super-Mare, Grove Park Road
Age: 800 BCE – 100 CE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I16596 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Worlebury
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H3b-G16129A!

Sample: I13681 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Worlebury
Age: 400-50 BCE
mtDNA: H3b-G16129A!

Sample: I11143 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Worlebury
Age: 352-53 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FT5780
mtDNA: H3b-G16129A!

Sample: I13726 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Worlebury
Age: 351-52 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY23964
mtDNA: H13a1a1

Sample: I11991 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Worlebury
Age: 349-50 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H3b-G16129A!

Sample: I11992 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Worlebury
Age: 343-50 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H3b-G16129A!

Sample: I11142 (Male)
Location: England, Somerset, Worlebury
Age: 197-44 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-PR1289
mtDNA: H3b-G16129A!

Sample: I16619 (Male)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Bevendean
Age: 361-106 calBCE
mtDNA: H49

Sample: I16617 (Female)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Black Rock
Age: 777-516 calBCE
mtDNA: H4a1a1a

Sample: I16615 (Female)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Coldean Lane, Varley Hall
Age: 1259-912 calBCE
mtDNA: K1c1

Sample: I14543 (Female)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Ditchling Road
Age: 2450-1600 BCE
mtDNA: K1a4a1g

Sample: I16616 (Female)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Mile Oak
Age: 1410-1227 calBCE
mtDNA: H13a1a1

Sample: I14552 (Male)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Moulsecoomb
Age: 92 calBCE – 110 calCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: J1c2

Sample: I14553 (Male)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Roedean Crescent
Age: 1954-1749 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-S15808
mtDNA: H5c

Sample: I14551 (Female)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Slonk Hill
Age: 514-234 calBCE
mtDNA: H6a1a

Sample: I7632 (Male)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Slonk Hill
Age: 391-203 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-CTS4528
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I14550 (Female)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Slonk Hill
Age: 700 BCE – 900 CE
mtDNA: H3-T152C!

Sample: I16618 (Female)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Surrendon Road
Age: 787-544 calBCE
mtDNA: K1a4

Sample: I14549 (Female)
Location: England, Sussex, Brighton, Woodingdean
Age: 401-208 calBCE
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I27379 (Male)
Location: England, Sussex, North Bersted
Age: 174-51 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FGC56332
mtDNA: H7d

Sample: I27380 (Male)
Location: England, Sussex, Westbourne, ‘Racton Man’
Age: 2453-2146 cal BCE
Y-DNA: R-Z290
mtDNA: H3k1

Sample: I2611 (Male)
Location: England, Tyne and Wear, Blaydon, Summerhill
Age: 3092-2905 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: U5a2d1

Sample: I14837 (Female)
Location: England, West Yorkshire, Dalton Parlours
Age: 381 calBCE – 6 calCE
mtDNA: K1a4a1c

Sample: I14347 (Male)
Location: England, West Yorkshire, Wattle Syke
Age: 371-176 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF23
mtDNA: K2a

Sample: I14348 (Female)
Location: England, West Yorkshire, Wattle Syke
Age: 368-173 calBCE
mtDNA: U3a1c

Sample: I14353 (Male)
Location: England, West Yorkshire, Wattle Syke
Age: 349-51 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: U5b2a1a1

Sample: I14352 (Female)
Location: England, West Yorkshire, Wattle Syke
Age: 193-6 calBCE
mtDNA: K2a

Sample: I14351 (Female)
Location: England, West Yorkshire, Wattle Syke
Age: 193-6 calBCE
mtDNA: K2a

Sample: I14359 (Male)
Location: England, West Yorkshire, Wattle Syke
Age: 200 BCE – 100 CE
mtDNA: J1c1

Sample: I14360 (Female)
Location: England, West Yorkshire, Wattle Syke
Age: 151 calBCE – 62 calCE
mtDNA: J1c1

Sample: I14200 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 2470-2239 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L151
mtDNA: K1b1a

Sample: I2565 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 2456-2146 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: W1-T119C

Sample: I2419 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 2393-2144 calBCE
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I2598 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 2139-1950 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: H

Sample: I19287 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 761-422 calBCE
mtDNA: K1b1a

Sample: I16602 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 734-403 calBCE
mtDNA: H1aq

Sample: I16600 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 713-381 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: T2b1

Sample: I16599 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 411-208 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: T2b1

Sample: I16601 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Amesbury Down
Age: 343-43 calBCE
mtDNA: H17

Sample: I21309 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Battlesbury Bowl
Age: 354-57 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-FGC33840
mtDNA: X2b-T226C

Sample: I21307 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Battlesbury Bowl
Age: 346-52 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: H7d

Sample: I21310 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Battlesbury Bowl
Age: 386 calBCE – 58 calCE
mtDNA: U4c1

Sample: I21311 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Battlesbury Bowl
Age: 336-49 calBCE
mtDNA: H16-T152C!

Sample: I21308 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Battlesbury Bowl
Age: 356 calBCE – 110 calCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: J1c1b

Sample: I21313 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Casterley Camp
Age: 354-57 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H3g

Sample: I21312 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Casterley Camp
Age: 343-51 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY129194
mtDNA: J1b1a1

Sample: I21314 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Casterley Camp
Age: 342-51 calBCE
mtDNA: V23

Sample: I16595 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Longbridge Deverill, Cow Down
Age: 387-204 calBCE
mtDNA: T2b9

Sample: I12608 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Potterne, Blackberry Field
Age: 1055-904 calBCE
mtDNA: H3ap

Sample: I12614 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Potterne, Blackberry Field
Age: 1100-800 BCE
mtDNA: K1a1b1

Sample: I12612 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Potterne, Blackberry Field
Age: 1100-800 BCE
mtDNA: U1a1a

Sample: I12611 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Potterne, Blackberry Field
Age: 1100-800 BCE
mtDNA: I2

Sample: I12613 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Potterne, Blackberry Field
Age: 1100-800 BCE
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I12624 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Potterne, Blackberry Field
Age: 900-800 BCE
mtDNA: H3

Sample: I12610 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Potterne, Blackberry Field
Age: 765-489 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: J1c1

Sample: I19858 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 1532-1431 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z290
mtDNA: J2b1a

Sample: I19857 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 1518-1425 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L617
mtDNA: J2b1a

Sample: I19859 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 1504-1403 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-S2497
mtDNA: H3

Sample: I19860 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 1503-1401 calBCE
mtDNA: T2b21

Sample: I19867 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 780-541 calBCE
mtDNA: H3-T16311C!

Sample: I19861 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 779-541 calBCE
mtDNA: U2e2a1c

Sample: I13688 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 775-516 calBCE
mtDNA: H1-C16239T

Sample: I19868 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 771-476 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: T2e1a

Sample: I19862 (Female)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 767-423 calBCE
mtDNA: H5a1f

Sample: I13689 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 753-411 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-BY4297
mtDNA: K1a3a

Sample: I13690 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 750-408 calBCE
mtDNA: H1b3

Sample: I19863 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Rowbarrow
Age: 460-382 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: N1a1a1a2

Sample: I4949 (Male)
Location: England, Wiltshire, Winterbourne Monkton, North Millbarrow
Age: 3624-3376 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-M284
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: I8582 (Female)
Location: Isle of Man, Rushen, Strandhall
Age: 2195-1973 calBCE
mtDNA: H2a1e1

Sample: I12312 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Argyll and Bute, Isle of Ulva, Ulva Cave
Age: 3751-3636 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-P214
mtDNA: K1a-T195C!

Sample: I12314 (Female)
Location: Scotland, Argyll and Bute, Oban, Carding Mill Bay II
Age: 3647-3533 calBCE
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: I12313 (Female)
Location: Scotland, Argyll and Bute, Oban, Carding Mill Bay II
Age: 3700-3350 BCE
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: I12317 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Argyll and Bute, Oban, Carding Mill Bay II
Age: 3629-3377 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-A8742
mtDNA: H5

Sample: I2658 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Argyll and Bute, Oban, Macarthur Cave
Age: 4000-3700 BCE
mtDNA: W1-T119C

Sample: I3137 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Argyll and Bute, Oban, Raschoille Cave
Age: 3800-3000 BCE
Y-DNA: I-S2599
mtDNA: HV0-T195C!

Sample: I3139 (Female)
Location: Scotland, Argyll and Bute, Oban, Raschoille Cave
Age: 3800-3000 BCE
mtDNA: H45

Sample: I16498 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 750-404 calBCE
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: I2692 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 727-396 calBCE
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: I16422 (Male)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 364-121 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L151
mtDNA: H3-T152C!

Sample: I2695 (Male)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 364-121 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H2a1

Sample: I2694 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 361-110 calBCE
mtDNA: H1ak1

Sample: I2696 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 355-55 calBCE
mtDNA: U5a2b4a

Sample: I16503 (Male)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 349-51 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z30597
mtDNA: H1ak1

Sample: I16416 (Male)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 346-51 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z30597
mtDNA: H3-T152C!

Sample: I2693 (Male)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 197 calBCE – 1 calCE
Y-DNA: R-P310
mtDNA: H3-T152C!

Sample: I16504 (Male)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Broxmouth
Age: 42 calBCE – 116 calCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: H1as

Sample: I16448 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Innerwick, Thurston Mains
Age: 2337-2138 calBCE
mtDNA: K1b1a1

Sample: I5471 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Innerwick, Thurston Mains
Age: 2269-1985 calBCE
mtDNA: H1c3a

Sample: I2413 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, Innerwick, Thurston Mains
Age: 2114-1900 calBCE
mtDNA: H1a1

Sample: I16499 (Male)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, North Berwick, Law Road
Age: 337-43 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-ZP18
mtDNA: I2a

Sample: I16495 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, North Berwick, Law Road
Age: 196 calBCE – 3 calCE
mtDNA: H6a1a8

Sample: I16418 (Male)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, North Berwick, Law Road
Age: 97 calBCE – 107 calCE
Y-DNA: I-L1195
mtDNA: U5a1d2a

Sample: I16413 (Female)
Location: Scotland, East Lothian, North Berwick, Law Road
Age: 44 calBCE – 117 calCE
mtDNA: H6a1a8

Sample: I2569 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Eweford Cottages
Age: 2140-1901 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: K1a3a

Sample: I3567 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Highland, Applecross
Age: 173 calBCE – 8 calCE
Y-DNA: R-FT221759
mtDNA: J1c3b

Sample: I3566 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Highland, Applecross
Age: 170 calBCE – 10 calCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H13a1a

Sample: I3568 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Highland, Applecross
Age: 42 calBCE – 119 calCE
Y-DNA: R-A277
mtDNA: H7a1

Sample: I19286 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Highland, Embo
Age: 3331-3022 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-M170
mtDNA: J1c1

Sample: I2824 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Isle of Harris, Northton
Age: 41 calBCE – 121 calCE
Y-DNA: R-M269
mtDNA: H13a1a

Sample: I2656 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Longniddry, Grainfoot
Age: 1283-940 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: H2a2a2

Sample: I2983 (Female)
Location: Scotland, Orkney, Bu
Age: 399-207 calBCE
mtDNA: U2e2a1c

Sample: I2982 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Orkney, Bu
Age: 395-207 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-Z16400
mtDNA: H7a1

Sample: I2799 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Orkney, Howe of Howe
Age: 152 calBCE – 22 calCE
Y-DNA: R-DF49
mtDNA: H1

Sample: I2629 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Orkney, Isbister
Age: 3350-2350 BCE
Y-DNA: I-L161
mtDNA: J1c1b

Sample: I2796 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Orkney, Point of Cott
Age: 3706-3536 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-FGC7113
mtDNA: H3

Sample: I5474 (Female)
Location: Scotland, Scottish Borders, Cumledge (Auchencraw Park)
Age: 151 calBCE – 77 calCE
mtDNA: K1a26

Sample: I2699 (Male)
Location: Scotland, South Uist, Hornish Point
Age: 159 calBCE – 26 calCE
mtDNA: V10

Sample: I16412 (Male)
Location: Scotland, Stirling, Coneypark Cairn (Cist 1)
Age: 2134-2056 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-CTS616
mtDNA: R

Sample: I27384 (Male)
Location: Scotland, West Lothian, House of Binns
Age: 90 calBCE – 110 calCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: H2a2a1g

Sample: I27385 (Male)
Location: Scotland, West Lothian, House of Binns
Age: 43 calBCE – 117 calCE
Y-DNA: R-L1066
mtDNA: T2b19

Sample: I16475 (Male)
Location: Wales, Clwyd, Dinorben
Age: 550-1 BCE
Y-DNA: R-P312
mtDNA: X2b

Sample: I16514 (Female)
Location: Wales, Clwyd, Dinorben
Age: 550-1 BCE
mtDNA: HV0

Sample: I16410 (Female)
Location: Wales, Clwyd, Dinorben
Age: 550-1 BCE
mtDNA: T2b

Sample: I16479 (Unknown sex)
Location: Wales, Conwy, Llandudno, Little Ormes Head, Ogof Rhiwledyn
Age: 1500-1100 BCE
mtDNA: H

Sample: I16491 (Male)
Location: Wales, Denbighshire, Llanferres, Orchid Cave
Age: 2876-2680 calBCE
Y-DNA: I-L1195
mtDNA: U5b2b

Sample: I6771 (Female)
Location: Wales, Glamorgan, Llantwit Major, Llanmaes
Age: 169 calBCE – 2 calCE
mtDNA: U4b1a

Sample: I16471 (Female)
Location: Wales, Glamorgan, Llantwit Major, Llanmaes
Age: 200 BCE – 50 CE
mtDNA: H2a

Sample: I16405 (Male)
Location: Wales, Glamorgan, RAF St Athan
Age: 397-205 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-DF13
mtDNA: K1a-T195C!

Sample: I5440 (Male)
Location: Wales, Glamorgan, St. Fagan’s
Age: 1500-1322 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L151
mtDNA: K1c1

Sample: I2574 (Female)
Location: Wales, North Wales, Llandudno, Great Orme
Age: 1417-1226 calBCE
mtDNA: U5a1a2b

Sample: I16476 (Female)
Location: Wales, West Glamorgan, Gower Peninsula, Port Eynon, Culver Hole Cave
Age: 1600-1200 BCE
mtDNA: H24

Sample: I16488 (Male)
Location: Wales, West Glamorgan, Gower Peninsula, Port Eynon, Culver Hole Cave
Age: 1201-1015 calBCE
Y-DNA: R-L21
mtDNA: U5a1b1

_____________________________________________________________

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DNA Shows Peter Johnson and Mary Polly Philips Are My Relatives, But Are They My Ancestors? – 52 Ancestors #350

One of the requests by several people for 2022 article topics revolved in some way around solving challenges and showing my work.

In this case, I’m going to show both my work and the work of a newly-discovered cousin, Greg Simkins.

Let’s start by reminding you of something I said last week in Darcus Johnson (c1750-c1835) Chain Carrier – Say What??.

Darcus is reported in many trees to be the daughter of Peter Johnson (Johnston, Johnstone) and his wife Mary Polly Phillips. Peter reportedly lived in Pennsylvania and died in Allegheny County, PA. However, I am FAR from convinced that this couple was Darcus’s parents.

The distance from Shenandoah County, VA to Allegheny Co., PA is prohibitive for courting.

The Shenandoah County records need to be thoroughly researched with various Johnson families reconstructed. I’m hoping that perhaps someone has already done that and a Johnson family was living not terribly far from Jacob Dobkins father, John Dobkins. That would be the place to start.

