What is a Population Bottleneck?

water being emptied from a blue glass bottleGenetic genealogists often hear the term population bottleneck referenced in various academic papers – but just what is that?  And why do we care?

A population bottleneck occurs when there is a dramatic reduction in the population of a particular group of people.  Think about the eruption of a volcano – Mt. Toba for example.

Human history is full of population reducing examples, some we know about, like the plague, but most we don’t.  And obviously, if the bottleneck was so severe that no one survived – then there are no descendants of those people today – and that’s an extinction event, not a bottleneck.  The only way we would ever know those people existed is if we found their remains and sequenced them today – like the Neanderthal and Denisovan skeletons.

As a point of clarity – the Neanderthal and Denisovan did survive – not as pure Neanderthals or Denisovans – but admixed into the homo sapiens population – and they are indeed, us.  If you have either European or Asian ancestry, then you have Neanderthal and Denisovan ancestry too.

How could that be – all of Europe and Asia descended from these Archaic people?  Probably the after-effects of a population bottleneck where a small group of people went on to become a large group of people.

Let’s look at an example.

The best example I can think of is the migration of the Asian people into the Americas.  These first people would populate all of North and South America and would become the indigenous people of these continents – by whatever name is applied today.  First People, Native Americans, American Indians – they are all of the same stock and the result of at least one population bottleneck.

That first bottleneck occurred when some people crossed over the land bridge, Beringia, between Asia and what is now Alaska.

beringia map

Erika Tamm et al – Tamm E, Kivisild T, Reidla M, Metspalu M, Smith DG, et al. (2007) Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders. PLoS ONE 2(9): e829. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000829. Also available from PubMed Central.

The bottleneck event that occurred there was that there weren’t very many people. It was probably a small group.  Possibly very small.  What do we know about them?

There were obviously males and females.

Assuming for purposes of discussion that all of the people who founded the Native American population came at once, or in what is referred to as one wave, we know that there were at least two men and 5 women.

How do we know that?  Because today we have Y haplogroups Q and C in the Native population and mitochondrial haplogroups A, B, C, D and X in that population as well.  Since the Y chromosome is passed from father to son unadmixed with any DNA from the mother, the haplogroups we see today are directly descended from those original founders.  Mitochondrial DNA is passed from the mother to all of her children, but only the females pass it on, so we get a direct pipeline view back to the founding mothers.

There may have been more individuals and haplogroups that arrived.  Some may have died out in Beringia or afterwards in subsequent bottleneck events.

Let’s say the group stayed together for a while.  Then, it got too big to support itself comfortably on the resources available.  In other words, the population began depleting the available resources.  So, the group separated by a few miles so that they could draw off of a different landscape where food was more abundant.

One group went 20 miles east and one group went 20 miles south.  It wasn’t meant to be permanent, but eventually, the split became permanent as that scenario repeated itself over time.

Eventually, one of the groups moved further south and small groups broke off from time to time and moved east across what would be the US and Canada.  Part of the group continued south along the Pacific and would populate Mexico, Central and South America.

Let’s say that one of those small bands of people that headed east wound up living in Montana, 12,500 years ago.  A child died, and they buried that child.

The group they separated from continued south and their descendants are found throughout Mexico, Central and South American today.

That child’s name is Anzick.  His skeleton was found in 1968 and his full genome was sequenced before he was reburied in 2013.  When his DNA was sequenced, we discovered, much to our amazement, that Anzick indeed matched people, primarily people from south of the US, at a level that could be interpreted to be contemporary.  How could that possibly be?

Think about a bottleneck in this fashion.

There are 4 people, 2 couples.  Each person’s DNA is represented by a color.  The two males are blue and green and the 2 females are pink and yellow, like on the left side of the pedigree chart shown below.

perez autosomal

In the first generation, they pass their DNA to their children and the children are blue/yellow and green/pink.  In the second generation, the children intermarry with the other couple’s children – because there are no choices.  All of the grandchildren of the original couple have DNA that is blue, yellow, green and pink.  The children and grandchildren don’t all carry the same segments of blue, yellow, green and pink – but all of them carry some part of the original 4 founders.  There is no orange or turquoise or red DNA to be found, so forever, until new people enter the landscape, they will pass the same segments of blue, green, yellow and pink DNA to their descendants.  In an isolated environment, they might not meet new humans for thousands of years – lets’ say 10,000 years.

So, if the Anzick child had blue, yellow, green and pink DNA and the contemporary Native people living in South America have blue, yellow, green and pink Native DNA from those same four founding ancestors, it stands to reason that they are going to match – because it’s the exact same DNA that has been passed around and around for thousands of years.

This matching is the effect of a population bottleneck.

We can think of other bottleneck events too.  For example, the Acadians were a bottleneck event.  A few shiploads of French Catholic people on an Island in the early 1600s – they didn’t have a lot of choice in terms of spouses. The genealogy saying is that if you’re related to one Acadian, you’re related to all Acadians, and it’s pretty much true.  Same with the Pilgrims and the individuals who came over on the Mayflower.

Some bottlenecks are religiously induced – Amish, Mennonite and Jewish, for example.  These people marry only within their religion.  Today, that’s called endogamy – but it’s a form of a bottleneck event.

We see the results of bottleneck events today in three ways in our DNA.  In both Y and mitochondrial DNA, we often see specific haplogroups or subgroups associated with specific populations – like Q and C in Native American Y DNA and subsets of A, B, C, D, X and possibly M in Native American mitochondrial DNA.

We also see the effects of bottleneck events in autosomal DNA.  We talk about segments that are IBD, identical by descent, and IBS, identical by state.  Identical by descent typically means we can attribute the DNA segment to a specific ancestor via triangulation.  Often, everything we can’t identify gets tossed into the IBS box, but it really shouldn’t.

When you hear people talk about IBS, or autosomal DNA segments that are identical by state, there are really two possibilities.  One is that the DNA is identical by chance.

The other option is that the DNA is identical by population.  This means that the DNA does indeed match because it came from a common ancestor – but that ancestor is beyond the genealogical timeframe.  That doesn’t mean the information isn’t useful.  Indeed, I think it’s very useful.  I want to know if a segment of my DNA is Native, even if I share that segment with lots of other Native people.  In fact, that’s exactly HOW we determine a specific autosomal segment is affiliated with Native or any other population group of people.  Certain segments are found in a higher percentage across the entire population group.  So, to throw these out in personal genetic genealogy by phasing which removes population based matches is a case of throwing the baby out with the bathwater.  I have several matches on my spreadsheet where I have the notation “Mennonite” or “Acadian” for example, because while I can’t sort out which specific ancestor the DNA came from, it assuredly came from the Acadian population based on the matches – and that’s very useful information.

Population bottlenecks may seem like a scientific term referencing something that happened long ago, but the effects of bottlenecks can be found in every one of us, beginning with Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA and probably including ancestors who survived, or willingly embraced beliefs which in essence created historical bottlenecks.

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Zeroes aka Deletions – Null DNA Markers

Someone recently asked me about why one of their Y DNA STR marker values was zero, what that means, and how it got to be that way.

Probably the marker most prone to develop this trait is marker 425, the 48th marker that is in the 67 marker panel.  If you haven’t tested beyond 37 markers, then you won’t see a result for marker 425, because it’s in the 67 marker panel which tests markers 38-67.

A null marker result looks like this for Y DNA:

null result

You can see that location DYS425, highlighted in blue, has a zero and a red asterisk.

This means that there is no DNA present at that location, and a deletion has occurred.

Mitochondrial DNA

Deletions also occur in mitochondrial DNA.

If you view your results as CRS values, deletions show as little dash marks.

Mito deletion CRS

In the RSRS results view, below, they are shown with a little d indicating a deletion has replaced the normal value shown before the location number.

Mito deletion RSRS

In the case above in the coding region, an entire contiguous segment has been deleted.  In mitochondrial DNA, these are sometimes haplogroup defining.

While deletions also occur routinely in mitochondrial DNA, we’re going to use Y DNA for our discussion and examples.

What Does This Mean?

A zero in Y DNA as a marker result means that no DNA was detected at this location.  In essence, barring a lab processing error, it means that the DNA that used to be in this location got deleted in the process of replication at some point in time.

Once DNA on the Y chromosome or mitochondrial DNA is gone, it’s gone forever.  This is called a deletion.

Why Did This Happen?

We don’t know exactly why deletions happen, but they do.  If the deletion is in an area that isn’t troublesome to the organism, life goes on normally and the deletion is passed on to the next generation.  If the deletion would interfere with a critical function, typically the organism is never born.

So, if you have a deletion, it’s really nothing to worry about, because, chances are your ancestors, for generations, had this same deletion and you are obviously here. 

When Did This Happen?

Sometimes we can deduce an answer to this question, at least somewhat.

If your DNA value at location 425 is 0 (zero), there are three possibilities.

1.  This mutation happened long ago in your family line – maybe even before the adoption of surnames.  This is usually relatively easy to tell, especially if other men from your direct line have tested.  If they have, you’ll need to determine if their value at location 425 is zero.  If you and they are in a common project, often the easiest way to determine their value is to look within the project page. If you see others with the same surname that match most of your other marker results, and have a value of 0 at 425, then you know that this mutation happened long ago in your family line and has been being passed from father to son ever since – and will be as long as any male who carries that paternal line lives.

