Native American Mitochondrial Haplogroups

Today, what I’m sharing with you are my research notes.  If you follow my blogs, you’ll know that I have a fundamental, lifelong interest in Native American people and am mixed blood myself.  I feel that DNA is just one of the pieces of history that can be recovered and has a story to tell, along with early records, cultural artifacts and oral history.

In order to work with Native American DNA, and the various DNA projects that I co-administer, it’s necessary to keep a number of lists and spreadsheets.  This particular list was originally the first or earliest reference or references to a Native American mitochondrial (maternal line) haplogroup where it is identified as Native in academic papers.  I have since added other resources as I’ve come across them.

For those wondering why I’ve listed Mexican, this article speaks to the very high percentage of Native American mitochondrial DNA in the Mexican population.

Please note that while some of these haplogroups are found exclusively among Native American people, others are not and are also found in Europe and/or Asia.  In some cases, branches are exclusively Native.  In other cases, we are still sorting through the differences.  For haplogroups though to be only Native, I have put any other submission information, which is often from Siberia.

I have labeled the major founding haplogroups, as such.  This graphic from the paper, “Beringian Standstill and the Spread of Native American Founders” by Tamm et al, provided the first cumulative view of the mitochondrial Native founder population.

beringia map

Haplogroups A, B, C, D and X are known as Native American haplogroups, although not all subgroups in each main haplogroup are Native, so one has to be more specific.

Normally, you could presume that if haplogroup A2 is Native, for example, that A2a, downstream of A2, would also be Native, but that’s not always true.  For example, A4 is found in Asia.  A2 is a subset of A4, which you wouldn’t expect, and we believe that haplogroup A4a is actually Native.

The lists below are just that, lists.  If you want to see these in tree fashion, you can visit www.mtdnacommunity.org, click on Phylogeny, click on Expand All, then search on A4, for example.

mtdnacommunity a4

Please note that I am adding information from haplogroup projects at Family Tree DNA.  This information is self-reported and should only be utilized with confidence after confirming the accuracy of the information.

Please note that in earlier papers and projects, not all results may have been tested to the full sequence level, so results in base haplogroups, like A and B, for example, may well fall into subclades with additional testing.

The protocol and logic for adding the Anzick results for consideration, along with other evidence is discussed in this article.  In short, for the 12,500 year old Anzick specimen to match any currently living people at relatively high thresholds, meaning 5cM or over, the living individual would likely have to be heavily Native.  Most matches are from Mexico, Central America and South America.  Many mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are subgroups of known Native groups, but never before documented as Native.  Therefore, the protocol I followed for inclusion was any subgroup of haplogroups A, B, C, D, M or X.  Some individuals are unhappy that some haplogroups were among the Anzick results and that I have not removed them at their request, in particular, M23.  To arbitrarily remove a haplogroup listing would be a breach of the protocol I followed.  Research does not always provide what is expected.  I have includes links to notes where appropriate.

Roberta’s Native Mitochondrial DNA Notes

Haplogroup A

A – Cherokee and Huron and PeeDee and Panama and Manitoba and Alaska and Mi’kmaq and Puerto Rico and Mexico and Cuba and Nicaragua and Kuna-Panama and Cree and Chippewa and Guatemaula and Brazil and British Colombia and Honduras and Choctaw found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNAAnzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Costa Rica found in the Haplogroup A4 project at Family Tree DNA

A1 – Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa

A2 is Native, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa, Achilli, 2008, Eskimo – Volodko, 2008, Dogrib – Eskimo – Volodko, 2008, Apache – Volodko, 2008, Mexico and Central America – Eskimo – Volodko, 2008, Apache – Volodko, 2008, Ache and Guarani/Rio-das-Cobras and Katuana and Poturujara and Surui and Waiwai and Yanomama and Zoro – Fagundes 2008, Arsario and Cayapa – Tamm 2007, Kogui – Tamm 2007

A2a and A2b – Paleo Eskimo, identified in only Siberia, Alaska and Natives from the American SW (Achilli 2013),

A2a – Aleut – 2008 Volodko, Eskimo – Volodko, 2008, Apache – Volodko, 2008

Common among Eskimo, Na-Dene and the Chukchis in northeasternmost Siberia, Athabaskan in SW (Achilli 2013), circumpolar Siberia to Greenland, Apache 48%, Navajo 13%

A2ab – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

A2ad – Chitimacha in Louisiana found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA

A2ac – Columbia found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA

A2a2 – Achilli 2013

A2a3 – Achilli 2013, northern North America

A2a4 – Achilli 2013

A2a5 – Achilli 2013

A2ad – second most common A2 subgroup in Panama in same countries as A2af – Perego 2012