Greg, Peter Johnson’s descendant through son James reached out to me.

Hi Roberta, I read your essay today on Dorcas Johnson. I wanted to write to you because I am a descendant of Dorcas’s brother James and have DNA matches to support our connection.

Clearly, I was very interested, but I learned long ago not to get too excited.

Then, Greg kindly shared his tree and DNA results with me. He was also generous enough to allow me to incorporate his information into this article. So yes, this article is possible entirely thanks to Greg.

I was guardedly excited about Greg’s communication, but I wasn’t prepared for the HUGE shock about to follow!

Whoa!!!

Greg has done his homework and stayed after school.

First, he tracked the descendants of Peter through all of his children, to present, where possible, and added them into his trees at the genealogy vendors. The vendors can do much better work for you with as much ammunition as you can provide.

Second, he has doggedly tracked matches at MyHeritage, FamilyTreeDNA, Ancestry and GEDmatch that descend through Peter Johnson and Mary Polly Phillips’s children. By doggedly, I mean he has spent hundreds to thousands of hours by his estimation – and based on what I see, I would certainly agree. In doing so, he pushed his own line back from his great-great-grandmother, Elizabeth Johnson, three generations to Peter Johnson and Mary Polly Phillips – and proved its accuracy using DNA.

Altogether, Greg has identified almost 250 matches that descend from Peter Johnson and Mary Polly Phillips, and mapped those segments across his chromosomes.

Greg made notes for each match by entering the number of matching cMs into their profile names as a suffix in his tree. For example, “David Johnson 10cM” instead of “David Johnson Jr.” or Sr.  That way, it’s easy to quickly see who is a match and by how much. Brilliant! I’m adopting that strategy. It won’t affect what other people see, because no living people are shown in trees.

Of course, DNA is on top of traditional genealogical research that we are all familiar with that connects people via deeds, wills, and other records.

Additionally, Greg records research information for individuals as a word document or pdf file and attaches them as documents to the person’s profile in his tree. His tree is searchable and shareable, so this means those resources are available to other people too. We want other researchers to find us and our records for EXACTLY this reason.

One thing to note is that if you are using Ancestry and use the Notes function on profiles, the notes don’t show to people with whom you share your tree, but links, sources and attached documents do.

Greg has included both “Other Sources” and “Web Links” below.

Click images to enlarge

For example, if I click on Greg’s link to Historic Pittsburg, I see the land grant location for Peter Johnson. Wow, this was unexpected.

Ok, I love maps and I’m hooked. Notice the names of the neighbors too. You’ll see Applegate again. Also, note that Thomas Applegate sold his patent to Richard Johnson. Remember the FAN club – friends and neighbors.

Ok, back to DNA for now.

The Children

Ancestors with large families are the best for finding present-day DNA matches. Of course, that’s because there are more candidates. More descendants and that means more people who might test someplace. This is also why you want to be sure to have your DNA in all 4 major DNA vendors, FamilyTreeDNA, MyHeritage, Ancestry, and 23andMe, plus GEDmatch.

This is a portion of Greg’s tree that includes the children of Peter Johnson and Mary Polly Phillips. Note that two Johnson females married Dobkins men. I’ve always suspected that Margaret Johnson and Dorcas Johnson were sisters, but unless we could use mitochondrial DNA, or figure out who the parents of either Peter or Mary are, there’s no good way to prove it.

We’re gathering some very valuable evidence.

At Ancestry, Greg has 85 matches on his ThruLines for Peter Johnson and Mary Polly Phillips, respectively.

  • Of course, Greg has the most matches for his own line through Peter’s son James Johnson (1752-1826) who married Elizabeth Lindsay and died in Lawrence County, IL: 35 matches.
  • Next is Margaret Johnson (1780-1833) who married Evan Dobkins in Dunmore County, VA, brother of my ancestor, Jacob Dobkins. She probably died in Cocke County, TN: 25 matches. Dorcas named one of her children Margaret and Margaret may have named one of her children Dorcas.
  • Solomon Johnson (1765-1843) married Frances Warne and stayed in Allegheny County, PA: 8 matches. Notice one of Peter’s neighbors was a Warner family. Dorcas named one of her children Solomon, a fairly unusual name.
  • Mary Johnson (1770-1833) married Garrett Wall Applegate and died in Harrison County, IN: 7 matches. The Applegates were Peter Johnson’s neighbors and Garrett served in the Revolutionary War in the 8th VA Regiment. Clearly, some of these settlers came from or spent time in Virginia.
  • Dorcas Johnson (c1750-c1835) married Jacob Dobkins in Dunmore County, VA and died in Claiborne County, TN: 5 matches.
  • Peter Johnson (1753-1840) married Eleanor “Nellie” Peter and died in Jefferson County, KY: 4 matches.
  • Richard D. Johnson (1752-1818) married Hannah Dungan and Elizabeth Nash: 2 matches.

Unfortunately, since most of those matches are between 7 and 20 cM, and Ancestry does not display shared matches under 20 cM, we can’t use Ancestry’s comparison tool to see if these people also match each other. That’s VERY unfortunate and extremely frustrating.

Greg matches more people from this line at MyHeritage, GEDmatch and FamilyTreeDNA, and thankfully, those vendors all three provide segment information AND shared match information.

Cousins Are Critical

While Greg, unfortunately, does not match me, he does match several of my cousins whose tests I manage.

Two of those cousins both descend from Darcus Johnson through her daughter Jenny Dobkins, through her daughter Elizabeth Campbell, through her daughter Rutha Dodson, through her sons John Y. Estes and Lazarus Estes, respectively.

Another descends through Jenny Dobkins son, William Newton Campbell for another 5 generations. These individuals all match on a 17 cM segment of Chromosome 20.

Other known cousins match Greg on different chromosomes.

Looking at their shared matches at FamilyTreeDNA, we find more Dobkins, Dodson and Campbell cousins, some that were previously unknown to me. One of those cousins also descends through William Newton Campbell’s daughter for another 4 generations and matches on the same segment of chromosome 20.

DNAPainter

Emails have been flying back and forth between me and Greg, each one with some piece of information that one of us has found that we want to be sure the other has too. Having research buddies is wonderful!

Then, Greg sent a screenshot of a portion of his chromosome 20 from DNAPainter that includes the DNA of the cousins mentioned above. I didn’t realize Greg was using DNAPainter. It’s an understatement to say I’m thrilled because DNAPainter does the cross-vendor triangulation work automatically for you.

Just look at all of those matches that carry this Johnson/Phillips segment of chromosome 20. Holy chimloda.

Greg also sent his DNAPainter sharing link, and it turns out that this is only a partial list, with one of my cousins highlighted, dead center in the list of Peter Johnson’s and Mary Polly Phillip’s descendants. Greg has even more not shown.

Trying Not to Jump to Conclusions

I’m trying so hard NOT to jump to conclusions, but this is just SOOOO EXCITING!

Little doubt remains that indeed, Peter Johnson and Mary Polly Phillips are the parents of Dorcas Johnson who married Jacob Dobkins and also of Margaret Johnson who married Evan Dobkins. I’ve eliminated the possibility of other common ancestors, as much as possible, and verified that the descent is through multiple children. This particular segment on chromosome 20 reaches across multiple children’s lines.

I say little doubt remains, because some doubt does remain. It’s possible that perhaps Dorcas and her sister weren’t actually daughters of Peter Johnson, but maybe children of his brother? Peter was reported to have a brother James, a sheriff in Cumberland County, PA. but again, we lack proof. If Dorcas is Peter Johnson’s niece, her descendants would still be expected to match some of the descendants of Peter and his wife.

Also complicating matters is the fact that Greg also has a Campbell brick wall with a James Campbell born about 1790 who lived in Fayette County, PA, in the far northwest corner of the state. Therefore, DNA matches through Dorcas Johnson Dobkins’s daughters Jenny and Elizabeth who married Campbell brothers need to be verified through her children’s lines that do NOT descend through her daughters who married Campbell men.

Nagging Questions

I know, I’m being a spoilsport, but I still have questions that need answers.

For example, I still need to account for how the Johnson girls managed to get to Shenandoah County, VA (Dunmore County at that time) to meet the Dobkins boys, spend enough time there to court, and then marry Evan and Jacob nine months apart in 1775. Surely they were living there. Young women simply did not travel, especially not great distances, and marriages occurred in the bride’s home county. Yet, they married in Shenandoah County, VA, not in PA.

What About the Records?

We are by no means done. In fact, I’ve just begun. I have some catching up to do. Greg has focused on Peter Johnson and Mary Polly Phillips in Pennsylvania. I need to focus on Virginia.

Of course, the next challenge is actual records.

What exists and what doesn’t? FamilySearch provides a list for Dunmore County, here, and Shenandoah, here.

Was Peter Johnson ever in Dunmore County that became Shenandoah County, VA, and if so when and where? If not, how the heck did his two daughters marry the Dobkins boys in 1775? Was there another Johnson man in Dunmore during that time? Was it James?

Where was Peter Johnson in 1775 when Dorcas and Margaret were marrying? Can we positively account for him in Pennsylvania or elsewhere?

Some information has been published about Peter Johnson, but those critical years are unaccounted for.

It appears that the Virginia Archives has a copy of the 1774-1776 rent rolls for Dunmore County, but they aren’t online. That’s the best place to start. Fingers crossed for one Peter Johnson living right beside John Dobkins, Jacob’s father. Now THAT would convince me.

Stay tuned!

Note – If you’d like to view Greg’s tree at Ancestry, its name is “MyHeritage Tree Simkins” and you can find it by searching for Maude Gertrude Wilson born in 1876 in Logan County, Illinois, died January 27, 1950 in Ramsey County, Minnesota, and married Harry A. Simkins. Elizabeth Ann Johnson (1830-1874) is Maude’s grandmother.

_____________________________________________________________

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Share the Love!

You’re always welcome to forward articles or links to friends and share on social media.

If you haven’t already subscribed (it’s free,) you can receive an email whenever I publish by clicking the “follow” button on the main blog page, here.

You Can Help Keep This Blog Free

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Uploads

Genealogy Products and Services

My Book

Genealogy Books

Genealogy Research

Darcus Johnson (c1750–c1835), Chain Carrier – Say What??- 52 Ancestors #349

The People’s History of Claiborne County, Tennessee tells us that, “Darcus Johnson was the daughter of Peter Johnson and Mary “Polly” Phillips, was born in 1750 in the area of Augusta County, Virginia that became Dunmore County, then Shenandoah. Her father might have come from Pennsylvania. She died in 1831 in Claiborne County, TN.”

This may or may not be entirely accurate.

Bill Nevils, long-time family history researcher provided a great deal of information about his Claiborne County ancestors, some of which, fortunately, are mine too. Unfortunately, he’s gone now and I can’t ask him about his sources. I don’t know what data might be available now that was not available to him at that time.

First Things First

There is some question about the spelling of Dorcas, Dorcus or Darcus’s first name. It’s listed as Darcus in the Shenandoah County (transcribed) Marriage records. In the 1852 Greene County, TN will of Andrew Dobkins (wife Joanna), Darcus’s probable son, he listed a daughter named Darcas in his will.

I’ve also seen her name spelled Dorcas, several times, but never in an original document. That’s one of the problems, there is only one known contemporaneous document that is positively her and lists her name – her marriage. And even that misspells Jacob’s surname. So who knows.

I’m spelling her name in all three ways because I don’t know which one to choose. That way, no matter who is googling in the future, they’ll find this article😊.

Darcus married Jacob Dobkins, who I wrote about here, here and here.

The Shenandoah Co., VA marriage records don’t give a date for the marriage of Jacob Dobkins (spelled Dobbins) and Darcus Johnson, but they appear to have been transcribed in entry order. The marriage above theirs took place on September 6, 1775, and the following date, 7 couples later is October 2, 1775. I can’t help but wonder if “no date” means “ditto”, but regardless, they were married sometime between those two dates.

Jacob and Darcus were actually married in Dunmore County that became and was renamed on February 1, 1778, as Shenando, now Shenandoah. The Dunmore records have been incorporated into the Shenandoah County records since Dunmore wasn’t split, just renamed.

Parents

Darcus is reported in many trees to be the daughter of Peter Johnson (Johnston, Johnstone) and his wife Mary Polly Phillips. Peter reportedly lived in Pennsylvania and died in Allegheny County, PA. However, I am FAR from convinced that this couple was Darcus’s parents.

The distance from Shenandoah County, VA to Allegheny Co., PA is prohibitive for courting.

The Shenandoah County records need to be thoroughly researched with various Johnson families reconstructed. I’m hoping that perhaps someone has already done that and a Johnson family was living not terribly far from Jacob Dobkins father, John Dobkins. That would be the place to start.

What DO We Know?

We know that Jacob Dobkins was born about 1751 based on his Revolutionary War Pension application in 1832 where he said he was 81 years old. If Dorcas was 20 when she was married, then she would have been born about 1755, but later records place her birth about 1750 or perhaps even somewhat earlier.

In 1773, Jacob appears on the Fincastle Co., VA tax list as “not found.” Fincastle County was the parent of Dunmore which was the parent of Shenandoah. Not found means he had likely moved on. It’s somewhat unusual for a single man to be living alone, but we have no reason to think he was married before Darcus.

By 1774, Jacob was likely serving in the all-volunteer militia as Lord Dunmore’s War had commenced and one Jacob Dobler was listed as defending the frontier in a Fincastle Militia unit. Interestingly, so was one Patrick Johnston.

In January 1775, Jacob’s brother, Evan, married Margaret Johnson. Were Margaret and Darcas related? Sisters perhaps? We’ll likely never know, well, unless someone who descends from Margaret through all females to the current generation takes a full sequence mitochondrial DNA test. Darcus’s descendants have tested and their mitochondrial DNA would match, or nearly so, if Margaret and Darcus are sisters. If this applies to you and you descend through all females from Margaret (but a tester can be male in the current generation), please let me know because I have a DNA testing scholarship for you! We could solve a mystery together.

In May of 1775, Evin, also spelled Evan, Jacob, and another brother, Reuben, appear on a militia list of Dunmore County.

Children

Of course, children began arriving soon after their marriage. Unfortunately, we only have a reconstructed list of children based on proximity, inferences and some legal and other documents. Unfortunately, the 1835 deed where the “Heirs of Jacob Dobkins” deeded his property is recorded in the missing Claiborne County Deed Book L, and the index entry only says “The Heirs of Jacob Dobkins.” I swear, every deed I “really need” is in that AWOL book.

  • Assuming Andrew Dobkins was the child of Jacob and Darcus, and I know assume is a dangerous word in genealogy, he was born about 1775 according to the 1850 Greene Co., TN census. He did name a daughter Darcus, and Jacob Dobkins did live in this area about the time Andrew would have been marrying. Alternatively, Andrew could have been the child of a different Dobkins man, probably one of Jacob’s brothers.
  • Darcus’s first proven child, Elizabeth was born about 1776 and died sometime after 1850. Elizabeth would marry George Campbell, a near neighbor in Hawkins County, Tennessee. They named their daughter born about 1799 Dorcus/Dorcas.
  • John Dobkins was born about 1777, lived his adult life in Claiborne County, TN, and reportedly married Elizabeth Shaw. His children are unknown and I cannot confirm his birth year estimate. He first appeared in the court notes in 1808.
  • Another possible daughter named Dorcas Dobkins fits here. The Murphy family Bible record shows her birth as May 29, 1780. She married Malachi Murphy in 1796, according to the Bible, although neither a birth or marriage location is recorded. She could also have been the daughter of one of the other Dobkins men, brothers of Jacob, or someone else. I’m not convinced that Dorcas is the child of Jacob and Dorcas Dobkins, in part because of her birth date. Let’s set this aside for the moment.