You can also check your haplogroup project to see if the people you are grouped, which will have different surnames, with also have a deletion at that location.

In some cases, almost everyone in a particular group has a zero at that location.  In the case of marker 425, the value of 0 is almost universally found in haplogroup E-L117, downstream of E-M35, as you can see in the Jewish haplogroup E project.

Sometimes, if the null marker at that location is not prevalent in the haplogroup itself, or in the larger family group, then the null value may be considered a line marker mutation in your specific family line.

2.  The null value may have happened more recently.  In fact, it’s possible that it happened between you and your father.  It happened between some father and son, someplace in your line.  If you find that you have a null marker value, and no one else if your family surname project has a null value at that marker, I would suggest proceeding in two ways.  First, I would test a second person, slightly upstream.  For example, test another paternal descendant of your grandfather or great-grandfather.  If they too have the null value, then you know that deletion occurred in some generation before your common ancestor.

null family example

If your father is Sterling and his father is Ben, then you’ll want to test one of Ben’s other sons, Hezekiah or Joseph, or one of their sons.

Let’s say that you test Hezekiah Jr. and he too carries a null value at location 425.  This confirms that your common ancestor, Ben Doe, indeed also had a null value because he passed it to both of his sons.  So, the mutation to a null value happened someplace upstream of Ben.

In this next example, let’s say, based on the surname project results, we know that neither John Doe nor James Doe carry the null value mutation, because at least some of their descendants through various sons don’t carry that mutation.  Therefore, it had to happen someplace downstream of Joe and James and between them and you.  The question is where.

Null ancestors inferred

In the original test, you discovered your null value.  In the second test, we discovered Hezekiah Jr.’s null value and by doing so, also discovered the value of that DNA in Sterling, Hezekiah Sr. and Ben, shown in the second test column above.

From previous testing in the family surname project, we know that the progenitor, John Doe and his son James don’t carry that mutation, so that only leaves two generations with an unknown status as to that marker value.  If you can find someone descended through another son born to William or Thomas, you can determine which man had the mutation.

But what if Hezekiah Jr. does not have the null value?

Then, either the mutation happened between you and your father or between your father and his father, which can be confirmed by testing either your father or one of your male siblings, or there was a lab processing error.

3.  In rare cases, the DNA simply does not read in a particular area.  It’s rare, but it does happen.  If you find no other family individuals with a null value, I’d ask the Family Tree DNA lab to take a second look to verify accuracy and to see if they can get a good reading if that is the issue.  They already routinely do multiple reads on null values, so this is rarely an issue.

Does This Really Matter?

It might matter, because in this line, the null value will serve as a line marker mutation for the family lines BELOW the man who had the mutation.  So, in this case, either William or Thomas Doe.  So if you find someone who matches this line, and DOES have a null value, it tells you which line he falls under and where to look.  If he does NOT have the null value, it tells you not to bother looking in the null value line.

Do Other Markers and Haplogroups Have Null Markers Too?

They do indeed.  I’ve written the Personalized DNA Reports for a decade now and I’ve seen null marker values in just about every haplogroup and on many markers, although some instances are very rare and seem to be a one-time occurrence.

In other situations, especially in haplogroup E-M35 (old E1b1b1) and branches, null values are quite common, especially on marker 425.  Marker 425 seems to be more prone to zero or null values in every haplogroup than other markers…and no, we don’t know why.

This has been the explanation of null values for normal air breathing humans.  If you would like the eyes-glazed-over techie version, this presentation was given at the 2009 Family Tree DNA Conference.

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I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

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Elizabeth Shepherd (1766-1830s), Frontierswoman, 52 Ancestors #79

Elizabeth Shepherd was born July 23, 1766 in St. George Parish, Spotsylvania County, Virginia to Robert Shepherd and Sarah Rash.

We are extremely fortunate to have the Robert Shepherd Bible pages, still in existence in 1991.  A sixth great-grandson of Robert and Sarah Rash Shepherd was kind enough to copy and transcribe them, and they have been sitting in my “to do” file, which became a “to do” pile, long enough.

The cousin who so graciously sent the pages also said that he couldn’t capture the entire page in the copy because the pages were bound in the Bible.  He provided the transcription following each page – taken from the original Bible.

I am struck by the beauty of these Bible pages – the lovely calligraphy style handwriting.  I’ve also noted that the handwriting is all the same, including the death information for Robert – except for the 1858 death note about Sally.  Given that Sally is the only child with a death date, and there is also a rather illegible note about her name that looks like it notes someone’s mother – I’m surmising that this Bible was a copy of Robert’s original Bible that was passed down in the Sally Shepherd family line and her death date was of course added sometime after her passing.

The identical handwriting is a dead giveway (pardon the pun) and nobody so far as I know can record their own death after the fact – so this isn’t Robert’s handwriting.  If we had the front page of the Bible, we could look at the date the Bible was printed and I’m sure it would be after some of these events occurred.  That doesn’t diminish the value of the Bible, just lets us know more about the provenance of the information it holds and alerts us that transcription mistakes could have occurred – since the information we’re seeing has been copied, at least once.  But, I must say, copied beautifully and in the old style where the s looks like fs. Known as the long s, this practice fell out of practice in printing in the first part of the 1800s but lasted in handwriting into the second part before dying entirely.

Based on the script, whoever figured and recorded Robert Shepherd’s death date in 1817 is likely the transcriber of the rest of this document.  Given that the calculations are in the margin, this Bible was likely in use at that time, so perhaps the earlier information had already been copied into this Bible.

Just take a look at this beautiful script.

Shepherd Bible1

Marriages:

Robert Shepherd and Sarah Rash were married in Spotsylvania County Virginia by James Mcrea Church Parson on October 1, 1765.

Robert and Sarah aforesaid removed from Spotsylvania County Virginia to Reddies River Wilkes County, North Carolina on the 7th of December Annoque Domini 1777.

For all the world, it looks like something was written on the right hand side of the paper too, and has faded to the point where it is no longer legible.

Shepherd Bible2

Births:

Robert Shepherd son of George and Elizabeth Shepherd was born in Spotsylvania County and State of Virginia June 17, 1739.

Sarah Shepherd formerly Sarah Rash and daughter of Joseph and Mary Rash was born in Spotsylvania County Virginia State 23rd of April Annoque Domini 1748, and is now the espoused wife of Robert Shepherd aforesaid.

Their Genealogy born in Spotsylvania County Virginia

1. Elisabeth Shepherd born July 23rd Anno: Dom: 1766
2. James Shepherd born on March 8th A:D: 1768
3. Ann Shepherd born on the 8th of March A:D: 1770
4. Mary Shepherd born on January 17th A:D: 1773
5. Agnes Shepherd born on the 8th of February A:D: 1775

Their following children were all born on Reddies River Wilkes County No. Carolina

6. Rhoda Shepherd born on the 23rd of March A:D: 1777
7. John Shepherd born on the 26th of August A:D: 1779
8. Sally Shepherd born on the 27th of February A:D: 1782 Died November 1858
9. Fanny Shepherd born February 13th 1785

Shepherd Bible3

10. Rebekah Shepherd born on the 26th day of September in the year of our Lord 1787

Deaths:

Robert Shepherd father of the aforementioned family deceased June fifth one thousand eight hundred and seventeen 1817 – at his own house on Reddies River, Wilkes County, North Carolina State where to he removed and settled with his family from Spottsylvania County Virginia December 7, 1777.

After 17 days illness with his old disorder the Stone and Gravel and after residing about 40 years in the aforesaid spot.

Aged according to this record exactly seventy seven years eleven months and seven days, subtracting elven days for his Old Stile birth.

Sarah’s death date is not recorded here, but I think we have evidence of when it occurred in the notes.  Sarah was born in 1748, and on this last page,  in the upper right hand corner, someone was subtracting 1748 from 1829.

Moving to Wilkes County

According to their Bible, “Robert and Sarah aforesaid removed from Spotsylvania County to Reddies River, Wilkes County, NC on the 7th of December annoque domini 1777.”

I don’t know if they left on December 7th for Wilkes County, or arrived on December 7th, 1777.  Looking at the notes about the births of their children, it appears that Rhoda was born in Wilkes County in March of 1777 – so there is a conflict in the record.  However, given that this Bible is a copy of the original, perhaps a transcription error occurred.  Perhaps December is when they found a place to settle permanently in Wilkes County.  Regardless, they were moving about that time.

Hopefully December is when they arrived, as the 340 mile trip, on today’s roads, would have taken more than a month in a wagon in 1777, and certainly in December and January, snow and cold weather could be encountered.  It’s actually quite remarkable that the date of their journey is recorded in the Bible.  It was obviously seen as quite a turning point and major event in their lives.

Spotsylvania to Wilkes

Elizabeth would have just turned 11 that summer, old enough to help care for the younger children on the journey.  She was the oldest child.  Her parents, like normal pioneer parents, had a baby about every other year, so by 1777, Elizabeth had 5 younger siblings to help care for.