There was a gap between John and the next child. Jacob was serving in the military far from Shenandoah County. Darcas nearly lost her young husband. Bullets ripped through his clothes during the Battle of Pickaway. If Jacob hadn’t survived, the course of history, at least my history and Darcas’s, would have been forever altered.

  • Jacob Dobkins Jr. was reportedly born about 1782. There has been a lot of confusion surrounding this man, and he is listed as having married Johanna Woolsey. However, Andrew Dobkins married Johanna Woolsey and was listed as early as 1819 in Greene County, TN where he died in 1852 with a will. Jacob Dobkins Jr., spent most of his adult life in Claiborne County, TN, first appeared in the records in 1803 and was on the tax list of 1833 as Jacob Jr. when Jacob Dobkins Sr. was still alive. He was still noted in records in 1839 and 1842, and probably died between then and 1850 where he is still listed on the agricultural census but NOT in the regular census.
  • Reuben Dobkins was born in 1783 in Shenandoah County, married Mary Polly, last name unknown, and died in Claiborne County in 1823. Some people show this Reuben as Jacob Dobkins’ brother, not his son. Reuben first appears in the Claiborne County court notes in 1815.
  • Margaret, known as Peggy Dobkins was born about 1785, married Elijah Jones, and died in March of 1852. They were divorced before 1844 when he remarried, according to his widow’s pension application. Peggy named her daughter born in 1811 Dorcas.
  • Solomon Dobkins was born in 1787 in what would become Tennessee, married Elizabeth, surname unknown, and died in 1852 in Kaufman County, TX.
  • The youngest daughter, Jane, known as Jenny Dobkins was born between 1778 and 1780, probably in Virginia, and died between 1850 and 1860 in Claiborne County, TN. She married John Campbell, believed to be the brother of George Campbell who married her sister.
  • George Dobkins was born between 1782 and 1788 in Virginia, married Nancy Parks, and died after 1840 in Claiborne County, TN.

This may be only a partial list of children.

Inferred History

Most of what we know about Darcus Johnson Dobkins is extrapolated from the life of her husband and children. We’re taking it on faith that the woman who bore his children was the same woman Jacob married back in Virginia, and that she had not died along the way and he remarried. That’s probably a pretty safe bet at least through Margaret born about 1785 because she named a child Dorcas.

Darcus’s early married life was anything but settled.

In 1775, Jacob enlisted in the local militia in Shenandoah County and participated in Lord Dunmore’s War, a conflict between Virginia, which extended through present-day Kentucky and west without boundary, and the Shawnee and Mingo nations. In 1780, his unit was mustered out, but by then, Jacob was already in Kentucky, serving under the command of George Rogers Clark. Jacob marched from near Louisville to near Cincinnati, pursuing Shawnee Indians. For that matter, we don’t know if Jacob ever had a horse during these years. We do know the men were on foot most if not all of the time.

Jacob Dobkins had enlisted in the militia to fight specifically in the Revolutionary War in May of 1779 where he was already living – Harrod’s Fort that eventually became Harrodsburg, Kentucky, and served for at least two years. If you are counting on your 9 fingers, this means that if Jacob left before he enlisted and was already in Kentucky, he could not have fathered Dorcas Dobkins if she was born in May of 1780. Of course, sometimes birth years were recorded incorrectly, but this suggests that Dorcas Dobkins who married Malachi Murphy was not the child of Jacob and Dorcas Dobkins. Maybe she was named in honor of our Dorcas.

Why was Jacob Donkins already at Fort Harrod in 1779? Was he on a reconnaissance mission, thinking about moving west, when he needed to enlist because the war on the frontier had heated up? One John Dobbin filed for land on North Elkhorn Creek in 1778. John could have been his father or brother. Jacob would not have taken his wife on that type of expedition. By this time, she had small children at home and was probably pregnant again. The land claim was sold by 1780.

Jacob spent 1780 in Harrods Fort and Shawnee Springs, now in the state of Kentucky but then the western frontier of Virginia. Later that fall, he fought in the Battle of Pickaway in Ohio where the bullets flew fast and furious, shreddinging his clothes into tatters. It’s amazing that he escaped with his life. Many didn’t.

Home Again

In August of 1781, Jacob finally headed back to his bride in Shenandoah County who was waiting with at least two and possibly as many as four children. I’m using the word “waiting” loosely here, because she was certainly not sitting around waiting. Dorcas was doing the work of two people. Hers as the wife and mother, plus the tasks Jacob would have been doing too. Her tasks would have included childcare, cooking, cleaning, and doing everything by hand. Covering his responsibilities meant taking care of any animals, plowing, planting, weeding, harvesting, and obtaining food, generally by hunting – all with babies. I don’t know how she did it, but I hope fervently she had family nearby to help. I mean, think about it. How could you even plow, assuming you HAD a plow and an ox, with two babies in tow? And when you got done with all that – you still had all the inside traditional women’s work to do.

If she was pregnant when Jacob left, she gave birth without him nearby, and if the child died, she also buried her baby without her husband’s support.

Fortunately, Jacob did make it home and in 1782, 1783, and 1784 is recorded on the Shenandoah County, VA tax lists.

Their next child was born in 1783 as well.

The 1783 tax lists provided additional information and the family is shown with 8 whites, which would mean that they had 6 children or other people lived with them.

We don’t know exactly where they lived but we do know they were closely associated with the Holeman family. One of Jacob’s brothers married a Holeman woman and the men served in the militia together. The Holeman and Dobkins families both received land grants and settled along Holeman’s Creek near present-day Forestville, VA.

Holeman’s Creek runs between the two red arrows before dumping into the North Shenandoah River.

However, Jacob had caught an itch while he was away. And that itch was to move west.

Westward Ho

Jacob would have passed through Martin’s Station, located in Lee County, VA, just east of the Cumberland Gap on his way to and from Kentucky. That’s not far from where Jacob and Darcus would eventually settle permanently, but first, they tried a few other locations. Tennessee wasn’t yet a state, nor was that area open for settlement.

In 1785, the couple was not listed on the Virginia tax lists. The family had likely packed up and already started down the Great Wagon Road that eventually morphed into I81.

Jacob may have come and gone between two locations because in 1785, a Washington County, North Carolina document subpoenaed Jacob Dobkins of Shenandoah County to testify.

By Iamvered – I, Esemono, drew this map myself., CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3874104

It appears that Jacob and Dorcas moved to the State of Franklin and likely became embroiled in early politics. The State of Franklin was not a state, but it wanted to be, seceding from North Carolina in 1784. Eventually, the area involved in the State of Franklin became the easternmost counties of Tennessee, but then, it was the wild west – the fringe of the frontier.

By 1786, the residents were negotiating with the state of North Carolina for readmission. “Oops, we’re sorry and had a moment.”

The State of Franklin had become a no man’s land meaning they weren’t a part of any government and had no rights or protections. Residents couldn’t file for land, for example, or vote, or hold court. The two sides were literally at war with one another. They had a mess on their hands and eventually, most people just wanted order to be restored.

By Iamvered – I, Iamvered, drew this map myself., CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=3868073

In 1787 and 1788, Jacob and his brothers were living in Washington County, NC, the part that had been the state of Franklin and would become the counties of Washington, Sullivan, Greene, and Hawkins in eastern Tennessee after Tennessee was admitted to the union in 1796. Jacob bought land in Washington County in 1788, so apparently intended to stay.

In 1789, Jacob’s name appeared on a petition along with a group of men who were considered to be living on Indian land not purchased by the US government. They petitioned the NC government, begging for help.

Jacob may have given up and moved back to Shenandoah County, VA because his name appears there on the 1790 reconstructed census with 8 whites. However, the reconstructed census used tax lists, and we already know he was listed in 1783 with 8 people, so his whereabouts in 1790 are unclear.

You might have noticed that children continued to arrive during this time. Was Darcus exasperated beyond her limits? Someplace between 6 and 8 children and constant threats to their safety? Did she perhaps give Jacob a wifely ultimatum? I have to wonder, because even the staunchest of pioneer wives could certainly have reached their limit under those circumstances. Sometimes situations change, and something that at one time seemed like a really good idea, in reality, wasn’t. This turmoil wasn’t short-lived either. Darcus was now approaching 15 years of upheaval. Her entire married life.

Many families did move back to a safer and less stressful environment. Holeman’s Creek probably looked quite welcoming!

That arrangement, if they did move back, did not last long.

Retry – Back Again

In 1792, the family is living in newly formed Jefferson County where Jacob sued John Sevier – yes – the governor. Sevier had been involved with the State of Franklin too, and Jacob had been called to testify in a lawsuit against Sevier in 1785. Perhaps whatever was going on in 1785 was still unresolved in 1792.

I can just hear the gossip and drama, even across 230 years. Everyone but everyone would have been talking about that and assuredly had an opinion – probably a strong one. Tongues would have been wagging, that’s for sure!

The church was not only the religious center, but also the social center of the community, especially for women. I don’t know what church they attended in Virginia, but in later years in Tennessee, they were assuredly Baptists.

By 1792, Dorcas would have been about 40 years old. We don’t know of any children born this late, but there certainly could have been some that we aren’t aware of or that did not survive. Or, Dorcas could have been slightly older than we know. George was reportedly born between 1782 and 1788. If Dorcas was 43-45 when he was born, and he was born in 1788, that puts her birth possibly as early as 1743.

Jacob bought land again, this time in the area known as “The Territory of the United States South of the River Ohio” on Bent Creek in Hawkins County, near the main road between the ford of the Holston River and Bull’s Gap over the mountain.

Clearly, this part of the country, destined to become Tennessee, was having either birthing pains or an identity crisis, but that didn’t stop the settlers from arriving, clearing land, and staying.

By this time, Dorcas’s eldest children were of age to begin marrying. Elizabeth Dobkins married George Campbell and Jenny Dobkins married his (presumed) brother John Campbell, sons of Charles Campbell who lived near the Holston River.

In 1793 Jacob bought land in Jefferson County, and in 1796, Jacob sold at least some of that land. Around this time, the family likely migrated, probably with the Reverend Tidence Lane to what would become Claiborne County. We know that Jacob and Darcas were established in Claiborne County by October 1801 because Jacob is mentioned in the first court notes establishing the county. An entire group, including Jacob’s two Campbell sons-in-law, appear to have moved and settled together.

This was the last move for Jacob and Darcas. They packed up one last time, pulled out in a heavily loaded wagon, settled in Claiborne County, and stayed.

Now roughly 50 years old, I’d guess Darcas was VERY tired of packing everything into a wagon and moving. Their entire married life had been punctuated by instability. First, a war, then moving to “the west,” the State of Franklin, then not a state, then Washington County, NC, then the Territory South of the River Ohio, then Washington Co., TN, then Hawkins County, then Jefferson County, then finally Claiborne county which means they likely lived in Grainger County before Claiborne was formed. Oh yes, fighting Indians, clearing land and suing the governor sprinkled in there for good measure. I’m exhausted just thinking about this.

Darcus must have heaved a huge sigh of relief. By this time, they had older children and adult sons to help clear land and fell trees. They bought a tract large enough to entice all of their children to move with them. That was a brilliant strategy because that seems to be exactly what happened. Maybe that was what enticed Dorcas to move just one more time, into the peaceful little valley on the north side of Wallen Mountain.

Jacob and Dorcas built a log cabin, and their children built cabins nearby.

Amazingly, their cabin still stood into the late 1900s. I wrote about discovering the cabin, here.

The War of 1812

However, Darcus would be forced to deal with war once again, this time the War of 1812. Many local men joined or were drafted to fight, including her adult son, Solomon Dobkins, who was a Captain and fought in the Battle of Horseshoe Bend in 1814. Her son-in-law, Elijah Jones, fought alongside her son in Alabama.

Many Claiborne County men died, both of wounds and illness. Most men didn’t even have horses and walked to war, supplying their own armaments too.

Darcus certainly knew how close she came to losing Jacob all those years ago. I’m sure she wondered if she would lose Solomon and Elijah. She would have stepped up to help her daughter and daughter-in-law while the men were gone.

Court Martial

All was not well with the Dobkins family in Claiborne County. Some records are difficult to find and don’t show up for another generation or two. Solomon Dobkins died in 1852 in Fannin County, Texas. His son, Jake (Jacob) Dobkins was living in Gainesville, Cooke Co., Texas on July 5, 1856 when he made application for “anything the government may have to offer him as the heir of his father, Solomon Dobkins.” He states that his father served in the Creek Indian War in 1812 and 1813 under General Jackson. He further states that his father died in 1852 in Fannin County Texas.

Any benefits from the government to this heir were denied because Solomon Dobkins was Court Martialed and Cashiered.

Cashiering is a demotion as a result of a court martial. I always wondered why there was no pension application for Solomon. This answers that question.

Everyone would have known, and apparently, no one spoke of it. I can’t help but wonder what happened, when, and where. A court martial is very severe.

This situation must have caused Dorcas both pain and embarrassment.

I continue to find Solomon in the Claiborne County court records in positions of responsibility, so whatever happened seems to have been largely forgotten, although he was prosecuted by the state at one time.

A Fireside Chat Heralds Changes

Jacob and Darcus probably sat beside the fireplace one night, or maybe on the porch in rocking chairs, and had a talk. I’m guessing that they had many serious talks over the years. Whether to leave, or not. Whether to return, or not. Whether to move back, or not. Whether to move on, or not.

This talk was a bit different. They were aging, approaching 65 which was beyond “retirement age” back then. Well, I guess you never really got to “retire,” but you did get to stop paying taxes at some point when you were either infirm or old. That’s what retirement looked like in that era. You worked until you couldn’t anymore, then you died or lived with your children.

Jacob and Dorcas decided to begin distributing their land. In 1814, about the time Solomon and Elijah returned from the war, Jacob sold land to two sons-in-law, Elijah Jones and George Campbell. Nothing like a wake-up call to realize tomorrow simply isn’t guaranteed.

In about 1817, Jacob suffered a disabling shoulder and collarbone break in some type of accident. He stated in court in 1832 when he applied for his pension that he had not been able to attend court since that time and suffered greatly from “phrumatic pains.” This also means that Dorcas was probably caring for Jacob and once again had to pick up more chores, even though she assuredly had aches and pains herself by this time. Thankfully, she had children and grandchildren nearby to help.

In 1823, their (presumed) son, Reuben died. I wish we had more information. Was he ill or was there an accident? Without antibiotics, any farm injury could quickly become septic, and something like a ruptured appendix meant sure and certain death. Was Reuben actually their son, or was that Reuben Jacob’s brother?

The 1830s

The 1830 Claiborne County census shows columns for ages, with Jacob Dobkins listed as 70-80 and the female living in the household as 80-90. Of course, it’s easy to mismark a column or misunderstand an age, but if Dorcas was in fact 80-90 in 1830, that means she was actually born between 1740-1750. If she was born in 1750, she would have been slightly older than Jacob. That might also explain why we find no children born after roughly 1788 and possibly no later than 1782.

The 1830s are fuzzy for Dorcas. We know that Jacob died in 1835, but we don’t know if she died before or after Jacob. Some show her death in 1831, but I don’t know why.

There is, however, one very intriguing record.

Say What?

This March 27, 1833 survey is quite interesting.

Dorcas Dobkins is listed as a chain carrier. Say what?

Yes, a chain carrier, shown just beneath the drawing as, “Sworn Chainers.”

I’m not sure who else this could have been, unless it was a granddaughter. The problem is, other than the Dorcas Dobkins born in 1808 and who lived in Greene County, I don’t know who else this could have been, other than Dorcas, the wife of Jacob. It’s also fair to say that I only have two known children for Darcus’s son John, and no documented children for Reuben who died in 1823, assuming he was their son, nor for son Jacob who died or disappeared from the records between 1840-1850. Of course, there are questions about the identity of some of those men, and some of them may not have been old enough to have daughters serving as chain carriers in 1833.

Neither sons Solomon nor George have known children named Dorcas.

This survey is for Lorenzo Dow Dobkins, the son of John Dobkins. His brother was also named John, the name of the other chain carrier, so it’s possible that he had a sister by the name of Dorcas. Or, his grandmother wanted to help out.

Personally, I’m voting for an irreverent grandmother who was itching to get out of the house on a beautiful spring day.

Let’s eavesdrop…

“We don’t have another person as the chain carrier. We can’t do the survey today.”

Dorcas: “Oh yes you do!”

“Who?”

Dorcas, pointing to herself: “Me.”

With a slight smile, “Maam, with all respect, you can’t do that.”

Dorcas, more determined than ever: “Hrummph, watch me!” as she wipes her hands, takes off her apron and pins up a stray hair or two.

Men, looking at each other, shrugging, “OK.”

I think this is the first time I’ve ever seen a female chain carrier in a record. A chain carrier needed to be of age and able to testify as to the fairness and accuracy of the survey process if called upon. Not only that, chains were heavy and the terrain was sometimes rough.

I can’t help but wonder if Dorcas was a chain carrier because she wanted to keep her eye on what was occurring. After all, this survey did abut her son John’s land. If that was the case, she was clearly not dead at this time. And being a chain carrier, in spite of what someone might have thought, wasn’t likely to kill her😊.

We know from Jacob’s 1832 pension application and testimony that he was disabled and therefore he would not have been able to be a chain carrier. Dorcas would have been at least in her late 70s if not her 80s.

Jacob’s Pension Payments

Jacob’s pension payment records don’t say anything about Dorcas. One record, from 1835, shows the list of pensioners and does not indicate a death date for Jacob, although there are death dates in 1833 for others. That means that either he hadn’t died when this list was compiled in 1835, or the death date wasn’t entered. Since the legislation was to compile a list of pensioners being paid, it’s very unlikely that he died before 1835, but not impossible. He was also on the Claiborne County tax list in 1833.

A second record indicates the last pension payment was made in September of 1835. I was unclear whether that payment could have been to Dorcas as his surviving spouse, or, it would only have been paid to Jacob directly.

As it turns out, widows were not eligible to receive payments until an act of July 4, 1836. This confirms that Jacob was last paid, himself, in September of 1835. He died sometime between September of 1835 and the next payment date in March of 1836.

All we can surmise from this is that Dorcas did not apply for his pension beginning in 1836, so my presumption would be that she had died before July of 1836.

In 1835, Jacob’s heirs quitclaimed his land to Betsy Campbell, their daughter who had married George Campbell. Of course, that’s the deed in the book that’s missing, so I’ll never know if Dorcas signed, or who all of their heirs were.

I don’t find a woman of Dorcas’s age living with one of her children in the 1840 census, so I’d feel safe in saying she had died by then, and most likely by the end of 1835 when the land was conveyed.

Burial

For all that I don’t know, what I do know is where Jacob and Dorcas are buried. Of course, they established a graveyard on their land, behind the house and up the hill towards the Powell River. According to cousin Bill Nevils, when we visited some years ago, the family lore states that Jacob is buried beneath the huge tree in the center. That would make sense.

Jacob would have spared that tree when he cleared the land. Maybe he said to Dorcas one day, “That’s where we’ll be buried, with our kin, looking over our land.”

Maybe Dorcas figured if he established a burying ground, they were finally someplace to stay.

Jacob and Dorcas certainly weren’t the first to be buried there three decades after they purchased the land. Nor were they the last.

No stone marks their resting place, save for the beautiful tree of course.

  • I don’t know where all of Dorcas’s children are buried, but I’d wager that Elizabeth, called Betsy, is buried right there. Her son Barney wound up owning the land and last I knew, his descendants still do.
  • Son John is probably buried in the cemetery too, assuming he didn’t move away. He died sometime after 1834.
  • Darcus probably buried Reuben, throwing clods of dirt on top of his casket as her final act of motherhood. That had to be an incredibly sad day, but he was always nearby, up on the hill.
  • Peggy joined her mother in March of 1852. In the 1850 census, she was living with an unknown family. As a divorced elderly woman, she may have been supported by the court and placed with a family who would care for her. We don’t know when she divorced, but it was before 1844 when Elijah Jones remarried, according to his widow’s pension application after his death. I wonder if Peggy was able to retain any of her parent’s land that Jacob and Darcus sold to her husband, Elijah, in 1814. Divorce was virtually unheard of at that time and required the approval of the state assembly. It’s unknown when the divorce occurred, but it certainly could have been prior to Dorcas’s death.
  • Jane known as Jenny died between 1850 and 1860 and is either buried with her mother or on the Campbell land across the ridge.
  • George died in 1837, just a couple of years after Jacob, and would rest near his mother as well.
  • Jacob Jr. died sometime between 1840 and 1850 and likely rests in the family cemetery.
  • Solomon made his way to Texas, and of course, Andrew died in Greene County.

Of the 9 children believed to be hers, 7 are either buried with her or nearby. That idea of purchasing a large tract of land to share seemed to have worked. Solomon, while he did die in Texas, didn’t leave until after his mother had passed on. At least she didn’t have to wave goodbye to that wagon carrying her son and 11 of her grandchildren.

This beautiful, peaceful cemetery is populated with Dorcas’s descendants. The first person buried there would probably have been either Dorcas’s child or grandchild in one of the many unmarked graves.

Some of her 35 known grandchildren are buried here as well, as are a dozen generations of her descendants scattered across the sundrenched field.

DNA

I have more than 100 autosomal DNA matches with Dorcas’s descendants through 5 of her children. There is no question that she’s my ancestor.

However, what I really need is to discover more about her parents. Ancestry’s ThruLines only reach back 7 generations before you hit a hard stop, meaning Ancestry does not calculate ThruLines beyond 7 generations. Ancestry also does not provide segment information, so you have little to work with.

To find her parents, I need to be able to track specific segments that I’ve been able to confirm to Jacob Dobkins and Darcus Johnson back to people who have Johnson ancestors in their tree, hopefully in a timeframe that could be Dorcas’s parents.

Using segments from vendors who provide segment information, meaning FamilyTreeDNA, MyHeritage, 23andMe, and GedMatch, I’ve identified several segments that I know descend from Jacob and Dorcas and painted them at DNAPainter.

I can’t associate segments with (my unknown) ancestors any further back than either Jacob or Dorcas without matching segments from people who descend from their parents, respectively.

What I DESPERATELY need is the ability to use these segments to focus on all of my matches and their trees that triangulate on these specific paternal segments assigned to Jacob and Dorcas. I need the ability to work with the trees of people who carry those segments but aren’t descended from Jacob and Dorcas in order to unravel the identity of their ancestors.

That feature isn’t offered anyplace, at least not yet. I’m hopeful though.

However, that’s not the end of the DNA resources. We can utilize mitochondrial DNA that is passed from women to their children – but only women pass it on. That means both men and women can test today. Mitochondrial DNA testing represents a special DNA unique to their direct matrilineal line.

Dorcas’s Mitochondrial DNA

I’m fortunate enough to have Dorcas’s mitochondrial DNA results through two different daughters of Jane “Jenny” Dobkins. They match exactly, which is a good thing because I want to be able to depend on an exact match to be able to help identify other people’s trees that may hold the key to Dorcas’s parents.

Our testers have 9 full sequence exact matches at FamilyTreeDNA, the only vendor that does full mitochondrial DNA testing.

Of those matches, some have listed an EKA, Earliest Known Ancestor, from this line, some have provided trees, some both, and some neither.

Tracking the information back through their trees I’ve discovered:

  • One EKA is Matilda Holt 1830-1889 from Monroe Co., TN. Matilda Holt married James Willis in Claiborne County. Her mother was Rutha Campbell whose mother was Jane Dobkins, daughter of Dorcas.

Now we have three of Dorcas’s descendants.

  • Another match shows their EKA as Margaret Ida Hamilton born in 1877 in Plattsmouth, Nebraska, died in 1947, and married John Lincoln Brown 1864-1942. She was the daughter of Margaret Adaline Jones (1849-1910) whose mother was Susan Caroline Terrell born about 1820 in Obion County, TN and married Paul Guy Jones (1823-1970). I lost the trail there.
  • A third match descends from the wife of Elias Harrison (1769-1836) who died in 1836 in Claiborne County, TN. With that same location, this match is VERY interesting. Elias Harrison’s wife is purported to be Martha Hedgepith or Hedgepath (1772-1820), although documentation points elsewhere. One record suggests Martha was the daughter of Richard Beasley whose will was probated on October 5, 1800, in Stokes County, NC leaving his estate to his wife Martha but named a daughter, Patty Harrison. Martha and Patsy are common names for each other. The first two daughters of Elias and Martha were reported to have been born in NC. On March 3, 1792, one Jonathan Harrison sold 100 acres on Marshal’s Creek, a branch of Big River in Stokes County to Richard Beasley. You can read more about this couple here and here.

The fascinating thing about this record is that given the dates and locations, the wife of Elias Harrison is clearly not a daughter of Jacob Dobkins and Dorcas Johnson because one of Elias and Martha’s children was born in 1791 and another in 1792. Therefore, Martha’s connection to Dorcas reaches back into earlier generations.

The next logical step would be to research Richard Beasley’s wife who would have contributed Martha’s mitochondrial DNA through her mother’s line. A quick search shows that Richard Beasley was born in Essex County about 1730, reportedly married in Caroline County, and was in Stokes by 1790 where he died in 1800.

I do wonder if there is a reason that these families wound up in the same area of Claiborne County – did they previously know each other?

Haplogroup

Darcas’s mitochondrial haplogroup is H2a1.

Her Matches Map shows some matches in the UK, but many clustered in Sweden and Finland. You might also note that only one exact (red) match is shown on the map meaning that 8 people didn’t enter their geographic information. Just think how much more useful this tool could be with tree and location information included.

On the FamilyTreeDNA dashboard, at the bottom under “Other Tools,” you will find both “Advanced Matches” and “Public Haplotrees.”

Advanced matches provide you with the ability to see if any of your mitochondrial DNA matches also match you autosomally, assuming both people have taken both tests.

The public haplotree link allows you to view the countries where your haplogroup is found.

I selected “mtDNA Haplotree”, then “View by Country,” then haplogroup H, then entered the branch name. The requested haplogroup is displayed with the grey bar along with how many times a specific country has been selected by testers. You can mouse over each flag or click on the three dots at right to view the country report.

Just as a note, the “23” means that H2a1 has 23 subgroups, and Darcus’s DNA is not in any of them, just H2a1.

The takeaway with this report is that the deep ancestry of Darcus Johnson is found in Scandinavia, in Sweden, and Finland. How far back is deep? We don’t know exactly. Her more immediate ancestors’ most likely source of origin would be from the British Isles, or Scandinavia.

Haplogroup information alone may or may not be helpful genealogically – only time will tell. It can rule out a great number of possibilities – like Native American and other world regions in this case.

However, the Beasley line information is the most promising. Perhaps a proven daughter of Richard Beasley has a descendant through all females who will DNA test to either confirm or lay to rest that possibility.

Additionally, I’ll be contacting the matches who have not provided either earliest ancestor or pedigree information. Who knows what gems might still be hiding there.

Summary

Our trail has taken us far afield from Dorcas herself. She would be amazed or maybe amused to know that we are searching for the information that was familiar to her from birth. She would also be amazed to think we could connect her with her ancestors using something called DNA that her descendants carry inside of them, from her. That would have seemed a lot like magic, but then so would computers, phones, and automobiles.

Ironic, with all of our technology, we still have to search for what our ancestors knew.

Like, for example, the names of their children, grandchildren, and where they went. Who were her parents and where did they live? Where did they attend church and what were their religious beliefs? What was their life like?

When did Darcus die? What did she like to do? Did she sit on the porch of the old Dobkins home, when it was brand spanking new, and make quilts for her family? I like to think of her that way.

Darcus learned to be self-sufficient and independent early in her marriage when Jacob was gone not for days, weeks, or months, but for years during the Revolutionary War. She probably had no idea if he was alive or dead. She simply did what needed to be done, and prayed that one day he would ride or walk up the path to their house – wherever that was.

Given her resiliency, it’s no surprise then that the last record Darcus may have left us was a surprising one documenting a very non-traditional role for a southern pioneer woman – that of a chain carrier.

What a legacy she left, even though much of her life is revealed peeking through the shadows of her husband, children, and history that was unfolding around her.

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DNA for Native American Genealogy – Hot Off the Press!

Drum roll please…my new book, DNA for Native American Genealogy, was just released today, published by Genealogical.com.

I’m so excited! I expected publication around the holidays. What a pleasant surprise.

This 190-page book has been a labor of love, almost a year in the making. There’s a lot.

  • Vendor Tools – The book incorporates information about how to make the best use of the autosomal DNA tools offered by all 4 of the major testing vendors; FamilyTreeDNA, MyHeritage, Ancestry, and 23andMe.
  • Chromosome Painting – I’ve detailed how to use DNAPainter to identify which ancestor(s) your Native heritage descends from by painting your population/ethnicity segments provided by FamilyTreeDNA and 23andMe.
  • Y and Mitochondrial DNA – I’ve described how and when to utilize the important Y and mitochondrial DNA tests, for you and other family members.
  • Maps – Everyone wants to know about ancient DNA. I’ve included ancient DNA information complete with maps of ancient DNA sites by major Native haplogroups, gathered from many academic papers, as well as mapped contemporary DNA locations.
  • Haplogroups – Locations in the Americas, by haplogroup, where individual haplogroups and subgroups are found. Some haplogroups are regional in nature. If you happen to have one of these haplogroups, that’s a BIG HINT about where your ancestor lived.
  • Tribes – Want to know, by tribe, which haplogroups have been identified? Got you covered there too.
  • Checklist – I’ve provided a checklist type of roadmap for you to follow, along with an extensive glossary.
  • Questions – I’ve answered lots of frequently asked questions. For example – what about joining a tribe? I’ve explained how tribes work in the US and Canada, complete with links for relevant forms and further information.

But wait, there’s more…

New Revelations!!!

There is scientific evidence suggesting that two haplogroups not previously identified as Native are actually found in very low frequencies in the Native population. Not only do I describe these haplogroups, but I provide their locations on a map.

I hope other people will test and come forward with similar results in these same haplogroups to further solidify this finding.