While Spotsylvania County had at one time been the frontier, in 1777, the county was more than 50 years old.  Wilkes County, however, was indeed the new frontier, with lots of available land, opportunity and adventure galore.  Land was almost free for the taking plus a little sweat equity.  Ok, if you’ve seen those mountains…a lot of sweat equity.  But back in Spotsylvania County, they hadn’t seen the mountains of Wilkes County – but they surely had heard about the land grants.  In fact, staking out land is just about the first thing new settlers did.

Robert Shepherd entered land in 1778 near the ford of “Readys River” on John Shepherd’s line.  On the same day John entered land on Deep Ford of Reddis River.

The Shepherds lived in what is known as the Reddies River and Purlear section, west of North Wilkesboro about 12 to 14 miles.  John Shepherd’s entry number 64 claimed 405 acres at the Deep Ford of the Reddies River.  Robert’s entry was next for 200 acres.  The Reverend George McNiel, William McNiel’s father, was also a neighbor.

The http://www.danielprophecy.com/map.html website shows the location of the various Shepherd land.  Notice Vannoy road and old Highway 16.  You’ve seen these same roads in the Elijah Vannoy story.  Elijah married Lois McNiel, daughter of Elizabeth Shepherd and William McNiel.

Shepherd land locationSometime prior to 1784, Elizabeth Shepherd married William McNiel, the son of Reverend George McNiel, probably in Wilkes County.  You might have noticed that this was in the middle of the Revolutionary War, and in many counties, not much was getting registered about that time, including marriages.  Their first child, at least the first child that survived, arrived on October 26, 1784, which would suggest that they were married probably sometime in 1783 or maybe early 1784 – although unsourced family history shows the marriage as occurring in 1781.

Elizabeth’s husband, William McNiel, was also from Spotsylvania County, Virginia, enlisting in the Revolutionary War from there in 1777.  Did she know him before they moved to Wilkes County?  It’s quite likely she did. It’s probable that the Reverend George McNiel recruited a number of Spotsylvania County families to undertake the move to Wilkes County.

Life in Wilkes County

The first church established on the Reddies River was located on the crest of Deep Ford Hill.  The name was derived from the fact that the original road leading from New River in what is now Ashe County to the Yadkin Valley crossed the Reddies River at the foot of this hill, and that the ford at this crossing was unusually deep – thus the name Deep Ford Hill.

This Baptist church was established as early as 1783 according to the records of the Flat Rock Church.  The Reverend George McNiel was the preacher and the Shepherds made up most of the congregation along with their immediate neighbors, the Rowlands, Judds and others.

The Abstract of the Reddies River Church Membership 1798-1889 by Paul Gregory shows that charter members that were members in 1798 include Robert Shepherd and wife Sarah along with Robert’s brother John and his wife Sarah and their black woman, Grace.  It does not include William McNiel or his wife, which is probably a good indication they were living in Ashe County by this time, or that the original membership, even though listed in 1798, was actually from an earlier date.  The actual title says “Charter Members” but the date on the page is 1798, which could mean that these are the charter members still attending in 1798.  I have seen in other churches where they listed charter members, almost as a retrospective, at a later date

It is also mentioned that some of the Reddies River people buried their dead at the church, probably not much later than 1825.  There is no exact census of this cemetery and it may very well simply have been the Shepherd family cemetery.

I visited George McNeil in Wilkes County in 2007 and he was gracious enough to show me all of the early family cemeteries and homeplaces.  George and his wife, Joyce, then deceased, are both my cousins on different family lines, and I had known them through genealogy research for more than 20 years.  It was wonderful to meet George, but sad to have missed Joyce with whom I exchanged pen and ink letters for years.  George and Joyce spent much of their married life visiting the various Wilkes County cemeteries and cataloging the graves.  What a wonderful legacy to leave.

George took me to the location of the Deep Ford Church and cemetery, across the road from the church.  Nothing remains today of either, sadly.

According to George, the location of the Deep Ford Church was at the intersection of Shingle Gap Road and NC 16 and the cemetery was directly across the street where a trailer today sits on the former cemetery.  Locals recalled seeing the original stones when George McNiel was doing the cemetery census.

Years ago, probably 40 now, the landowner used the gravestones to construct a chicken house.  Yes, a chicken house.  Then, he later bulldozed the chicken house including all of the gravestones into the creek.  Would it be evil of me to hope they have all haunted him?  I just so desperately wanted to go wading in that creek to see if I could find those stones.

Deep Ford cemetery

This is the land where the mobile home sits where the cemetery once stood, and across the road the church was located about where the gas station sits today.

What we do know is that Elizabeth’s father, Robert Shepherd died on June 5, 1817 and was buried in this cemetery.  In addition, Robert’s brother John died on June 11, 1810 and is buried here as well as is Elizabeth’s mother who died sometime after 1816, possibly in 1829.  Sadly, Elizabeth would have already been in Claiborne County Tennessee when her parents died, although she would have stood here to bury her uncle, John, knowing full well that her parents would one day rest here too.  If Elizabeth did marry William McNiel in 1781, then she may have buried a child here as well, as their first known child was born in 1784.

William McNiel first shows up on the 1786 Wilkes County tax list and is living 3 houses away from his father, George McNiel.  William and Elizabeth own no land until 1792. In 1792-1793 they own 60 acres, but then go missing from 1794-1796.  In 1797, they have 530 acres and are now living by Nathaniel Vannoy.

When I originally found William McNiel living beside Nathaniel Vannoy, I thought sure I had hit pay dirt, because Elizabeth’s daughter, Lois, married Elijah Vannoy about 1807 and we didn’t, at that time, know who Elijah’s father was.  As it turns out, Nathaniel Vannoy was not Elijah’s father, but his uncle.

The book “Early Settlers of Reddies River” by Paul Gregory tells us that Elizabeth’s family lived on Deep Ford Hill, but that William McNiel moved either before 1800 or about 1803, depending on which of his statements you use, to what is now Ashe County and then to Claiborne County, TN about 1810.

It’s obvious that William McNiel and Elizabeth moved around a bit.  Was she pleased with that arrangement, or did she just want to settle in one place and be done with it?  I’m guessing she had her hands full with a new child arriving every other year and the last thing she wanted to do was move back and forth over the highest mountain range within hundreds of miles.

They last record we have of William and Elizabeth in Wilkes or Ashe County is in 1810 when they deed land to Elijah Vannoy and his wife, their daughter, Lois.

Judging from these two deeds from Wilkes County Deed Book GH, Elizabeth and William moved back from Ashe County in early 1810 and then sold that land to their son-in-law, Elijah Vannoy the last day of the year.

Page 178 – February 3, 1810 from James Steward and William McNiel of Ashe County NC for $200, 150 acres on the waters of the North fork of Lewis Fork, it being the place where William Yates now lives.  Signed by James Steward and witnessed by Alexander Brown and Thomas Brown.

Page 175 – December 31, 1810 between William McNeel and Elijah Vannoy for $250, 150 acres on Boller Creek, a fork of Lewis Fork, place where William McNeel now lives.  Witness John Forrester and John Forrester Jr.  Signed by William McNeel

Apparently at that time, Lois and Elijah were not planning their migration to Claiborne County, or they probably wouldn’t have purchased the land from her parents.

Perhaps there were discussions wherever people gathered, at the church, at the mill and at the courthouse, about Claiborne County, Tennessee, because what I would term a massive exodus of Wilkes County residents occurred about this time, with many settling together in the northern part of Claiborne County, near the Lee County, VA border.  Some spilled over into the part of Hawkins bordering Claiborne and the Lee County border.  This area could have been called “Little Wilkes.”  Eventually, all of this land would become Hancock County in Tennessee

Claiborne County, Tennessee

By about 1811 or so, William McNiel and Elizabeth Shepherd McNiel would leave Wilkes and Ashe County forever, moving to Claiborne County, Tennessee.  Elizabeth, now age 44 or 45 would have her last child about the time they set out on their journey.  Elizabeth’s oldest child, Lois, would already have been married to Elijah Vannoy for 3 or 4 years by this time and they would accompany Elizabeth and William.

There is a very interesting story about how this caravan of settlers got to Tennessee.  Elijah Vannoy’s daughter said they traveled by flatboat and the journey took two years.  This story is told in detail in the Elijah and Joel Vannoy stories, as Joel, Elizabeth’s grandson, was reportedly born during this journey.

We know William made it to Claiborne County and lived to at least 1816 because he witnessed a deed.  This William McNiel has to be the husband of Elizabeth because their son, William was only born about 1810 and there were no other McNiel families, by any spelling, living in that region.

In 1816 Levi Carner sells to George McNiel a tract of land lying on the North side of Powell Mountain near Mulberry Gap containing 69 acres for $525.  Signed in the presence of William McNiel, James Anderson and Burrell G. Sullivant.

I’m fairly certain that Elizabeth’s husband, William, was gone by May of 1823 when William Inglebarger sells land to Neal McNeal and the transaction is signed by his mother, Elizabeth, his uncle, John McNeil and Joel Fairchild.  None of the witnesses can write and all signed with an X, including Elizabeth – so she cannot write.

Unfortunately, there is no 1820 census for Claiborne County, and by the 1830 census, shown below, William McNiel was gone.  Elizabeth McNiel is listed on the census however, living adjacent her son Neal or Niel or Neil, depending on how the name was spelled that day.  The last name was also spelled in a wide variety of ways, and Neal and McNeal, first and last name spellings, don’t always match either.