It’s important to understand the criteria required for including these haplogroups as (potentially) Native. In general, they:

  • Must be found multiple times outside of a family group
  • Must be unexplained by any other scenario
  • Must be well-documented both genetically as well as using traditional genealogical records
  • Must be otherwise absent in the surrounding populations

This part of the research for the book was absolutely fascinating to me.

Description

Here’s the book description at Genealogical.com:

DNA for Native American Genealogy is the first book to offer detailed information and advice specifically aimed at family historians interested in fleshing out their Native American family tree through DNA testing.

Figuring out how to incorporate DNA testing into your Native American genealogy research can be difficult and daunting. What types of DNA tests are available, and which vendors offer them? What other tools are available? How is Native American DNA determined or recognized in your DNA? What information about your Native American ancestors can DNA testing uncover? This book addresses those questions and much more.

Included are step-by-step instructions, with illustrations, on how to use DNA testing at the four major DNA testing companies to further your genealogy and confirm or identify your Native American ancestors. Among the many other topics covered are the following:

    • Tribes in the United States and First Nations in Canada
    • Ethnicity
    • Chromosome painting
    • Population Genetics and how ethnicity is assigned
    • Genetic groups and communities
    • Y DNA paternal direct line male testing for you and your family members
    • Mitochondrial DNA maternal direct line testing for you and your family members
    • Autosomal DNA matching and ethnicity comparisons
    • Creating a DNA pedigree chart
    • Native American haplogroups, by region and tribe
    • Ancient and contemporary Native American DNA

Special features include numerous charts and maps; a roadmap and checklist giving you clear instructions on how to proceed; and a glossary to help you decipher the technical language associated with DNA testing.

Purchase the Book and Participate

I’ve included answers to questions that I’ve received repeatedly for many years about Native American heritage and DNA. Why Native DNA might show in your DNA, why it might not – along with alternate ways to seek that information.

You can order DNA for Native American Genealogy, here.

For customers in Canada and outside the US, you can use the Amazon link, here, to reduce the high shipping/customs costs.

I hope you’ll use the information in the book to determine the appropriate tests for your situation and fully utilize the tools available to genealogists today to either confirm those family rumors, put them to rest – or maybe discover a previously unknown Native ancestor.

Please feel free to share this article with anyone who might be interested.

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Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

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Free Webinar: 10 Ways to Find Your Native American Ancestor Using Y, Mitochondrial and Autosomal DNA

I recorded 10 Ways to Find Your Native American Ancestor Using Y, Mitochondrial and Autosomal DNA for Legacy Family Tree Webinars.

Webinars are free for the first week. After that, you’ll need a subscription.

If you subscribe to Legacy Family Tree, here, you’ll also receive the downloadable 24-page syllabus and you can watch any of the 1500+ webinars available at Legacy Family Tree Webinars anytime.

In 10 Ways to Find Your Native American Ancestor Using Y, Mitochondrial and Autosomal DNA, I covered the following features and how to use them for your genealogy:

  • Ethnicity – why it works and why it sometimes doesn’t
  • Ethnicity – how it works
  • Your Chromosomes – Mom and Dad
  • Ethnicity at AncestryDNA, 23andMe, FamilyTreeDNA and MyHeritage DNA
  • Genetic Communities at AncestryDNA
  • Genetic Groups at MyHeritage DNA
  • Painted ethnicity segments at 23andMe and FamilyTreeDNA
  • Painting ethnicity segments at DNAPainter – and why you want to
  • Shared ethnicity segments with your matches at AncestryDNA, 23andMe, FamilyTreeDNA and MyHeritage DNA
  • Downloading matches and segment files
  • Techniques to pinpoint Native Ancestors in your tree
  • Y DNA, Native ancestors and haplogroups
  • Mitochondrial DNA, Native ancestors and haplogroups
  • Creating a plan to find your Native ancestor
  • Strategies for finding test candidates
  • Your Ancestor DNA Pedigree Chart
  • Success!!!

If you haven’t yet tested at or uploaded your DNA to both FamilyTreeDNA and MyHeritage, you can find upload/download instructions, here, so that you can take advantage of the unique tools at all vendors.

Hope you enjoy the webinar and find those elusive ancestors!

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Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Uploads

Genealogy Products and Services

Books

Genealogy Research

Join Me for Free Webinars in August and “Webtember”

Legacy Family Webinars provides free webinars every month. Check out the upcoming schedule, here.

You can register for free and watch live. If you’d like access to the ever-growing Webinar Library, you can subscribe, here, and watch any webinar, anytime.

I’m presenting a free webinar in both August and September.

10 Ways to Find Your Native American Ancestor Using Y, Mitochondrial and Autosomal DNA

On Friday, August 27th at 2 PM Eastern, I’ll be presenting “10 Ways to Find Your Native American Ancestor Using Y, Mitochondrial and Autosomal DNA.” You can register for free, here.

If you’re trying to figure out if you have a Native ancestor or you’d like to confirm those family legends, this webinar is for you.

Webtember Free Month-Long Genealogy Conference

Legacy Tree Webinars is sponsoring a free month-long virtual conference every Friday featuring 7 or 8 speakers each week. There are so many sessions I can’t wait to see.

Here’s the conference pdf listing all of the speakers and schedule.

On September 3rd at 11 AM, I’ll be presenting Paint Your Way Up Your Tree with MyHeritage and DNAPainter.

I love combining these two wonderful tools to easily discover which ancestors contributed my DNA segments. Once you know who contributed each segment, you also know how (through which line) you’re related to the other people you match (and who match each other) on that same segment. This is going to be so much fun!

Everyone can watch the Webtember presentations for free through the end of September.

I hope you’ll join us.

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Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

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The Origins of Zana of Abkhazia

Recently, Margaryan et al published a paper titled The genomic origin of Zana of Abkhazia.

Margaryan was the lead author on the 2020 paper, the Population genomics of the Viking world. I wrote about that in the article, 442 Ancient Viking Skeletons Hold DNA Surprises – Does Your Y or Mitochondrial DNA Match?

Why are people interested in the origins of Zana? Who was Zana?

Zana

Zana was initially believed to have been a member of a group of Afro-Abkhazian people who lived in the Caucasus in the later 1800s.

Known as the African Caucasians, the Abkhazians of African descent lived in and near the settlement of Adzyubzha on the east coast of the Black Sea.

By Unknown author – livejournal.com, Public Domain, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=8701583

This photo of an Afro-Abkhazian family is from “Caucasus. Volume I. The peoples of the Caucasus”, St. Petersburg., Kovalevsky P. I., 1914.

It’s uncertain how this group of African people came to live in this region, but they seem to have arrived when the region was under the rule of the Ottoman Empire in the 1600s, possibly as slaves to work the citrus plantations. In 1927, two Russian men visited the village and met elderly Africans. The Russian men felt that an Ethiopian version of their arrival story was likely accurate since there were several parallels between the names of the villages in Ethiopia and the Afro-Abkhazian villages.

By the 1800s, they spoke only the northwest Caucasian Abkhaz language.

The origins of Zana herself are cloaked in myth. One thing is for certain. Zana was exploited horribly.

How much of the story of Zana’s origins is accurate, and how much was concocted to justify her subsequent treatment is unknown.

The Story

Zana was reportedly living wild and naked in the forest in the Caucasus region. These mountains had long been rumored to hold creatures similar to Bigfoot, called Almasty in Russia.

The story goes that a traveling noble merchant, possibly Edgi Genaba, heard about an apewoman living in the forest and paid the local men to capture this poor creature sometime between 1850 and 1870. The locals forced her into a spike-lined pit.

The nobleman paid the men, named his captive Zana, shackled her, took her home, and enclosed Zana in a cage where she dug a hole in which to sleep. A slightly different version of the story says that Zana was sold from man to man until Genaba bought her.

Zana was apparently covered in thick red hair, powerfully muscular and at 6 feet 6 inches in height, towering over the local residents. When given clothes, she reportedly would shred them.

Genaba charged people who would come and gawk at the naked caged “apewoman” who could not or did not speak.

Zana did not try to escape and eventually, she was granted some reprieve by “only” being chained to a fence.

Eventually, Zana was taught to do chores and in essence, became a servant. She was also provided with alcohol. The local men repeatedly raped Zana while she was drunk.

Zana reportedly had a total of 6 children by unknown local men, although only four can be relatively assured and two proven. Zana apparently took the first two babies to a river to wash them, but the children died. After that, the local women took the following four children away from Zana to protect them since she apparently didn’t understand how to care for an infant.

None of Zana’s children had her thick hair. They all spoke normally and had families. Pictures remain of two of her children, a daughter, Kodzhanar and a son, Khwit. You can see photos of Kodzhanar, Khwit and Khwit’s children, here, in a supplement to the paper.

Zana died after living in captivity for about 20 years, having been taken advantage of, first by Genaba and eventually, by the village men as well.

But Zana’s exploitation didn’t even end there.

Dr. Bryan Sykes, once a respected geneticist, in his later years, became a Bigfoot hunter. After analyzing DNA evidence from Zana’s granddaughter and relatives, along with the remains of her son, Sykes suggested that Zana belonged to a “sub-species of modern humans,” and called her “half human and half ape,” according to a Daily Mail article published in April of 2015. Sykes published a book in 2015, whose title I refuse to print, in which he suggests that Zana’s ancestors exited Africa 100,000 years before and she and her ancestors had, in essence, become a Caucuses Bigfoot – or Almasty in the local vernacular. However, Sykes also states that Zana was 100% African, had genes from west Africa, yet resembled no west African group of people. If you’re scratching your head saying to yourself that those things are contradictory – you’d be right.

Thankfully, Margaryan has now published a respectful academic paper about Zana.

The genomic origin of Zana of Abkhazia

Margaryan paper abstract:

Enigmatic phenomena have sparked the imagination of people around the globe into creating folkloric creatures. One prime example is Zana of Abkhazia (South Caucasus), a well-documented 19th-century female who was captured living wild in the forest. Zana’s appearance was sufficiently unusual, that she was referred to by locals as an Almasty—the analog of Bigfoot in the Caucasus. Although the exact location of Zana’s burial site was unknown, the grave of her son, Khwit, was identified in 1971. The genomes of Khwit and the alleged Zana skeleton were sequenced to an average depth of ca. 3× using ancient DNA techniques. The identical mtDNA and parent-offspring relationship between the two indicated that the unknown woman was indeed Zana. Population genomic analyses demonstrated that Zana’s immediate genetic ancestry can likely be traced to present-day East-African populations. We speculate that Zana might have had a genetic disorder such as congenital generalized hypertrichosis which could partially explain her strange behavior, lack of speech, and long body hair. Our findings elucidate Zana’s unfortunate story and provide a clear example of how prejudices of the time led to notions of cryptic hominids that are still held and transmitted by some today.

Hypertrichosis

Hypertrichosis, also known as “werewolf syndrome” is an extremely rare condition in which an abnormal amount of hair grows on the body. While this condition can develop later in life, it can also be congenital, or present at birth.

In some cases, hair grows all over the body, but in others, only grows in some places.

While Zana’s hair growth suggests hypertrichosis, Zana may have had other challenges as well given that she was nonverbal.

In medieval times, people who suffered from hypertrichosis often lived in courts and functioned as entertainers. In the 19th and 20th centuries, you could find them as performers in circuses and sideshows.

Congenital hypertrichosis, present from birth, can be inherited.

Petrus Gonsalvus, born in 1537 and referred to as “the man of the woods” spent his life in royal courts in Italy and France. He had seven children, four of whom apparently inherited the mutation for this condition from Petrus.

Petrus and his children with excessive hair, two of whom are shown above, were not considered fully human, although their court life allowed them to be well documented.

Petrus married Lady Catherine and their story may have been at least a part of the inspiration for the fairy tale, Beauty and the Beast, published in 1740, 122 years after Petrus’s death.

Zana’s Son, Khwit’s Y DNA

Due to Zana’s circumstances, we have no idea who Khwit’s father was. Khwit and the father himself may have not known either, given how Zana was treated by the local men who raped her. Furthermore, Zana’s children were taken from her and she was non-verbal, so even if she did know, she couldn’t have told her children.

Khwit’s Y DNA provides tantalizing clues.

FamilyTreeDNA’s analysis of Zana’s son, Khwit’s Y chromosome places him in the R-Z2103 subclade of R1b associated with the Yamnaya culture, and more specifically on branch R-Y4364 which has its highest frequency in the Caucasus.

You can see that the flags beside the subgroups above R-FTA50400 are all represented in the Caucasus region; Armenia, Russian Federation, Turkey, and the Palestinian Territory. They also reach into the surrounding areas: Italy, Poland, Greece, Germany, and then beneath Khwit’s branch, we find Scotland represented by subclade R-FTA49702. Khwit and the man from Scotland share 14 variants that branch subclade R-FTA50400 from R-FGCLR459.

Scotland? Well, that’s unexpected.

Looking at the block tree, below, you can see that while the two men are related back in time, it’s distant and they are separated by many private variants.

How long ago did the common ancestor of Khwit and the Scotsman live?

Goran Runfeldt, Head of Research and Development at FamilyTreeDNA, indicated that an early estimate would be that the common ancestor of Khwit’s father and the tester from Scotland would have lived in the Caucasus about 2200 years ago.

He stated that additional Big Y-700 testing is underway and a more definitive MRCA date may be able to be established.

Zana’s Mitochondrial DNA

Of course, Zana’s children all carried her mitochondrial DNA. Her daughters passed Zana’s mitochondrial DNA on to their children as well.

Fortunately, Zana’s mitochondrial DNA helps reassemble the pieces of Zana’s history.

I reached out to Dr. Miguel Vilar, a member of the Million Mito team member in the hope of revealing more of Zana’s puzzle. Dr. Villar is a molecular anthropologist at UMD and former lead scientist for the Genographic Project.

Dr. Vilar offered:

The DNA data and old stories together paint a very sad picture for the historical figure of Zana. The PCA plot of the autosomal DNA suggests she was genetically related to the Dinka pastoralist people from South Sudan, a marginalized group known to be above average in height and body size. Further, Zana’s mtDNA results place her on a basal branch of L2b1b, which geographically would align with an East Central African origin.

The combination of Zana’s height, body size, hair, and (apparent) inability to speak certainly advanced or at least fostered the story of Zana not being human.

Unfortunately, these combined features seemed to justify the non-human treatment of Zana by the local residents, particularly the men.

Contemporary DNA analysis proves Zana was fully human with African origins. She was not admixed with non-African DNA. How she or her family came to the Caucasus, or when, is unknown, but it likely has to do with the Ottoman Empire slave trade that began in the 16th century. The legend of Zana has probably grown and changed with time and retelling.

Ethics

Clearly, Zana’s original situation and later exploitation have been an ethical quagmire.

The authors of the Zana paper perhaps sum this up best:

Following her capture in the forest, Zana was deprived of her basic human rights, and treated as a slave: she was kept in captivity, likely forced to have sexual relations with local men, and worked in forced labor conditions. After she passed away, the accounts on her mythical figure attracted several scientists to unearth her story and her son’s bones were exhumed. Our study intends both to reveal the true human nature of Zana and grant her and her descendants’ remains the dignity they deserve.

Zana’s story isn’t over. Additional testing and analysis are being performed. Based on those findings, if any, we may be able to add another chapter to Zana’s story.

Zana, like everyone else, deserves the truth, even if unraveled and told posthumously. We can’t right the historical wrongs today, but at least we can correct the record.

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Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Products and Services

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FamilyTreeDNA Relaunch – New Feature Overview

The brand-new FamilyTreeDNA website is live!

I’m very pleased with the investment that FamilyTreeDNA has made in their genealogy platform and tools. This isn’t just a redesign, it’s more of a relaunch.

I spoke with Dr. Lior Rauchberger, CEO of myDNA, the parent company of FamilyTreeDNA briefly yesterday. He’s excited too and said:

“The new features and enhancements we are releasing in July are the first round of updates in our exciting product roadmap. FamilyTreeDNA will continue to invest heavily in the advancement of genetic genealogy.”

In other words, this is just the beginning.

In case you were wondering, all those features everyone asked for – Lior listened.

Lior said earlier in 2021 that he was going to do exactly this and he’s proven true to his word, with this release coming just half a year after he took the helm. Obviously, he hit the ground running.

A few months ago, Lior said that his initial FamilyTreeDNA focus was going to be on infrastructure, stability, and focusing on the customer experience. In other words, creating a foundation to build on.

The new features, improvements, and changes are massive and certainly welcome.

I’ll be covering the new features in a series of articles, but in this introductory article, I’m providing an overview so you can use it as a guide to understand and navigate this new release.

Change is Challenging

I need to say something here.

Change is hard. In fact, change is the most difficult challenge for humans. We want improvements, yet we hate it when the furniture is rearranged in our “room.” However, we can’t have one without the other.

So, take a deep breath, and let’s view this as a great new adventure. These changes and tools will provide us with a new foundation and new clues. Think of this as finding long-lost documents in an archive about your ancestors. If someone told me that there is a potential for discovering the surname of one of my elusive female ancestors in an undiscovered chest in a remote library, trust me, I’d be all over it – regardless of where it was or how much effort I had to expend to get there. In this case, I can sit right here in front of my computer and dig for treasure.

We just need to learn to navigate the new landscape in a virtual room. What a gift!

Let’s start with the first thing you’ll see – the main page when you sign in.

Redesigned Main Page

The FamilyTreeDNA main page has changed. To begin with, the text is darker and the font is larger across the entire platform. OMG, thank you!!!

The main page has been flipped left to right, with results on the left now. Projects, surveys, and other information, along with haplogroup badges are on the right. Have you answered any surveys? I don’t think I even noticed them before. (My bad!)

Click any image to enlarge.

The top tabs have changed too. The words myTree and myProjects are now gone, and descriptive tabs have replaced those. The only “my” thing remaining is myOrigins. This change surprises me with myDNA being the owner.

The Results & Tools tab at the top shows the product dropdowns.

The most popular tabs are shown individually under each product, with additional features being grouped under “See More.”

Every product now has a “See More” link where less frequently used widgets will be found, including the raw data downloads. This is the Y DNA “See More” dropdown by way of example.

You can see the green Updated badge on the Family Finder Matches tab. I don’t know if that badge will always appear when customers have new matches, or if it’s signaling that all customers have updated Family Finder Matches now.

We’ll talk about matches in the Family Finder section.

The Family Finder “See More” tab includes the Matrix, ancientOrigins, and the raw data file download.

The mitochondrial DNA section, titled Maternal Line Ancestry, mtDNA Results and Tools includes several widgets grouped under the “See More” tab.

Additional Tests and Tools

The Additional Tests and Tools area includes a link to your Family Tree (please do upload or create one,) Public Haplotrees, and Advanced Matches.

Public haplotrees are free-to-the-public Y and mitochondrial DNA trees that include locations. They are also easily available to FamilyTreeDNA customers here.

Please note that you access both types of trees from one location after clicking the Public Haplotrees page. The tree defaults to Y-DNA, but just click on mtDNA to view mitochondrial haplogroups and locations. Both trees are great resources because they show the location flags of the earliest known ancestors of the testers within each haplogroup.

Advanced Matches used to be available from the menu within each test type, but since advanced matching includes all three types of tests, it’s now located under the Additional Tests and Tools banner. Don’t forget about Advanced Matches – it’s really quite useful to determine if someone matches you on multiple types of tests and/or within specific projects.

Hey, look – I found a tooltip. Just mouse over the text and tabs on various pages to see where tooltips have been added.

Help and Help Center

The new Help Center is debuting in this release. The former Learning Center is transitioning to the Help Center with new, updated content.

Here’s an example of the new easy-to-navigate format. There’s a search function too.

Each individual page, test type, and section on your personal home page has a “Helpful Information” button.

On the main page, at the top right, you’ll see a new Help button.

Did you see that Submit Feedback link?

If you click on the Help Center, you’ll be greeted with context-sensitive help.

I clicked through from the dashboard, so that’s what I’m seeing. However, other available topics are shown at left.

I clicked on both of the links shown and the content has been updated with the new layout and features. No wonder they launched a new Help Center!

Account Settings

Account settings are still found in the same place, and those pages don’t appear to have changed. However, please keep in mind that some settings make take up to 24 hours to take effect.

Family Finder Rematching

Before we look at what has changed on your Family Finder pages, let’s talk about what happened behind the scenes.

FamilyTreeDNA has been offering the Family Finder test for 11 years, one of two very early companies to enter that marketspace. We’ve learned so much since then, not only about DNA itself, but about genetic genealogy, matching, triangulation, population genetics, how to use these tools, and more.

In order to make improvements, FamilyTreeDNA changing the match criteria which necessitated rematching everyone to everyone else.

If you have a technology background of any type, you’ll immediately realize that this is a massive, expensive undertaking requiring vast computational resources. Not only that, but the rematching has to be done in tandem with new kits coming in, coordinated for all customers, and rolled out at once. Based on new matches and features, the user interface needed to be changed too, at the same time.

Sounds like a huge headache, right?

Why would a company ever decide to undertake that, especially when there is no revenue for doing so? The answer is to make functionality and accuracy better for their customers. Think of this as a new bedrock foundation for the future.

FamilyTreeDNA has made computational changes and implemented several features that require rematching:

  • Improved matching accuracy, in particular for people in highly endogamous populations. People in this category have thousands of matches that occur simply because they share multiple distant ancestors from within the same population. That combination of multiple common ancestors makes their current match relationships appear to be closer in time than they are. In order to change matching algorithms, FamilyTreeDNA had to rewrite their matching software and then run matching all over to enable everyone to receive new, updated match results.
  • FamilyTreeDNA has removed segments below 6 cM following sustained feedback from the genealogical community.
  • X matching has changed as well and no longer includes anyone as an X match below 6 cM.
  • Family Matching, meaning paternal, maternal and both “bucketing” uses triangulation behind the scenes. That code also had to be updated.
  • Older transfer kits used to receive only closer matches because imputation was not in place when the original transfer/upload took place. All older kits have been imputed now and matched with the entire database, which is part of why you may have more matches.
  • Relationship range calculations have changed, based on the removal of microsegments, new matching methodology and rematching results.
  • FamilyTreeDNA moved to hg37, known as Build 37 of the human genome. In layman’s terms, as scientists learn about our DNA, the human map of DNA changes and shifts slightly. The boundary lines change somewhat. Versions are standardized so all researchers can use the same base map or yardstick. In some cases, early genetic genealogy implementers are penalized because they will eventually have to rematch their entire database when they upgrade to a new build version, while vendors who came to the party later won’t have to bear that internal expense.

As you can see, almost every aspect of matching has changed, so everyone was rematched against the entire database. You’ll see new results. Some matches may be gone, especially distant matches or if you’re a member of an endogamous population.

You’ll likely have new matches due to older transfer kits being imputed to full compatibility. Your matches should be more accurate too, which makes everyone happy.

I understand a white paper is being written that will provide more information about the new matching algorithms.

Ok, now let’s check out the new Family Finder Matches page.

Family Finder Matches

FamilyTreeDNA didn’t just rearrange the furniture – there’s a LOT of new content.

First, a note. You’ll see “Family Finder” in some places, and “Autosomal DNA” in other places. That’s one and the same at FamilyTreeDNA. The Family Finder test is their autosomal test, named separately because they also have Y DNA and mitochondrial DNA tests.

When you click on Family Finder matches for the first time, you will assuredly notice one thing and will probably notice a second.

First, you’ll see a little tour that explains how to use the various new tools.

Secondly, you will probably see the “Generating Matches” notice for a few seconds to a few minutes while your match list is generated, especially if the site is busy because lots of people are signing on. I saw this message for maybe a minute or two before my match list filled.

This should be a slight delay, but with so many people signing in right now, my second kit took longer. If you receive a message that says you have no matches, just refresh your page. If you had matches before, you DO have matches now.

While working with the new interface this morning, I’ve found that refreshing the screen is the key to solving issues.

My kits that have a few thousand matches loaded Family Matching (bucketing) immediately, but this (Jewish) kit that has around 30,000 matches received this informational message instead. FamilyTreeDNA has removed the little spinning icon. If you mouse over the information, you’ll see the following message:

This isn’t a time estimate. Everyone receives the same message. The message didn’t even last long enough for me to get a screenshot on the first kit that received this message. The results completed within a minute or so. The Family Matching buckets will load as soon as the parental matching is ready.

These delays should only happen the first time, or if someone has a lot of matches that they haven’t yet viewed. Once you’ve signed in, your matches are cached, a technique that improves performance, so the loading should be speedy, or at least speedier, during the second and subsequent visits.

Of course, right now, all customers have an updated match list, so there’s something new for everyone.

Getting Help

Want to see that tutorial again?

Click on that little Help box in the upper right-hand corner. You can view the Tutorial, look at Quick References that explain what’s on this page, visit the Help Center or Submit Feedback.

Two Family Finder Matches Views – Detail and Table

The first thing you’ll notice is that there are two views – Detail View and Table View. The default is Detail View.

Take a minute to get used to the new page.

Detail View – Filter Matches by Match Type

I was pleased to see new filter buttons, located in several places on the page.

The Matches filter at left allows you to display only specific relationship levels, including X-Matches which can be important in narrowing matches to a specific subset of ancestors.

You can display only matches that fall within certain relationship ranges. Note the new “Remote Relative” that was previously called speculative.

Parental Matching and Filtering by Test Type or Trees

All of your matches are displayed by default, of course, but you can click on Paternal, Maternal or Both, like before to view only matches in those buckets. In order for the Family Matching bucketing feature to be enabled, you must attach known relatives’ DNA matches to their proper place in your tree.

Please note that I needed to refresh the page a couple of times to get my parental matches to load the first time. I refreshed a couple of times to be sure that all of my bucketed matches loaded. This should be a first-time loading blip.

There’s a new filter button to the right of the bucketing tabs.

You can now filter by who has trees and who has taken which kinds of tests.

You can apply multiple filters at the same time to further narrow your matches.

Important – Clearing Filters

It’s easy to forget you have a filter enabled. This section is important, in part because Clear Filter is difficult to find.

The clear filter button does NOT appear until you’ve selected a filter. However, after applying that filter, to clear it and RESET THE MATCHES to unfiltered, you need to click on the “Clear Filter” button which is located at the top of the filter selections, and then click “Apply” at the bottom of the menu. I looked for “clear filter” forever before finding it here.

You’re welcome😊

Enhanced Search

Thank goodness, the search functionality has been enhanced and simplified too. Full name search works, both here and on the Y DNA search page.

If you type in a surname without selecting any search filters, you’ll receive a list of anyone with that word in their name, or in their list of ancestral surnames. This does NOT include surnames in their tree if they have not added those surnames to their list of ancestral surnames.

Notice that your number of total matches and bucketed people will change based on the results of this search and any filters you have applied.

I entered Estes in the search box, with no filters. You can see that I have a total of 46 matches that contain Estes in one way or another, and how they are bucketed.

Estes is my birth surname. I noticed that three people with Estes in their information are bucketed maternally. This is the perfect example of why you can’t assume a genetic relationship based on only a surname. Those three people’s DNA matches me on my mother’s side. And yes, I confirmed that they matched my mother too on that same segment or segments.

Search Filters

You can also filter by haplogroup. This is very specific. If you select mitochondrial haplogroup J, you will only receive Family Finder matches that have haplogroup J, NOT J1 or J1c or J plus anything.

If you’re looking for your own haplogroup, you’ll need to type your full haplogroup in the search box and select mtDNA Haplogroup in the search filter dropdown.

Resetting Search Results

To dismiss search results, click on the little X. It’s easy to forget that you have initiated a search, so I need to remember to dismiss searches after I’m finished with each one.

Export Matches

The “Export CSV” button either downloads your entire match list, or the list of filtered matches currently selected. This is not your segment information, but a list of matches and related information such as which side they are bucketed on, if any, notes you’ve made, and more.

Your segment information is available for download on the chromosome browser.

Sort By

The Sort By button facilitates sorting your matches versus filtering your matches. Filters ONLY display the items requested, while sorts display all of the items requested, sorting them in a particular manner.

You can sort in any number of ways. The default is Relationship Range followed by Shared DNA.

Your Matches – Detail View

A lot has changed, but after you get used to the new interface, it makes more sense and there are a lot more options available which means increased flexibility. Remember, you can click to enlarge any of these images.

To begin with, you can see the haplogroups of your matches if they have taken a Y or mitochondrial DNA test. If you match someone, you’ll see a little check in the haplogroup box. I’m not clear whether this means you’re a haplogroup match or that person is on your match list.

To select people to compare in the chromosome browser, you simply check the little square box to the left of their photo and the chromosome browser box pops up at the bottom of the page. We’ll review the chromosome browser in a minute.

The new Relationship Range prediction is displayed, based on new calculations with segments below 6 cM removed. The linked relationship is displayed below the range.

A linked relationship occurs when you link that person to their proper place in your tree. If you have no linked relationship, you’ll see a link to “assign relationship” which takes you to your tree to link this person if you know how you are related.

The segments below 6 cM are gone from the Shared DNA total and X matches are only shown if they are 6 cM or above.

In Common With and Not In Common With

In Common With and Not In Common With is the little two-person icon at the right.

Just click on the little person icon, then select “In Common With” to view your shared matches between you, that match, and other people. The person you are viewing matches in common with is highlighted at the top of the page, with your common matches below.

You can stack filters now. In this example, I selected my cousin, Don, to see our common matches. I added the search filter of the surname Ferverda, my mother’s maiden name. She is deceased and I manage her kit. You can see that my cousin Don and I have 5 total common matches – four maternal and one both, meaning one person matches me on both my maternal and paternal lines.

It’s great news that now Cousin Don pops up in the chromosome browser box at the bottom, enabling easy confusion-free chromosome segment comparisons directly from the In Common With match page. I love this!!!.

All I have to do now is click on other people and then on Compare Relationship which pushes these matches through to the chromosome browser. This is SOOOO convenient.

You’ll see a new tree icon at right on each match. A dark tree means there’s content and a light tree means this person does not have a tree. Remember, you can filter by trees with content using the filter button beside “Both”.

Your notes are shown at far right. Any person with a note is dark grey and no note is white.

If you’re looking for the email contact information, click on your match’s name to view their placard which also includes more detailed ancestral surname information.

Family Finder – Table View

The table view is very similar to the Detail View. The layout is a bit different with more matches visible in the same space.

This view has lots of tooltips on the column heading bar! Tooltips are great for everyone, but especially for people just beginning to find their way in the genetic genealogy world.

I’ll have to experiment a bit to figure out which view I prefer. I’d like to be able to set my own default for whichever view I want as my default. In fact, I think I’ll submit that in the “Submit Feedback” link. For every suggestion, I’m going to find something really positive to say. This was an immense overhaul.