Elizabeth also lives just a few houses away from her daughter and son-in-law, Elijah and Lois McNiel Vannoy, spelled Vernoy here.

1830 Claiborne McNiel census

In 1830, Elizabeth is a widow.  There are no records of any deeds showing that William McNiel purchased land.  It’s worth noting that Elizabeth also lived adjacent Eli Davis, because Elijah Vannoy’s son, Joel, would marry Phebe Crumley and in 1840, Phebe’s father, William Crumley (the third) is living beside Eli Davis.  This family that makes up my ancestors is being woven together in place and time one strand at a time.

Also note that Elizabeth lives 2 houses from Josiah Ramsey.  We’ll need that in a minute too.

I wonder if William McNiel passed away about 1816, because Lois’s son, William is born about 1816 and she may have named the child after her father if he was ill.  The last sighting we have of William is when he witnessed an 1817 deed.  Given that William never owned land, he would very likely have qualified as an impoverished Revolutionary War veteran and might have applied for benefits in 1818, were he alive.

In 1840, Elizabeth is no longer listed on the census, nor is a woman of her age listed living with any of her children.  Elizabeth passed away sometime between 1830 and 1840.  I’m inclined to think she passed away between 1830 and 1832, because I have never been able to find any records that she applied for a Revolutionary War widow’s pension.  That act was passed on June 7, 1832 and while these people may have been distant and lived back in the mountains, applications were being drafted and sent from this area within a month of that legislation.  The grapevine was a powerful communications medium, especially when it involved either juicy gossip or money.

Never Underestimate Your Cousins

When I published the story about Joel Vannoy, my lovely cousin, Dolores wrote to me and asked how I knew the land on Mulberry Creek, across from the “bridge house” was the exact land Elijah owned?  To anyone familiar with this area, the house with the bridge in front, crossing the creek between the house and the road, is a landmark.  There is only one house fitting that description.

Mulberry Gap road and creek

I explained to her that cousin Dan had found the land based on the stream in Elijah’s land grant survey, and then the homeowner had Elijah’s original land grant from the state of Tennessee.  Dolores said she wondered, because the Ramsey family eventually came into possession of that land.  Nothing more was said, because while Dolores and I are cousins, it’s not through the Vannoy or McNiel lines or her Ramsey line.  Those lines did intermarry later, but are not our common ancestors.

Then, a couple weeks later, I happened across a piece of information that seemed important.

Niel McNiel’s land abutted that of Josiah Ramsey.  Josiah Ramsey is noted at being the progenitor of the Ramsey line in Claiborne/Hancock County, and, there is an old Ramsey Cemetery.  Now, the Vannoy Cemetery is “missing,” soooo, I had to ask Dolores if she knew exactly where the Josiah Ramsey Cemetery is located.  Sure enough, not only did she know where it was located, she sent me more than I asked for, including some important puzzle pieces for me that she didn’t even know she had.

Since William McNiel never owned land and Elizabeth is living beside son Niel in 1830, it occurred to me that I should see if I could locate the land that Niel patented in several land grants.  Sure enough, I did, and it’s just a couple miles north of Elijah Vannoy and Lois McNiel Vannoy’s land on Mulberry Creek.

Cousin Dolores sent two documents of primary importance.

Ramsey lands

On this map, note the Thomas Chapel Church, lower left, the Liberty School and Bales Gap.  They are and were important to finding locations on present day maps.  Josiah Ramsey’s land is noted as well.

On the 1830 census, Elizabeth McNiel and Niel McNiel live between Josiah Ramsey and Eli Davis.

Josiah Ramsey land division

On this map, Ramsey researchers have overlaid the Josiah Ramsey lands.  Two areas are of particular importance

First, Neil McNeil’s land, abutting Eli Davis, is shown on the upper right.

In the lower left, Daniel Rice’s land is shown where it would abut Elijah Vannoy’s lands, which confirms yet a third way that we indeed have located Elijah’s land correctly. Given that in the 1840 census, William Crumley (the third,) whose daughter Phebe would marry Joel Vannoy, son of Elijah Vannoy, is living dead center between Eli Davis and Littleton Brooks, we now know exactly where he was living and we can see how close he lived to Joel Vannoy’s land that abutted Elijah’s land.  Whohooooo…my lucky day!

Now, where is this land today?

McNiel Vannoy land

I mapped the location where Elizabeth Shepherd McNiel would have been living next to Niel McNiel on present day Turner Hollow Road at the far right end of the blue line.  At the far left end of the blue line, where the red balloon is located is near where Elizabeth’s daughter Lois McNiel lived on Mulberry Gap Road with her husband Elijah Vannoy.  Keep in mind that they would likely have taken the “back way since Rebel Hollow and Turner Hollow intersect and it looks like Joel and Elijah Vannoy probably owned the land between Mulberry Gap Road and the back side of Rebel Hollow Road.  The actual address of the Vannoy property is across the road from both 7321 and 6979 Mulberry Gap Road, today.

To go from Neal and Elizabeth’s to Joel and Lois’s you had to pass the Ramsey land and mill located about where the “8 minute” box is located on the blue line.

Niel McNiel land

On this map, you can see Bales Gap, then to the left you can see where Bales Ford either still does or once crossed the Powell River.  If you look at the Niel McNiel land, you can see that if you draw a line straight right from Bales Ford, it intersects the Niel McNiel upper land at the beginning, about the blue dot on Turner Hollow Road.

Ironically, I see on the upper border of this photo Bartley Hollow which is the land that was owned by cousin Dolores’s family – downstream of the Speak line she and I share.  It seems it’s always a small world in these mountain communities.

Josiah Ramsey land - Niel McNiel

On this enlarged area of the property map, you can see the driveway or private road on Neil McNeil’s land.

Niel McNiel driveway

On this map, you can see where the current day driveway or road occurs on the Niel McNiel map and its branch into the Eli Davis land.

Niel McNiel land brackets

On this map, I’ve noted with arrows the approximate location of the boundaries of both of Niel McNiel’s parcels.

Given that we know that Elizabeth Shepherd McNiel lived by her son Niel, and now we know where Niel lived – we also know where Elizabeth lived – and probably where she died as well.

In fact, this might be Elizabeth’s house.  Family lore says that this is the house that Lois McNiel eloped out of to marry Elijah Vannoy.  However, this story came out of Hancock County, not Wilkes County and this house could be Lois’s parents’ house, but in Hancock County, not Wilkes.

McNiel cabin

Given that William died sometime after 1816 but before the 1830 census, he had to be buried someplace.  Son George McNiel also lived in this vicinity.  By the 1830s when Elizabeth died, surely there was an established cemetery for the McNiel clan in this immediate area – maybe in conjunction with Elijah Vannoy.  Maybe both families had a cemetery on their land.  In either case, both are now lost, so while we know that Elizabeth was likely buried someplace on this land, or perhaps on Elijah’s land where her daughter lived, we don’t know where that might be.

One thing these Ramsey maps did point out is just how many small, undocumented family cemeteries exist, or existed – and there are surely more that we don’t know about – especially early cemeteries abandoned when the original family moved away.

After Elizabeth’s death both the Vannoys and the McNiel’s would sell their land on Mulberry Creek and move down the road a few miles into Claiborne County on Little Sycamore Creek where they were all living in the 1870s.

A hundred years later, when I first visited the Claiborne County families, all knowledge of the location of the original land in Hancock County had disappeared into the mists of time.

Elizabeth’s DNA

In the Lois McNiel article, I listed her daughters that gave their mitochondrial DNA to their children in the hope that maybe someone descends from these daughters to the current generation through all females.  The current generation can be a male, since women give their mitochondrial DNA to all of their children, but only the females pass it on.

Here, we list Elizabeth’s daughters, with the hope that we can find a descendant whose DNA we can test to add a chapter to Elizabeth’s story.  Where did her maternal line originate?

Elizabeth’s daughters who had female children who may have descendants today through all females are as follows:

  • Lois McNiel born about 1786 and married Elijah Vannoy about 1807 in Wilkes County. Lois died in the 1830s in Claiborne, now Hancock, County, TN. She had daughter Permelia born in 1810 who married John Baker and had daughters Sirena and Nancy Jane. Lois’s daughter Nancy also born about 1810 married George Loughmiller and had daughters Mermelia, Mary, Elizabeth, Sarah, Marty and Lyda. Lois’s daughter Sarah born in 1821 married Joseph Adams and moved to Arkansas.  They had daughters Nancy Jane who married Franklin Skaggs, Rebecca who married William Leroy Throckmorton Bee Boren and Margaret Ann who married John Ward and moved to Oregon.
  • Sarah or Sallie McNiel was born about 1784 and married Joel Fairchild in Wilkes County. They moved to Claiborne County where Sallie died on January 2, 1861 and is buried in the Fairchild Cemetery in Hancock County. She had daughter Elizabeth Fairchild born between 1820-1825 who married Samuel McCullough and had daughters Sarah (b 1852), Elizabeth (b 1864), Susan (b 1867) and Cordia (b 1870).
  • Mary was born about 1792 in Wilkes County. She married Robert Campbell in 1817 in Claiborne County and died in 1881 in Bradley County, TN. I show only one child for her, Anderson, but I have a very difficult time believing she didn’t have additional children.
  • Nancy McNiel born in 1794 in Wilkes County married Alexander Campbell in 1815 in Claiborne County and is shown with only 3 male children. She died in 1839 in Hancock County. She likely outlived her mother, but not by long.
  • Elizabeth McNiel born between 1800 and 1810 married Andrew McClary. The 1840 census shows them with 2 daughters, but I can’t find the family in 1850.

If you descend from any of these women through all females, please contact me.  There is a DNA scholarship waiting for you.

In Summary

Elizabeth was an amazing lady, even though we only know her through the records of the men around her, except for the 1830 census.

She saw and lived through two wars fought on our own soil, the Revolutionary War and the War of 1812.  Her husband fought in the Revolution, although they weren’t married at that time.  Two of her uncles fought as well, one at King’s Mountain.  Her father was a patriot and provided supplies.

Elizabeth was a young teen at the beginning of the Revolutionary War and a young woman when it ended.  Life must have been interesting, listening to the talk of the war as news trickled in about battles fought and lost or won…and lives lost.  Those who farmed yesterday, fought today and would never come home.  All they could do was pray.

It was during this time that the family moved from Spotsylvania County, Virginia to Wilkes County, NC.  Was the war somehow part of the reason?  Was the journey more dangerous because of the war?  Surely it was, because the Indians had allied themselves with the British.

Elizabeth was involved with the formation of the first Baptist Church in Wilkes County.  Her parents were Baptist, the neighbors were Baptist…Elizabeth was going to be a Baptist and that’s all there was to that!  An entire group of Baptists moved from Spotsylvania County to Wilkes County, along with their preacher, Reverend George McNiel, Elizabeth’s future father-in-law – and Elizabeth was among them.

A few years later, Elizabeth’s sons were old enough to have served in the War of 1812, but I don’t have any documentation that says they did.  This was during the time they were migrating from Wilkes County to Claiborne County – and if it did take 2 years as family lore suggests, that might be why her sons never served.

Elizabeth lived in two centuries and survived in the Appalachian mountains of Tennessee with children and without a husband.  She probably buried babies and children, possibly alongside the trail.  She raised ten children to adulthood.

Elizabeth left Spotsylvania County, Virginia and would ultimately live in three states and on two untamed frontiers.  At least twice, she pulled up stakes, packed up a wagon with all of her belongings along with a bounty of children, in the middle of a war, and set out for the unknown.

Indeed, Elizabeth was an amazing woman.

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Botocudo Ancient Remains from Brazil

Update: Please note that I am leaving this article because the scientific information is accurate, BUT, it was subsequently discovered that the remains were mislabeled in the museum and were not Native.

One thing you can always count on in the infant science of population genetics…  whatever you think you know, for sure, for a fact…well….you don’t.  So don’t say too much, too strongly or you’ll wind up having to decide if you’d like catsup with your crow!  Well, not literally, of course.  It’s an exciting adventure that we’re on together and it just keeps getting better and better.  And the times…they are a changin’.

We have some very interesting news to report.  Fortunately, or unfortunately – the news weaves a new, but extremely interesting, mystery.

Ancient Mitochondrial DNA

Back in 2013, a paper, Identification of Polynesian mtdNA haplogroups in remains of Botocudo Amerindians from Brazil, was published that identified both Native American and Polynesian haplogroups in a group of 14 skeletal remains of Botocudo Indians from Brazil whose remains arrived at a Museum in August of 1890 and who, the scientists felt, died in the second half of the 19th century.

Twelve of their mitochondrial haplogroups were the traditional Native haplogroup of C1.

However, two of the skulls carried Polynesian haplogroups, downstream of haplogroup B, specifically B4a1a1a and B4a1a1, that compare to contemporary individuals from Polynesian, Solomon Island and Fijian populations.  These haplotypes had not been found in Native people or previous remains.

Those haplogroups include what is known as the Polynesian motif and are found in Indonesian populations and also in Madagascar, according to the paper, but the time to the most common recent ancestor for that motif was calculated at 9,300 years plus or minus 2000 years.  This suggests that the motif arose after the Asian people who would become the Native Americans had already entered North and South America through Beringia, assuming there were no later migration waves.

The paper discusses several possible scenarios as to how a Polynesian haplotype found its way to central Brazil among a now extinct Native people. Of course, the two options are either pre-Columbian (pre-1500) contact or post-Columbian contact which would infer from the 1500s to current and suggests that the founders who carried the Polynesian motif were perhaps either slaves or sailors.

In the first half of the 1800s, the Botocudo Indians had been pacified and worked side by side with African slaves on plantations.

Beyond that, without full genome sequencing there was no more that could be determined from the remains at that time.  We know they carried a Polynesian motif, were found among Native American remains and at some point in history, intermingled with the Native people because of where they were found.  Initial contact could have been 9,000 years ago or 200.  There was no way to tell.  They did have some exact HVR1 and HVR2 matches, so they could have been “current,” but I’ve also seen HVR1 and HVR2 matches that reach back to a common ancestor thousands of years ago…so an HVR1/HVR2 match is nothing you can take to the bank, certainly not in this case.

Full Genome Sequencing and Y DNA

This week, one on my subscribers, Kalani, mentioned that Felix Immanuel had uploaded another two kits to GedMatch of ancient remains.  Those two kits are indeed two of the Botocudo remains – the two with the Polynesian mitochondrial motif which have now been fully sequenced.  A corresponding paper has been published as well, “Two ancient genomes reveal Polynesian ancestry among the indigenous Botocudos of Brazil” by Malaspinas et al with supplemental information here.

There are two revelations which are absolutely fascinating in this paper and citizen scientist’s subsequent work.

First, their Y haplogroups are C-P3092 and C-Z31878, both equivalent to C-B477 which identifies former haplogroup C1b2.  The Y haplogroups aren’t identified in the paper, but Felix identified them in the raw data files that are available (for those of you who are gluttons for punishment) at the google drive links in Felix’s article Two Ancient DNA from indigenous Botocudos of Brazil.

I’ve never seen haplogroup C1b2 as Native American, but I wanted to be sure I hadn’t missed a bus, so I contacted Ray Banks who is one of the administrators for the main haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA and also is the coordinator for the haplogroup C portion of the ISOGG tree.

ISOGG y tree

You can see the position of C1b2, C-B477 in yellow on the ISOGG (2015) tree relative to the position of C-P39 in blue, the Native American SNP shown several branches below, both as branches of haplogroup C.

Ray maintains a much more descriptive tree of haplogroup C1 at this link and of C2 at this link.

Ray Banks C1 tree

The branch above is the Polynesian (B477) branch and below, the Native American (P39) branch of haplogroup C.

Ray Banks C2 treeIn addition to confirming the haplogroup that Felix identified, when Ray downloaded the BAM files and analyzed the contents, he found that both samples were also positive for M38 and M208, which moves them downstream two branches from C1b2 (B477).

Furthermore, one of the samples had a mutation at Z32295 which Ray has included as a new branch of the C tree, shown below.

Ray Banks Z32295

Ray indicated that the second sample had a “no read” at Z32295, so we don’t know if he carried this mutation.  Ray mentions that both men are negative for many of the B459 equivalents, which would move them down one more branch.  He also mentioned that about half of the Y DNA sites are missing, meaning they had no calls in the sequence read.  This is common in ancient DNA results.  It would be very interesting to have a Big Y or equivalent test on contemporary individuals with this haplogroup from the Pacific Island region.

Ray notes that all Pacific Islanders may be downstream of Z33295.

Not Admixed

The second interesting aspect of the genomic sequencing is that the remains did not show any evidence of admixture with European, Native American nor African individuals.  More than 97% of their genome fits exactly with the Polynesian motifs.  In other words, they appear to be first generation Polynesians.  They carry Polynesian mitochondrial, Y and autosomal (nuclear) DNA, exclusively.

Botocudo not admixed

In total, 25 Botocudo remains have been analyzed and of those, two have Polynesian ancestry and those two, BOT15 and BOT17, have exclusively Polynesian ancestry as indicated in the graphic above from the paper.

When did they live?  Accelerator mass spectrometry radiocarbon dating with marine correction gives us dates of 1479-1708 AD and 1730-1804 for specimen BOT15 and 1496-1842 for BOT17.

The paper goes on to discuss four possible scenarios for how this situation occurred and the pros and cons of each.

The Polynesian Peru Slave Trade

This occurred between 1862-1864 and can be ruled out because the dates for the skulls predate this trade period, significantly.

The Madagascar-Brazil Slave Trade

The researchers state that Madagascar is known to have been peopled by Southeast Asians and not by Polynesians.  Another factor excluding this option is that it’s known that the Malagasy ancestors admixed with African populations prior to the slave trade.  No such ancestry was detected in the samples, so these individuals were not brought as a result of the Madagascar-Brazil slave trade – contrary to what has been erroneously inferred and concluded.

Voyaging on European Ships as Crew, Passengers or StowAways

Trade on Euroamerican ships in the Pacific only began after 1760 AD and by 1760, Bot15 and Bot17 were already deceased with a probability of .92 and .81, respectively, making this scenario unlikely, but not entirely impossible.