Chromosome Browser

Let’s look at the chromosome Browser.

You can arrive at the Chromosome Browser by selecting people on your match page, or by selecting the Chromosome Browser under the Results and Tools link.

Everything is pretty much the same on the chromosome browser, except the default view is now 6 cM and the smaller segments are gone. You can also choose to view only segments above 10 cM.

If you have people selected in the chromosome browser and click on Download Segments in the upper right-hand corner, it downloads the segments of only the people currently selected.

You can “Clear All” and then click on Download All Segments which downloads your entire segment file. To download all segments, you need to have no people selected for comparison.

The contents of this file are greatly reduced as it now contains only the segments 6 cM and above.

Family Tree

No, the family tree has not changed, and yes, it needs to, desperately. Trust me, the management team is aware and I suspect one of the improvements, hopefully sooner than later, will be an improved tree experience.

Y DNA

The Y DNA page has received an update too, adding both a Detail View and a Table View with the same basic functionality as the Family Finder matching above. If you are reading this article for Y DNA only, please read the Family Finder section to understand the new layout and features.

Like previously, the match comparison begins at the 111 marker level.

However, there’s a BIG difference. If there are no matches at this level, YOU NEED TO CLICK THE NEXT TAB. You can easily see that this person has matches at the 67 level and below, but the system no longer “counts down” through the various levels until it either finds a level with a match or reaches 12 markers.

If you’re used to the old interface, it’s easy to think you’re at the final destination of 12 markers with no matches when you’re still at 111.

Y DNA Detail View

The Y-DNA Detail and Table views features are the same as Family Finder and are described in that section.

The new format is quite different. One improvement is that the Paternal Country of Origin is now displayed, along with a flag. How cool is that!

The Paternal Earliest Known Ancestor and Match Date are at far right. Note that match dates have been reset to the rerun date. At this point, FamilyTreeDNA is evaluating the possibility of restoring the original match date. Regardless, you’ll be able to filter for match dates when new matches arrive.

Please check to be sure you have your Country of Origin, Earliest Known Ancestor, and mapped location completed and up to date.

Earliest Known Ancestor

If you haven’t completed your Earliest Known Ancestor (EKA) information, now’s the perfect time. It’s easy, so let’s do it before you forget.

Click on the Account Settings gear beneath your name in the right-hand upper corner. Click on Genealogy, then on Earliest Known Ancestors and complete the information in the red boxes.

  • Direct paternal line means your father’s father’s father’s line – as far up through all fathers as you can reach. This is your Y DNA lineage, but females should complete this information on general principles.
  • Direct maternal line means your mother’s mother’s mother’s line – as far up through all mothers that you can reach. This is your mitochondrial DNA lineage, so relevant for both males and females.

Completing all of the information, including the location, will help you and your matches as well when using the Matches Map.

Be sure to click Save when you’re finished.

Y DNA Filters

Y DNA has more filter options than autosomal.

The Y DNA filter, located to the right of the 12 Markers tab allows testers to filter by:

  • Genetic distance, meaning how many mutations difference between you and your matches
  • Groups meaning group projects that the tester has joined
  • Tree status
  • Match date
  • Level of test taken

If none of your matches have taken the 111 marker test or you don’t match anyone at that level, that test won’t show up on your list.

Y DNA Table View

As with Family Finder, the Table View is more condensed and additional features are available on the right side of each match. For details, please review the Family Finder section.

If you’re looking for the old Y DNA TiP report, it’s now at the far right of each match.

The actual calculator hasn’t changed yet. I know people were hoping for the new Y DNA aging in this release, but that’s yet to follow.

Other Pages

Other pages like the Big Y and Mitochondrial DNA did not receive new features or functionality in this release, but do sport new user-friendly tooltips.

I lost track, but I counted over 100 tooltips added across the platform, and this is just the beginning.

There are probably more new features and functionality that I haven’t stumbled across just yet.

And yes, we are going to find a few bugs. That’s inevitable with something this large. Please report anything you find to FamilyTreeDNA.

Oh wait – I almost forgot…

New Videos

I understand that there are in the ballpark of 50 new videos that are being added to the new Help Center, either today or very shortly.

When I find out more, I’ll write an article about what videos are available and where to find them. People learn in various ways. Videos are often requested and will be a popular addition. I considered making videos, but that’s almost impossible for anyone besides the vendor because the names on screens either need to be “fake” or the screen needs to be blurred.

So hurray – very glad to hear these are imminent!

Stay Tuned

Stay tuned for new developments. As Lior said, FamilyTreeDNA is investing heavily in genetic genealogy and there’s more to come.

My Mom used to say that the “proof is in the pudding.” I’d say the myDNA/FamilyTreeDNA leadership team has passed this initial test with flying colors.

Of course, there’s more to do, but I’m definitely grateful for this lovely pudding. Thank you – thank you!

I can’t wait to get started and see what new gems await.

Take a Look!

Sign in and take a look for yourself.

Do you have more matches?

Are your matches more accurate?

How about predicted relationships?

How has this new release affected you?

What do you like the best?

_____________________________________________________________

Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Products and Services

Books

Genealogy Research

What is a Heteroplasmy and Why Do I Care?

Most people have never heard of a heteroplasmy – but you might have one.

You Might Have a Heteroplasmy If…

…You have no exact matches at the full sequence mitochondrial DNA level.

A heteroplasmy is one of the first things I think of when someone tells me they have no exact full sequence matches but several that are a genetic distance of 1, meaning one mutation difference.

That phenomenon usually means the tester has a rare mutation that no one else has, at least no one who has tested their mitochondrial DNA (yet) – and that mutation just might be a heteroplasmy.

Heteroplasmies are generally (but not always) quite recent mutations. Actually, heteroplasmies are mutations caught in the act of mutating – kind of like an insect in genetic amber – frozen in time in your generation.

By Anders L. Damgaard – http://www.amber-inclusions.dk – Baltic-amber-beetle CC BY-SA 3.0, https://commons.wikimedia.org/w/index.php?curid=16792582

Let’s say you might have a heteroplasmy. Or maybe you want to see if you do. Even if YOU don’t have a heteroplasmy, other people’s heteroplasmies can and will affect matching.

Here’s everything you ever wanted to know about heteroplasmies but didn’t know to ask😊

Heteroplasmies are Fascinating

A heteroplasmy is actually quite interesting because it’s a genetic mutation in progress.

This means you have two versions of a DNA sequence showing in your mitochondrial DNA at a specific location.

Said another way, at a specific genetic location, you show both of two separate nucleotides. Amounts detected of a second nucleotide greater than 20% are considered a heteroplasmy. Amounts below 20% are ignored. Generally, within a few generations, the mutation will resolve in one direction or the other – although some heteroplasmies persist for several generations and can sometimes define family branches.

If you’d like to read more about mitochondrial DNA, I wrote a series of step-by-step articles and combined them into one resource page, here.

Show Me!

You can easily check to see if you have a heteroplasmy by signing on to your FamilyTreeDNA account. Hopefully, you’ve taken the full sequence test.

Today, new testers, thankfully, can only purchase full sequence tests, so HVR1 results don’t present quite the same challenges when combined with heteroplasmies as they used to. We’ll talk about that in a minute.

If you have only taken the HVR1 or HVR1+HVR2 “Plus” test, as opposed to the Full Sequence, you can upgrade by signing on here and clicking on the “Full” button on the Maternal Ancestry section of your personal page.

These buttons will be pink if you’ve taken that test already, and grey if you need to upgrade. If you have an account at FamilyTreeDNA, you can add a mitochondrial DNA test to that same account by clicking on “Add Ons and Upgrades” at the top of your personal page. You can order a test if you’re a new customer, here.

How Do I Know if I Have a Heteroplasmy?

Your mitochondrial DNA has a total of 16,569 locations that you can think of as addresses. If your DNA at those locations is normal, meaning no mutations, they won’t be listed in your results.

Mutations are shown in your mitochondrial DNA results by a different letter at the end of the location.

For example, here are my mutations for my HVR1 region. Each of these locations in the HVR1 region has a mutation.

For locations that are shown in your results, meaning those where you have a mutation, you’ll see, in order:

  • A letter, either T, A, C or G
  • The location number
  • A different letter, typically another one of T, A, C or G, but sometimes a small d

For the first mutation, C16069T, the location address is 16069, the normal value is C, the mutation that occurred is T.

Heteroplasmies are shown in your mitochondrial DNA results by letters other than T, A, C, G or d at the end of the location.

I don’t have any heteroplasmies, so I’m switching to the results of a cousin who has a heteroplasmic mutation at location T16362Y to use as an example. The trailing Y means they have a heteroplasmy at location 16362.

But first, what do those letters mean?

The Letters

The letters stand for the nucleotide bases that comprise DNA, as follows:

  • T – Thymine
  • A – Adenine
  • C – Cytosine
  • G – Guanine
  • d – a deletion has occurred. There is no nucleotide at this location.

For location T16362Y, the first letter, T, is the “normal” value found at this location. If a mutation has occurred, the second letter is the mutated value. Normally, this is one of the other nucleotides, A, C or G.

Any other letter after the location has a specific meaning; in this case, Y means that both a C and a T were found, per the chart below.

Note – if you have a small letter t, a, c or g, it’s not a heteroplasmy, and I wrote about small letters and what they mean in the article, Mitochondrial DNA Part 2: What Do Those Numbers Mean?

Check Your Results

On your FamilyTreeDNA personal page in the mtDNA section, click on the Mutations tab.

If you’ve taken the full sequence test, you’ll see Extra Mutations. You’re looking for any mutation that ends in any letter other than T, A, C, G or d.

If you haven’t taken the full sequence test, you don’t have “Extra” mutations listed, but you can still view your mutations for the HVR1 and HVR2 regions.

Look for any value that has any letter other than T, A, C, G or lower case d at the end of the location.

The Y tells us that this location is a heteroplasmy.

Heteroplasmy Matching

Ok, let’s look at a heteroplasmy mutation at location 16326. A heteroplasmy can occur at any mitochondrial location. I’ve selected this location because it occurs in the HVR1 region of the mitochondrial DNA, so even people who haven’t tested at the full sequence level will see results for this location. Plus, the location at which the heteroplasmy occurs affects matching in different ways.

Using the example of T16362Y, the Y tells us that both nucleotides C and T were found. This location should match against anyone carrying the following values in the same location:

  • Y (letter indicating a C/T heteroplasmy)
  • T (standard or normal value)
  • C (mutated value)

However, currently at Family Tree DNA, the heteroplasmy only counts as a match to anyone with a Y, the specific heteroplasmy indicator, and the “normal” value of T, but not the mutated value of C.

This table shows how heteroplasmies are counted at FamilyTreeDNA. For heteroplasmy T16362Y, based on the value your potential match has at this location, you either will or will not be considered a match at that location.

Scenario Other Person’s Value Your Result – T16362Y
1 T16362Y – heteroplasmy indicator Match to you at this location
2 T16362T – normal value, not a mutation Match to you at this location
3 T16362C – mutated value Not counted as match to you at this location
  • If your match has a value of Y, the heteroplasmic C/T value, they are counted as a match to you, so no problem.
  • If your match has a value of T, the normal value, this location won’t be shown on their mutation list at all. They WILL be counted as a match to you so there’s no issue.
  • If your match has a value of C, the mutated value, in my opinion they should also be counted as a match to you, but they aren’t today. The logic, I believe, was that the most likely value is the standard or normal value and that the mutated value is much less likely to be accurate. Regardless, I’ve requested this change and am hoping for a matching adjustment in a future release for heteroplasmies.

Heteroplasmies do affect matching at the different levels.

Viewing Your Matches

Mitochondrial DNA, for testing purposes, is broken into three regions, HVR1 (hyper-variable region 1), HVR2 and the Coding Region.

At FamilyTreeDNA, you can view your matches at each level. The matches are cumulative, meaning that the HVR2 level includes the HVR1 level information, and the Coding Region level includes the HVR1 and HVR2 regions. That highest level which includes all three regions shows information from your entire your entire full mitochondrial DNA sequence.

Heteroplasmy Effects on Matching

If you otherwise match someone exactly, but one of you has a heteroplasmy and the other person carries the mutated value, you will be counted as a mismatch of 1 at the full sequence level.

A mismatch has different effects when it occurs in the HVR1, HVR2 or Coding Regions, respectively.

GD is an abbreviation for Genetic Distance which is how mutations are counted. A GD of 1 means the two people have one mutation difference between them.

In the following chart, the effects of you having a nonmatch, heteroplasmic or otherwise, in each of the regions is shown at each level. The region in which the mismatch occurs is shown in the first column, at left, and the effect the mismatch has on matching in each region is shown in columns 2-4.

The red sections are not counted as matches.

Mismatch Occurs in this Region HVR1 Level Match to Someone Else HVR2 Level Match to Someone Else Coding Region Level Match to Someone Else
HVR1 region nonmatch GD of 1 means no match GD of 1 means no match GD of 1 is a match
HVR2 region nonmatch Does not affect HVR1 – so you are a match GD of 1 means no match GD of 1 is a match
Coding Region nonmatch Does not affect HVR1 – so you are a match Does not affect HVR2 – so you are a match GD of 1 is a match

For purposes of this discussion, we’re assuming our two people being compared in the chart above match exactly on every other location so matching is not otherwise affected.

  • If your heteroplasmic nonmatch occurs in the HVR1 region – in other words, scenario 3 – you’ll fall into the HVR1 nonmatch row. That means you won’t be shown as a match at the HVR1 or HVR1+HVR2 levels, but you WILL be shown as a full sequence match.
  • If your heteroplasmic nonmatch is in the HVR2 region of addresses, it won’t affect your HVR1 matches, but it will affect your HVR2 and Coding Region matches. This means you will be shown as HVR1 match, not an HVR2 match, but will be a full sequence match.
  • If your heteroplasmic nonmatch is in the Coding Region, it won’t affect your HVR1 or HVR2 matches, but it will affect your Coding Region matches. However, it won’t preclude matches and you’ll be shown as a match in all three regions.

To be very clear, I have no issue with these match thresholds. It’s important to understand how this works, and therefore why heteroplasmic (and other) mismatches in specific regions affect our matches in the way they do.

Why Aren’t Mismatches of 1 Counted as Matches in the HVR1 or HVR2 Regions?

The match threshold at FamilyTreeDNA for the HVR1 and the HVR1+HVR2 regions, both small regions of about 1000 locations each, is that only an exact match is considered a match. Therefore, a heteroplasmic nonmatch in this region can really be confusing and sometimes misleading, especially if either or BOTH people have NOT tested at the full sequence level.

These are the match thresholds in effect today.

HVR1 GD or # of Mutations Allowed for a Match HVR2 GD or # of Mutations Allowed for a Match Coding Region GD or # of Mutations Allowed for a Match
0 – no mutations allowed 0 – no mutations allowed 3 mutations allowed

If both people match on either the heteroplasmy identified (Y in our case) or one person has the normal value – all is fine. But if one person has a heteroplasmy and the other has the mutated value – then a mismatch occurs. This is really only problematic when:

  • The heteroplasmy mismatch is in the HVR1 region and both people have only tested at that level, causing the two people to not match at all.
  • The heteroplasmy mismatch occurs in combination with other mutations that, cumulatively, push the two people over the GD 3 full sequence matching threshold.