Polynesian Voyaging

Polynesian ancestors originated from East Asia and migrated eastwards, interacting with New Guineans before colonizing the Pacific.  These people did colonize the Pacific, as unlikely as it seems, traveling thousands of miles, reaching New Zealand, Hawaii and Easter Island between 1200 and 1300 AD.  Clearly they did not reach Brazil in this timeframe, at least not as related to these skeletal remains, but that does not preclude a later voyage.

Of the four options, the first two appear to be firmly eliminated which leaves only the second two options.

One of the puzzling aspects of this analysis it the “pure” Polynesian genome, eliminating admixture which precludes earlier arrival.

The second puzzling aspect is how the individuals, and there were at least two, came to find themselves in Minas Gerais, Brazil, and why we have not found this type of DNA on the more likely western coastal areas of South America.

Minas Gerais Brazil

Regardless of how they arrived, they did, and now we know at least a little more of their story.

GedMatch

At GedMatch, it’s interesting to view the results of the one-to-one matching.

Both kits have several matches.  At 5cM and 500 SNPs, kit F999963 has 86 matches.  Of those, the mitochondrial haplogroup distribution is overwhelmingly haplogroup B, specifically B4a1a1 with a couple of interesting haplogroup Ms.

F999963 mito

Y haplogroups are primarily C2, C3 and O.   C3 and O are found exclusively in Asia – meaning they are not Native.

F999963 Y

Kit F999963 matches a couple of people at over 30cM with a generation match estimate just under 5 generations.  Clearly, this isn’t possible given that this person had died by about 1760, according to the paper, which is 255 years or about 8.5-10 generations ago, but it says something about the staying power of DNA segments and probably about endogamy and a very limited gene pool as well.  All matches over 15cM are shown below.

F999963 largest

Kit F999964 matches 97 people, many who are different people that kit F999963 matched.  So these ancient Polynesian people,  F999963 and F999964 don’t appear to be immediate relatives.

F999964 mito

Again, a lot of haplogroup B mitochondrial DNA, but less haplogroup C Y DNA and no haplogroup O individuals.

F999964 Y

Kit F999964 doesn’t match anyone quite as closely as kit F999963 did in terms of total cM, but the largest segment is 12cM, so the generational estimate is still at 4.6,  All matches over 15cM are shown below.

F999964 largest

Who are these individuals that these ancient kits are matching?  Many of these individuals know each other because they are of Hawaiian or Polynesian heritage and have already been working together.  Several of the Hawaiian folks are upwards of 80%, one at 94% and one believed to be 100% Hawaiian.  Some of these matches are to Maori, a Polynesian people from New Zealand, with one believed to be 100% Maori in addition to several admixed Maori.  So obviously, these ancient remains are matching contemporary people with Polynesian ancestry.

The Unasked Question

Sooner or later, we as a community are going to have to face the question of exactly what is Native or aboriginal.  In this case, because we do have the definitive autosomal full genome testing that eliminates admixture, these two individuals are clearly NOT Native.  Without full genomic testing, we would have never known.

But what if they had arrived 200 years earlier, around 1500 AD, one way or another, possibly on an early European ship, and had intermixed with the Native people for 10 generations?  What if they carried a Polynesian mitochondrial (or Y) DNA motif, but they were nearly entirely Native, or so much Native that the Polynesian could no longer be found autosomally?  Are they Native?  Is their mitochondrial or Y DNA now also considered to be Native?  Or is it still Polynesian?  Is it Polynesian if it’s found in the Cook Islands or on Hawaii and Native if found in South America?  How would we differentiate?

What if they arrived, not in 1500 AD, but about the year 500 AD, or 1000 BCE or 2000 BCE or 3000 BCE – after the Native people from Asia arrived but unquestionably before European contact?  Does that make a difference in how we classify their DNA?

We don’t have to answer this yet today, but something tells me that we will, sooner or later…and we might want to start pondering the question.

Acknowledgements: 

I want to thank all of the people involved whose individual work makes this type of comparative analysis possible.  After all, the power of genetic genealogy, contemporary or ancient, is in collaboration.  Without sharing, we have nothing. We learn nothing.  We make no progress.

In addition to the various scientists and papers already noted, special thanks to Felix Immanual for preparing and uploading the ancient files.  This is no small task and the files often take a month of prep each.  Thanks to Kalani for bringing this to my attention.  Thanks to Ray Banks for his untiring work with haplogroup C and for maintaining his haplogroup webpage with specifics about where the various subgroups are found.  Thanks to ISOGG’s volunteers for the haplotree.  Thanks to GedMatch for providing this wonderful platform and tools.  Thanks to everyone who uploads their DNA, and that of their relatives and works on specific types of projects – like Hawaiian and Maori.  Thanks to my haplogroup C-P39 co-administrators, Dr. David Pike and Marie Rundquist, for their contributions to this discussion and for working together on the Native American Haplogroup C-P39 Project.  It’s important to have other people who are passionate about the same subjects to bounce things off of and to work with.  This is the perfect example of the power of collaboration!

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I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

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DNAeXplain Archives – General Information Articles

dna interestA couple weeks ago, I said that I would publish lists of the articles in the DNAeXplain archives sorted by new tag categories.  Recently, I published the first of those lists, the Historical or Obsolete articles.  This week, it’s time for the General Information articles.

General Information articles are articles about DNA and genealogy, but they don’t presume you are actually working with DNA results.  They can be and often are simply of general interest.  As you can see, there’s a very wide range of topics covered – health, rocks, dogs, Picts, your DNA as music…and lots more.  Enjoy!

Article Name Date Link
Welcome to the World of Genetic Genealogy 7-11-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/07/11/hello-world/
I’ve Never Met a DNA Test I Wouldn’t Take… 7-13-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/07/13/ive-never-met-a-dna-test-i-wouldnt-take/
Citizen Science 7-17-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/07/17/citizen-science/
Racial Admixture in Elizabethan London 7-22-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/07/22/racial-admixture-in-elizabethan-london/
Adoptee Resources and Genetic Genealogy 7-30-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/07/30/adoptee-resources-and-genetic-genealogy/
Jewish Voice Interview with Bennett Greenspan 8-2-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/08/02/jewish-voice-interview-with-bennett-greenspan/
Applying DNA Studies to Family History – The Melungeon Mystery Solved 8-8-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/08/08/applying-dna-studies-to-family-history-the-melungeon-mystery-solved/
Wozniak’s Birthday DNA Gift 8-9-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/08/09/wozniaks-birthday-dna-gift/
Ancestry’s Consent Form for AncestryDNA Autosomal Test 8-16-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/08/16/ancestrys-consent-form-for-ancestrydna-autosomal-test/
DNA Melody 8-17-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/08/17/dna-melody/
Marja and Me 8-20-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/08/20/marja-and-me/
Dutch Genealogy – Maybe not so Hopeless Afterall 8-28-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/08/28/dutch-genealogy-maybe-not-so-hopeless-afterall/
Family Tree DNA YouTube Channel 8-28-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/08/28/family-tree-dna-new-youtube-channel/
Is History Repeating Itself at Ancestry? 8-30-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/08/30/is-history-repeating-itself-at-ancestry/
Denisovan DNA Tells a Story 8-31-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/08/31/denisovan-dna-tells-a-story/
It’s Not Junk Afterall! 9-6-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/09/06/its-not-junk-afterall/
Lenny Trujillo: The Journey of You 9-11-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/09/11/lenny-trujillo-the-journey-of-you/
Native and African American Houses  – University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 9-15-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/09/15/native-and-african-american-houses-university-of-illinois-at-urbana-champaign/
The Malhi Molecular Anthropology and Ancient DNA Labs 9-22-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/09/22/the-malhi-molecular-anthropology-and-ancient-dna-labs/
CRS Extended Haplogroup 10-20-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/10/20/crs-extended-haplogroup/
Melungeon DNA Paper Honored by the North Carolina Society of Historians 10-21-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/10/22/melungeon-dna-paper-honored-by-the-north-carolina-society-of-historians/
The Future of Genetic Genealogy – Dream Big 10-26-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/10/26/the-future-of-genetic-genealogy-dream-big/
Mitochondrial DNA – Birthing Haplogroup Subclades 10-31-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/10/31/mitochondrial-dna-birthing-haplogroup-subclades/
Genetic Genealogy Blogs 11-5-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/11/05/genetic-genealogy-blogs/
The New Root – Haplogroup A00 11-16-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/11/16/the-new-root-haplogroup-a00/
Otzi was a Brown Eyed, Left Handed Farmer 11-20-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/11/21/otzi-was-a-brown-eyed-left-handed-farmer/
Facebook Link 11-24-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/11/24/facebook-link/
Bigfoot is Real??? 11-25-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/11/25/bigfoot-is-real/
Geno 2.0 Results – First Peek 12-11-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/12/11/geno-2-0-results-first-peek/
Geno 2.0 Results – Kicking the Tires 12-12-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/12/12/geno-2-0-results-kicking-the-tires/
I’m Adopted and I Don’t Know Where to Start 12-17-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/12/17/im-adopted-and-i-dont-know-where-to-start/
Proving Native American Ancestry Using DNA 12-18-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/12/18/proving-native-american-ancestry-using-dna/
Britain’s DNA – Caveat Emptor 12-20-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/12/20/britains-dna-caveat-emptor/
Lost Colony, Hyde County and Lumbee Berry Families 12-21-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/12/21/lost-colony-hyde-county-and-lumbee-berry-families/
Walking in Bauke Camstra’s Shoes 12-22-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/12/22/walking-in-bauke-camstras-shoes/
Lost Colony DNA Project Makes The Scientist Magazine List of top 20 Stories for 2012 12-26-2012 http://dna-explained.com/2012/12/26/lost-colony-dna-project-makes-the-scientist-magazine-list-of-top-20-stories-for-2012/
Rethinking “Out of Africa” 1-6-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/01/06/rethinking-out-of-africa/
Decoding and Rethinking Neanderthals 1-10-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/01/10/decoding-and-rethinking-neanderthals/
Out of Eden – Retracing the Steps of Humanity 1-11-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/01/11/out-of-eden-retracing-the-steps-of-humanity/
Faces of our Ancestors 1-29-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/01/29/faces-of-our-ancestors/
King Richard, Is That You? 2-4-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/02/04/king-richard-is-that-you/
Thick Hair, Small Boobs, Shovel Shaped Teeth and More 2-17-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/02/17/thick-hair-small-boobs-shovel-shaped-teeth-and-more/
Personal Genetics – Coming out of the Closet – Ostriches, Eagles and Fear 3-6-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/03/06/personal-genetics-coming-out-of-the-closet-ostriches-eagles-and-fear/
The Genomics Revolution 13 Years Later – Bennett Greenspan 3-9-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/03/09/the-genomics-revolution-13-years-later-bennett-greenspan/
Ancestry Needs Another Push – Chromosome Browser 3-24-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/03/24/ancestry-needs-another-push-chromosome-browser/
Family Tree DNA Research Center Facilitates Discovery of Ancient Root to Y Tree 3-26-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/03/26/family-tree-dna-research-center-facilitates-discovery-of-ancient-root-to-y-tree/
DIY DNA Analysis, GenomeWeb and Citizen Scientist 2.0 4-10-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/04/10/diy-dna-analysis-genomeweb-and-citizen-scientist-2-0/
DNA Survives Bomb Blasts 4-20-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/04/20/dna-survives-bomb-blasts/
DNA Day 4-25-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/04/25/dna-day/
Announcing the Native American Haplogroup C DNA Project 4-28-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/04/28/announcing-the-native-american-haplogroup-c-dna-project/
Digging Up Dad, Exhumation and Forensic Testing Alternatives 4-30-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/04/30/digging-up-dad-exhumation-and-forensic-testing-alternatives/
Email Hacking, Hijacking, Spamming and Internet Safety 5-5-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/05/06/email-hacking-hijacking-spamming-and-internet-safety/
The Clan 5-13-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/05/13/the-clan/
Picture This 5-21-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/05/21/picture-this/
The Orphan Train and the Mystery of William Jennings Duckett 5-29-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/05/29/the-orphan-train-and-the-mystery-of-william-jennings-duckett/
Navigating 23andMe for Genealogy 6-7-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/06/07/navigating-23andme-for-genealogy/
Supreme Court Decision – Genes Can’t Be Patented 6-13-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/06/13/supreme-court-decision-genes-cant-be-patented/
The Warrior Gene 6-16-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/06/16/the-warrior-gene/
Big News!  Probable Native American Haplogroup Breakthrough 6-26-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/06/27/big-news-probable-native-american-haplogroup-breakthrough/
Products of the Motherland 6-29-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/06/29/products-of-the-motherland/
James Watson on DNA 7-2-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/07/02/james-watson-on-dna/
Ancient DNA Analysis in Canada 7-4-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/07/04/ancient-dna-analysis-from-canada/
Human Double Helix 7-7-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/07/07/human-double-helix/
5,500 Year Old Grandmother Found Using DNA 7-10-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/07/10/5500-year-old-grandmother-found-using-dna/
The Found Poem 7-12-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/07/12/the-found-poem-2/
Rosalind Franklin Gets A Google Doodle For Her 93rd Birthday 7-25-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/07/25/rosalind-franklin-gets-a-google-doodle-for-her-93rd-birthday/
British Royal DNA 8-17-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/08/17/british-royal-dna/
Acadian Maryland Historical Marker Unveiling 8-21-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/08/21/acadian-maryland-historical-marker-unveiling/
You Might Be A Pict If… 8-24-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/08/24/you-might-be-a-pict-if/
Mexican Women’s Mitochondrial DNA Primarily Native American 8-30-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/08/30/mexican-womens-mitochondrial-dna-primarily-native-american/
Epigenetics – Gone Perhaps, But Not Forgotten 9-8-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/09/08/epigenetics-forgotten-perhaps-but-not-gone/
First Iceland, Now the Faroe Islands 9-11-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/09/11/first-iceland-now-the-faroe-islands/
Native American Mitochondrial Haplogroups 9-18-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/09/18/native-american-mitochondrial-haplogroups/
Double Helix Pedestrian Bridge 9-22-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/09/22/double-helix-pedestrian-bridge/
23andMe Patents Technology for Designer Babies 10-5-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/10/05/23andme-patents-technology-for-designer-babies/
Modern Faces and Ancient Migrations 10-13-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/10/13/modern-faces-and-ancient-migrations/
Lovin’ My Cousins 10-14-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/10/14/lovin-my-cousins/
Ancestry’s Updated Ethnicity Summary 10-17-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/10/17/ancestrys-updated-v2-ethnicity-summary/
Human Genetics Revolution Tells Us That Men and Women Are Not the Same 10-21-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/10/24/human-genetics-revolution-tells-us-that-men-and-women-are-not-the-same/
Ancestor of Native Americans in Asia was 30% “Western Eurasian” 10-25-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/10/25/ancestor-of-native-americans-in-asia-was-30-western-eurasian/
Native American Maternal Haplogroup A2s and B2a Dispersion 10-29-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/10/29/native-american-maternal-haplogroup-a2a-and-b2a-dispersion/
WikiTree and DNA 11-4-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/11/04/wikitree-and-dna/
10 Year Pioneers Recognized by Family Tree DNA 11-10-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/11/10/10-year-pioneers-recognized-by-family-tree-dna/
Genomics Law Report Discusses Designing Children 11-13-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/11/13/genomics-law-review-discusses-designing-children/
Gene by Gene Genomics Research Center Lab Tour 11-14-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/11/14/gene-by-gene-genomics-research-center-lab-tour/
Genographic Consortium Publications 11-15-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/11/15/genographic-consortium-publications/
What About the Big Y? 11-16-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/11/16/what-about-the-big-y/
Native American Gene Flow, Europe?, Asia and the Americas 11-22-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/11/22/native-american-gene-flow-europe-asia-and-the-americas/