The second scenario happens rarely, but I have seen situations where people don’t match their mothers, aunts, siblings, or other close relatives because of multiple heteroplasmic mutations occurring in different people.

And yes, this is hen’s teeth rare – but it does occasionally happen.

So, what’s the bottom line about heteroplasmies?

Heteroplasmy Bottom Line

  1. You can suspect a heteroplasmy if you have full sequence matches, but no exact matches.
  2. If you have a heteroplasmy in the HVR1 region, understand that you may not have many or any matches in the HVR1 and HVR2 regions. The remedy is to test at the full sequence level and check matches there.
  3. If you have a heteroplasmy and don’t match someone you expect to match – reach out to them and ask about their value at that specific location. If that location isn’t listed for them in their results, then they have no mutation there and your heteroplasmy is NOT the cause of you not matching with them.
  4. If you don’t match someone you expect to match, reach out to them and ask if THEY have any heteroplasmies. The easiest way to ask is, “Do you have any mutations listed that end with anything other than T, A, C, G or d?” Feel free to link to this article so that they’ll know where to look, and why you’re asking.

Do you have any heteroplasmies?

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Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

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Books

Genealogy Research

Using Mitochondrial Haplogroups at 23andMe to Pick the Lock

I’ve been writing recently about using haplogroups for genealogy, and specifically, your mitochondrial DNA haplogroup. You can check out recent articles here and here.

While FamilyTreeDNA tests the entire mitochondria and provides you with the most detailed and granular haplogroup, plus matches to other testers, 23andMe provides mid-range level haplogroup information to all testers.

I’ve been asked how testers can:

  1. Locate that information on their account
  2. What it means
  3. How to use it for genealogy

Let’s take those questions one by one. It’s actually amazing what can be done – the information you can piece together, and how you can utilize one piece of information to leverage more.

Finding Your Haplogroup Information

At 23andMe, sign in, then click on Ancestry.

Then click on Ancestry Overview.

You’ll need to scroll down until you see the haplogroup section.

If you’re a female, you don’t have a paternal haplogroup. That’s misleading, at best and I wrote about that here. If you click to view your report, you’ll simply be encouraged to purchase a DNA test for your father.

Click on the maternal haplogroup panel to view the information about your mitochondrial haplogroup.

You’ll see basic information about the haplogroup level 23andMe provides. For me, that’s J1c2.

Next, you’ll view the migration path for haplogroup J out of Africa. Haplogroup J is the great-granddaughter haplogroup of L3, an African haplogroup. Mutations occurred in L3 that gave birth to haplogroup N. More mutations gave birth to R, which gave birth to J, and so forth.

You’ll notice that haplogroup J1c2 is fairly common among 23andMe customers. This means that in my list of 1793 matches in DNA Relatives, I could expect roughly 9 to carry this base haplogroup.

There’s more interesting information.

Yes, King Richard is my long-ago cousin, of sorts. Our common mitochondrial ancestor lived in Europe, but not long after haplogroup J1c migrated from the Middle East.

One of my favorite parts of the 23andMe information is a bit geeky, I must admit.

Scroll back to the top and select Scientific Details.

Scroll down, and you’ll be able to see the haplogroup tree formation of all your ancestral haplogroups since Mitochondrial Eve who is haplogroup L. You can see L3 who migrated out of Africa, and then N and R. You can also see their “sister clades,” in blue. In other words, L3 gave birth to L3a through M, which are all sisters to N. N gave birth to R, and so forth.

On the free Public Mitochondrial Tree, provided by FamilyTreeDNA, you can see the haplogroups displayed in a different configuration, along with the countries where the most distant known ancestors of FamilyTreeDNA testers who carry that haplogroup are found. Note that only people who have taken the full sequence test are shown on this tree. You can still check out your partial haplogroup from 23andMe, but it will be compared to people who don’t have a subgroup assigned today on this public tree.

If you were to take the full sequence test at FamilyTreeDNA, you might well have a more refined haplogroup, including a subgroup. Most people do, but not everyone.

Here’s the second half of the 23andMe haplogroup tree leading from haplogroup R to J1c2, my partial haplogroup at 23andMe.

Here’s the public tree showing the J1c2 haplogroup, and my most refined haplogroup, J1c2f from my full sequence test at FamilyTreeDNA.

If you’re interested in reading more in the scientific literature about your haplogroup, at the bottom of the 23andMe Scientific Details page, you’ll see a list of references. Guaranteed to cure insomnia.😊

You’re welcome!

Using Your Haplogroup at 23andMe for Genealogy

Enjoying this information is great, but how do you actually USE this information at 23andMe for genealogy? As you already know, 23andMe does not support trees, so many times genealogists need to message our matches to determine at least some portion of their genealogy. But not always. Let’s look at different options.

While a base haplogroup is certainly interesting and CAN be used for some things, it cannot be used, at 23andMe for matching directly because only a few haplogroup-defining locations are tested.

We can use basic haplogroup information in multiple ways for genealogy, even if your matches don’t reply to messages.

23andMe no longer allows testers to filter or sort their matches by haplogroup unless you test (or retest) on the V5 platform AND subscribe yearly for $29. You can read about what you receive with the subscription, here. You can purchase a V5 test, here.

To get around the haplogroup filtering restriction, you can download your matches, which includes your matches’ haplogroups, in one place. I provided instructions for how to download your matches, here.

While 23andMe doesn’t test to a level that facilitates matching on mitochondrial alone, even just a partial haplogroup can be useful for genealogy.

You can identify the haplogroup of specific ancestors.

You can identify people who might match on a specific line based on their haplogroup. and you can use that information as a key or lever to unlock additional information. You can also eliminate connections to your matches on your matrilineal line. 

Let’s start there.

Matrilineal Line Elimination

For every match, you can view their haplogroup by clicking on their name, then scrolling down to view haplogroup information.

As you can see, Stacy does not carry the same base haplogroup as me, so our connection is NOT on our direct matrilineal line. We can eliminate that possibility. Our match could still be on our mother’s side though, just not our mother’s mother’s mother’s direct line.

If Stacy’s haplogroup was J1c2, like mine, then our connection MIGHT be through the matrilineal line. In other words, we can’t rule it out, but it requires more information to confirm that link.

Identifying My Ancestor’s Haplogroups

I’ve made it a priority to identify the mitochondrial haplogroups of as many ancestors as possible. This becomes very useful, not only for what the haplogroup itself can tell me, but to identify other matches from that line too.

click to enlarge images

Here’s my pedigree chart of my 8 great-grandparents. The colored hearts indicate whose mitochondrial DNA each person inherited. Of course, the mothers of the men in the top row would be shown in the next generation.

As you can see, I have identified the mitochondrial DNA of 6 of my 8 great-grandparents. How did I do that?

  • Testing myself
  • Searching at FamilyTreeDNA for candidates to test or who have already tested
  • Searching at Ancestry for candidates to test, particularly using ThruLines which I wrote about, here.
  • Searching at MyHeritage for candidates to test, particularly using Theories of Family Relativity which I wrote about, here
  • Searching for people from a specific line at 23andMe, although that’s challenging because 23andMee does not support traditional trees
  • Searching for people who might be descended appropriately using the 23andMe estimated “genetic tree.” Of course, then I need to send a message and cross my fingers for a reply.
  • Searching for people at WikiTree by visiting the profile of my ancestors whose mitochondrial DNA I’m searching for in the hope of discovering either someone who has already taken the mitochondrial DNA test, or who descends appropriately and would be a candidate to test

In my pedigree chart, above, the mitochondrial DNA of John Ferverda and his mother, Eva Miller, T2b, is a partial haplogroup because I discovered the descendant through 23andMe.

I was fairly certain of that match’s identity, but I need two things:

  • Confirmation of their genealogical connection to Eva Miller Ferverda
  • Someone to take the full sequence test at FamilyTreeDNA that will provide additional information

I confirmed this haplogroup by identifying a second person descended from Eva through all females to the current generation who carries the same haplogroup

Now that I’ve confirmed one person at 23andMe who descends from Eva Miller Ferverda matrilineally, and I know their mitochondrial DNA haplogroup, I can use this information to help identify other matches – even if no one responds to my messages.

This is where downloading your spreadsheet becomes essential.

Download Your Matches

Next, we’re going to work with a combination of your downloaded matches on a spreadsheet along with your matches at 23andMe on the website.

I provided step-by-step instructions for downloading your matches, here.

On the spreadsheet, you’ll see your matches and various columns for information about each match, including (but not limited to):

  • Name
  • Segment information
  • Link to tester’s profile page (so you don’t need to search for them)
  • Maternal or paternal side, but only if your parents have tested
  • Maternal haplogroup (mitochondrial DNA for everyone)
  • Paternal haplogroup (Y DNA if you’re a male)
  • Family Surnames
  • Family Locations
  • Country locations of 4 grandparents
  • Notes (that you’ve entered)
  • Link to a family tree if tester has provided that information. I wrote about how to link your tree in this article. The tree-linking instructions are still valid although 23andMe no longer partners with FamilySearch. You can link an Ancestry or MyHeritage tree.

I want to look for other people who match me and who also have haplogroup T2b, meaning they might descend from Eva Miller Ferverda, her mother, Margaret Elizabeth Lentz, or her mother, Johanne Fredericka Ruhle in the US.

To be clear, the mitochondrial DNA reaches back further in time in Germany, but since 23andMe limits matches to either your highest 1500 or 2000 matches (it’s unclear which,) minus the people who don’t opt-in to Relative Sharing, I likely wouldn’t find anyone from the German lines in the 23andMe database as matches. If you subscribe to the V5+$29 per year version of the test, you are allowed “three times as many matches” before people roll off your match list.

On the download spreadsheet, sort on the maternal column.

I have several people who match me and are members of haplogroup T2b.

Upon closer evaluation, I discovered that at least one other person does descend from Eva Miller, which confirmed that Eva’s haplogroup is indeed T2b, plus probably an unknown subclade.

I also discovered two more people who I think are good candidates to be descended from Eva Miller using the following hints:

  • Same haplogroup, T2b
  • Shared matches with other known descendants of Eva Miller, Margaret Lentz or Frederica Ruhle.
  • Triangulation with some of those known descendants

Now, I can look at each one of those matches individually to see if they triangulate with anyone else I recognize.

Do be aware that just because these people have the mitochondrial haplogroup you are seeking doesn’t necessarily mean that you’re related through that line. However, as I worked through these matches WITH the same haplogroup, I did find several that are good candidates for a common ancestor on the matrilineal line based on matches we share in common.

Let’s hope they reply, or they have tested at a different vendor that supports trees and I can recognize their name in that database.

Assign a Side

At 23andMe, one of the first important steps is to attempt to assign a parental side to each match, if possible.

If I can assign a match to a “side” of my tree based on shared matches, then I can narrow the possible haplogroups that might be of interest. In this case, I can ignore any T2b matches assigned to my father’s side.

The way to assign matches to sides, assuming you don’t have parents to test, is to look for triangulation or a group of matches with known, hopefully somewhat close, relatives.

I wrote about Triangulation Action at 23andMe, here.

For example, my top 4 matches at 23andMe are 2 people from my father’s side, and 2 people from my mother’s side, first or second cousins, so I know how we are related.

Using these matches, our “Relatives in Common,” and triangulation, I can assign many of my matches to one side or the other. “Yes” in the DNA Overlap column means me, Stacy and that person triangulate on at least one segment.

Do be careful though, because it’s certainly possible to match someone, and triangulate on one segment, but match them from your other parent’s side on a different segment.

At the very bottom of every match page (just keep scrolling) is a Notes field. Enter something. I believe, unless this has changed, that if you have entered a note, the match will NOT roll off your list, even if you’ve reached your match limit. I include as much as I do know plus a date, even if it’s “don’t know which side.” At least I know I’ve evaluated the match.

However, equally as important, when you download your spreadsheet, you’ll be able to see your own notes, so it’s easy to refer to that spreadsheet when looking at other relatives in common on your screen.

I have two monitors which makes life immensely easier.

Working the Inverse

Above, we used the haplogroup to find other matches. You can work the inverse, of course, using matches to find haplogroups.

Now that you’ve downloaded your spreadsheet, you can search in ways you can’t easily at 23andMe.

On your spreadsheet, skim locations for hints and search for the surnames associated with the ancestral line you are seeking.

Don’t stop there. Many people at 23andMe either don’t enter any information, but some enter a generation or two. Sometimes 4 surnames, one for each grandparent. If you’ve brought your lines to current genealogically, search for the surnames of the people of the lines you seek. Eva’s grandchildren who would carry her mitochondrial haplogroup would include the surnames of Robison, Gordon, and several others. I found two by referencing my descendants chart in my computer genealogy program to quickly find surnames of people descended through all females.

The link to each match’s profile page is in the spreadsheet. Click on that link to see who you match in common, and who they and you triangulate with.

Because each of the people at 23andMe does have at least a partial mitochondrial DNA haplogroup, you may be able through surname searching, or perhaps even viewing matches in common, to reveal haplogroups of your ancestors.

If you’ve already identified someone from that ancestral line, and you’re seeking that ancestor’s mitochondrial DNA, highlight the people who triangulate with the known descendant on your spreadsheet. Generation by generation, search for the surnames of that ancestor’s female grandchildren. I found one line just one generation downstream which allowed me to identify the ancestor’s haplogroup. In other words, the birth surname of my ancestor was missing, and that of her husband, but the surname of one of her granddaughters was there.

That person did indeed match and triangulate with other known descendants.

Sorting by haplogroup, at that point, showed two additional people I was able to assign to Eva’s haplogroup line and confirm through what few tidbits of genealogy the testers did provide.

I started with not knowing Eva’s haplogroup, and now I not only know she is haplogroup T2b, I’ve identified and confirmed a total of 6 people in this lineage who also have haplogroup T2b – although several descend from her mother and grandmother. I’ve also confirmed several others through this process who don’t have haplogroup T2b, but who triangulated with me and those who do. How cool is this?

I’ll be checking at FamilyTreeDNA to see if any of Eva’s T2b descendants have tested or transferred there. If I’m lucky, they’ll have already taken the mitochondrial DNA test. If not, I’ll be offering a mitochondrial DNA full sequence testing scholarship to the first one of those matches to accept.

Is this process necessarily easy?

No, but the tools certainly exist to get it done.

Is it worth it?

Absolutely.

It’s one more way to put meat on the bones of those ancestors, one tiny piece of information at a time.

I’ll be reaching out to see if perhaps any of my newly identified cousins has genealogical information, or maybe photos or stories that I don’t.

Tips and Tools

For tips and tools to work with your mitochondrial DNA haplogroups, read the article Where Did My Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup Come From?

Please visit the Mitochondrial DNA Resource page for more information.

You can also use Genetic Affairs AutoCluster tool to assist in forming groups of related people based on your shared matches at 23andMe and FamilyTreeDNA.

What Can You Find?

What can you find at 23andMe?

Your ancestor’s haplogroups, perhaps?

Or maybe you can use known ancestral haplogroups as the key to unlocking your common ancestor with other matches.

I found an adoptee while writing this article with common triangulated matches plus haplogroup T2b, and was able to provide information about our common ancestors, including names. Their joy was palpable.

Whoever thought something like a partial haplogroup could be the gateway to so much.

23andMe tests are on sale right now for Mother’s Day, here.

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Disclosure

I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Products and Services

Books

Genealogy Research