Watson, Crick and Spotted Dick 11-24-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/11/24/watson-crick-and-spotted-dick/
FDA Orders 23andMe to Discontinue Testing 11-25-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/11/25/fda-orders-23andme-to-discontinue-testing/
Now What?  23andMe and the FDA 11-26-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/11/26/now-what-23andme-and-the-fda/
Native American Haplogroups Q, C and the Big Y Test 11-30-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/11/30/native-american-haplogroups-q-c-and-the-big-y-test/
Downloading and Uploading 23andMe Files – v2 vs v3 12-4-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/04/downloading-and-uploading-23andme-files-v2-vs-v3/
Family Tree DNA Listens, and Acts 12-5-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/05/family-tree-dna-listens-and-acts/
400,000 Year Old DNA From Spain Sequenced 12-5-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/05/400000-year-old-dna-from-spain-sequenced/
23andMe Suspends Health Related Genetic Tests 12-5-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/06/23andme-suspends-health-related-genetic-tests/
23andMe Produces about 10% Response Rate for Genealogy 12-7-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/08/23andme-produces-about-10-response-rate-for-genealogy/
Neuroarchaeologists Uncover Iberian Origin of Unusual Alzheimer’s Gene Mutation 12-13-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/13/neuroarchaeologists-uncover-iberian-origin-of-unusual-alzheimers-gene-mutation/
36 Wives and the Ambassador 12-21-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/21/36-wives-and-the-ambassador/
Sequencing of Neanderthal Toe Bone Reveals Unknown Hominin Line 12-22-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/22/sequencing-of-neanderthal-toe-bone-reveals-unknown-hominin-line/
The Genealogist’s Christmas Lament 12-24-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/24/the-genealogists-christmas-lament/
Native Americans, Neanderthal and Denisova Admixture 12-26-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/26/native-americans-neanderthal-and-denisova-admixture/
2013’s Dynamic Dozen Top Genetic Genealogy Happenings 12-28-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/28/2013s-dynamic-dozen-top-genetic-genealogy-happenings/
Promethease – Genetic Health Information Alternative 12-30-2013 http://dna-explained.com/2013/12/30/promethease-genetic-health-information-alternative/
Second Sleep, The Rodent, and Jewelry 1-4-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/01/04/second-sleep-the-rodent-and-jewelry/
How to Sequence the Human Genome 1-6-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/01/06/how-to-sequence-the-human-genome/
Stonehenge 1-16-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/01/16/stonehenge/
The $1000 Genome – Not Exactly 1-17-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/01/17/the-1000-genome-not-exactly/
Finding Family the New-Fashioned Way 1-20-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/01/20/finding-family-the-new-fashioned-way/
What If You Die? 1-28-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/01/28/what-if-you-die/
Neanderthal Genome Further Defined in Contemporary Eurasians 1-30-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/01/30/neanderthal-genome-further-defined-in-contemporary-eurasians/
Charting Companion From Progeny Software 2-3-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/02/03/charting-companion-from-progeny-software/
Cavendish Lab at Cambridge University 2-5-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/02/05/cavendish-lab-at-cambridge-university/
Clovis People are Native Americans and From Asia, Not Europe 2-13-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/02/13/clovis-people-are-native-americans-and-from-asia-not-europe/
If There was a Death Test, Would You Take It? 3-3-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/03/03/if-there-was-a-death-test-would-you-take-it/
Clannishness, Clans and Locating Ancestral Origins? 2-24-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/02/24/clannishness-clans-and-locating-ancestral-origins/
North American Languages Before Colonialism 2-25-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/02/25/north-american-languages-before-colonialism/
Family Tree DNA Launches New Learning Center 3-11-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/03/11/family-tree-dna-launches-new-learning-center/
Houston Chronicle Article Features Gene by Gene Founders 3-17-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/03/17/houston-chronicle-article-features-gene-by-gene-founders/
Bluejacket Reunion with a Tomahawk 3-19-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/03/19/bluejacket-reunion-with-a-tomahawk/
Data Mining and Screen Scraping – Right or Wrong? 4-6-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/04/06/data-mining-and-screen-scraping-right-or-wrong/
The Human Family Tree 4-22-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/04/22/the-human-family-tree/
2014 Y Tree Released by Family Tree DNA 5-9-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/05/09/2014-y-tree-released-by-family-tree-dna/
Native American DNA Projects 5-26-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/05/26/native-american-dna-projects/
The Resilience Project 6-2-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/06/02/the-resilience-project/
Ancestry.com Discontinues Y and mtDNA Tests and Closes Data Base 6-5-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/06/05/ancestry-com-discontinues-y-and-mtdna-tests-and-closes-data-base/
Bennett Greenspan and the Future of Genetic Genealogy 6-8-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/06/08/bennett-greenspan-the-future-of-genetic-genealogy/
DNA Analysis of 8000 Year Old Bones Allows Peek Into the Neolithic 6-9-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/06/09/dna-analysis-of-8000-year-old-bones-allows-peek-into-the-neolithic/
Transfer DNA Results or Retest at Family Tree DNA 6-11-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/06/11/transfer-dna-results-or-retest-at-family-tree-dna/
Ancestry Kit Mixup 6-13-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/06/13/ancestry-kit-mixup/
Stop and Smell the Flowers 6-17-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/06/17/stop-and-smell-the-flowers/
Family Tree DNA Site Update Includes Y Enhancements and Renaming of myOrigins Regions 6-19-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/06/19/family-tree-dna-site-update-includes-y-enhancements-and-renaming-of-myorigins-regions/
10 Things To Do With Your DNAPrint, Renamed AncestrybyDNA, Test 6-19-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/06/19/10-things-to-do-with-your-dnaprint-renamed-ancestrybydna-test/
WikiTree Announces DNA Ancestor Confirmation Aid 6-26-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/06/26/wikitree-announces-dna-ancestor-confirmation-aid/
Finding Your Inner Neanderthal with Evolutionary Geneticist Svante Paabo 7-22-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/07/22/finding-your-inner-neanderthal-with-evolutionary-geneticist-svante-paabo/
WDYTYA – How DNA Might Have Been Used – Cynthia Nixon 7-25-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/07/25/wdytya-how-dna-might-have-been-used-cynthia-nixon/
Ancestor Maps 8-14-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/08/14/ancestor-maps/
My Brother John and My Other Brother John 9-1-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/09/01/my-brother-john-and-my-other-brother-john/
Jack the Ripper 9-8-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/09/08/jack-the-ripper/
DNA Buys the Truth 9-17-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/09/17/dna-buys-the-truth/
Analyzing the Native American Clovis Anzick Ancient Results 9-23-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/09/23/analyzing-the-native-american-clovis-anzick-ancient-results/
New Native Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups Extrapolated from Anzick Match Results 9-24-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/09/23/analyzing-the-native-american-clovis-anzick-ancient-results/
Ancestry Destroys Irreplaceable DNA Database 10-1-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/10/02/ancestry-destroys-irreplaceable-dna-database/
More Ancient DNA Samples for Comparison 10-4-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/10/04/more-ancient-dna-samples-for-comparison/
DNA Day With Ancestry 10-8-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/10/08/dna-day-with-ancestry/
Stone Helix 10-16-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/10/16/stone-helix/
Peopling of Europe 2014 – Identifying the Ghost Population 10-21-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/10/21/peopling-of-europe-2014-identifying-the-ghost-population/
Hide and Seek at 23andMe, DNA Relatives Consent, Opt-In, Opt-Out and Close Relatives 10-25-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/10/25/hide-and-seek-at-23andme-dna-relatives-consent-opt-in-opt-out-and-close-relatives/
WikiTree Makes Finding Relationships with DNA Matches Easier 11-6-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/11/07/wikitree-makes-finding-relationships-with-dna-matches-easier/
Kostenki14 – A New Ancient Siberian DNA Sample 11-12-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/11/12/kostenki14-a-new-ancient-siberian-dna-sample/
In Anticipation of Ancestry’s Better Mousetrap 11-18-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/11/18/in-anticipation-of-ancestrys-better-mousetrap/
Updated Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups 12-7-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/12/07/updated-native-american-mitochondrial-dna-haplogroups/
Baby Boy Hacht – Born July 1944 – Dead, or Kidnapped and Alive Today? 12-20-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/12/20/baby-boy-hacht-born-july-1944-dead-or-kidnapped-and-alive-today/
52 Ancestors in 52 Weeks, Round Two 12-21-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/12/21/52-ancestors-in-52-weeks-round-two/
Attitude of Gratitude, Mud, Pigs and Sheep 12-24-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/12/24/attitude-of-gratitude-mud-pigs-and-sheep/
The Fur Family – 52 Ancestors #51 12-25-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2014/12/25/the-fur-family-52-ancestors-51/
Anzick Matching Update 1-5-2015 http://dna-explained.com/2015/01/05/anzick-matching-update/
Cultural Footprints 1-7-2015 http://dna-explained.com/2015/01/07/cultural-footprints/
Naia – Oldest Native American Facial Reconstruction 1-15-2014 http://dna-explained.com/2015/01/15/naia-oldest-native-american-facial-reconstruction/
Cilantro – Love It or Hate It 1-27-2015 http://dna-explained.com/2015/01/27/cilantro-love-it-or-hate-it/
Sixth Season – Who Do You Think You Are? 3-3-2015 http://dna-explained.com/2015/03/03/sixth-season-who-do-you-think-you-are/
Haplogroup A4 Unpeeled – European, Jewish, Asian and Native American 3-5-2015 http://dna-explained.com/2015/03/05/haplogroup-a4-unpeeled-european-jewish-asian-and-native-american/
Am I Weird – Or What? 3-7-2015 http://dna-explained.com/2015/03/07/am-i-weird-or-what/
New Haplogroup C Native American Subgroups 3-11-2015 http://dna-explained.com/2015/03/11/new-haplogroup-c-native-american-subgroups/
The Legacy of Humor Lives On – aka – Having a Baby in the Back of Bob’s Van 3-24-2015 http://dna-explained.com/2015/03/24/the-legacy-of-humor-lives-on-aka-having-a-baby-in-the-back-of-bobs-van/
Ancestry Gave Me a New DNA Ancestor – And It’s Wrong 4-2-2015 http://dna-explained.com/2015/04/03/ancestry-gave-me-a-new-dna-ancestor-and-its-wrong/
Testing Ancestry’s Amazing “New Ancestor” DNA Claim 4-8-2015 http://dna-explained.com/2015/04/07/testing-ancestrys-amazing-new-ancestor-dna-claim/
Dissecting Ancestry DNA Circles and New Ancestors 4-9-2015 http://dna-explained.com/2015/04/09/dissecting-ancestrydna-circles-and-new-ancestors/
Milestone 5000 4-22-2015 http://dna-explained.com/2015/04/22/milestone-5000/
Segmentology.org by Jim Bartlett 5-12-2015 http://dna-explained.com/2015/05/12/segmentology-org-by-jim-bartlett/
The DNAeXplain 500 – Articles That Is 6-11-2015 http://dna-explained.com/2015/06/11/the-dnaexplain-500-articles-that-is/
Yamnaya, Light Skinned, Brown Eyed….Ancestors? 6-15-2015 http://dna-explained.com/2015/06/15/yamnaya-light-skinned-brown-eyed-ancestors/
DNA Testing Strategy for Adoptees and People With Uncertain Parentage 6-17-205 http://dna-explained.com/2015/06/17/dna-testing-strategy-for-adoptees-and-people-with-uncertain-parentage/

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