A2af – Perego 2012

A2ag – Cui 2013 – British Columbia

A2ah – Ciu 2013 – British Columbia

A2b1 – Achilli 2013

A2c – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

A2c-C64T – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

A2d – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Hispanic – Parsons

A2d1 – Achilli, 2008, El Salvadore found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA

A2d1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

A2d2 – Achilli, 2008

A2e – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

A2f – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

A2f1 – Newfoundland, Pope

A2f1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, New Brunswick and Chippewa and Nova Scotia and Ojibwa and Mi’kmaq found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA, Mi’kmaq found in the Haplogroup A2 project at Family Tree DNA

A2g – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Hispanic – Parsons, Mexico – Kumar and Behar, Iberia – Hartman, Guatemala found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA

A2g1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Hispanic – Parsons, Mexico – Kumar, Asia – Hernstadt

A2h – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Yanomama – Fagundez, Kogui – Tamm, Columbia – Rieux

A2h1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Mexico – Kumar and Behar, Mexico found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA

A2i – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

A2j – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Hispanic – Parsons

A2j1 – Achilli, 2008, Hispanic – Parsons

A2k – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Hispanic – Parsons

A2k1 – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Hispanic – Parsons, Wayuu – Tamm, Mexico – FTDNA, Puerto Rico found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA

A2l – Mexico found in the Haplogroup A2 project at Family Tree DNA

A2n – Canada – Achili and Behar

A2p – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Cayapa – Tamm, Mexico found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA

A2q – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Mexico found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA

A2r – Mixteca-B – Mishmar, Guatemala – FTDNA

A2u – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Guatemala found in the Haplogroup A2 project at Family Tree DNA

A2t – Mexico – Kumar

A2u – Guatemala found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA

A2v – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Guatemala found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA

A2w – Hispanic – Parsons, Arsario – Tamm, Mexico – Kumar, Colombia – Rieux, Caymens found in the Haplogroup A2 project at Family Tree DNA

A2w1 – Colombia – FTDNA, Cayman Islands – FTDNA, Mexico – Zheng, Panama – Rieux

A2z – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

A2-C64T – Cuba and Guatemaula and Choctaw found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA, New Brunswick found in the Haplogroup A2 project at Family Tree DNA

A2-C64&-A189G – Menominee in Wisconsin found in the Haplogroup A project at Family Tree DNA

A4 –  Kumar 2011 – Siberian founder of A2, not found in Americas, Poland and Romania found in the Haplogroup A4 project at Family Tree DNA

A4a – Kumar 2011 – Siberian founder of A2, not found in Americas

A4b – Kumar 2011 – Siberian founder of A2, not found in Americas, UK found in the Haplogroup A4 project at Family Tree DNA

A4c – Kumar 2011 – Siberian founder of A2, not found in Americas

Haplogroup B

B – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B1 – Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

B2 is Native, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, 2007 Tamm, Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa, Quecha and Ache and Gaviao and Guarani/Rio-das-Cobras and Kayapo-Dubemkokre and Katuena and Pomo and Waiwai and Xavante and Yanomama – Fagundes 2008, Mexican American – Kumar 2011, Cayapa and Coreguaje and Ngoebe and Waunana and Wayuu and Coreguaje – Tamm 2007, Pima – Ingman 2000, Native American – Mishmar 2003, Columbian and Mayan – Kivisild 2006, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Columbia – Hartman, Yaqui – FTDNA, shown with European and Mexican and South American entry in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B21 – found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade, Goncalves 2013

B2a –  Achilli 2008 and 2013, just to the south of A2a, widespread in SW and found in one Chippewa clan, one Tsimshian in Canada and tribes indigenous to the SW, Mexico, possibly Bella Coola and Ojibwa, evolved in North America, found with Mexican entry and descended from Dorothee Metchiperouata b.c.1695 (Illinois) in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B2a1 – Achilli 2008 and 2013, Hispanic – Parsons, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B2a1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Hispanic – Parsons, Asia – Herrnstadt, Achilli 2008

B2a1a1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B2a2 – Achilli 2013, Hispanic – Parsons, Asia – Herrnstadt, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B2a3 – Achilli 2013

B2a4 – Achilli 2013, widespread in north central Mexico and US SW

B2a5 – Achilli 2013, restricted to the Yuman (5%) and Uto-Aztecan Pima and Papago from Arizona (7%)

B2b – Achilli, 2008, Yanomama, Pomo, Xavante, Kayapo – Fagundes, Cayapa – Tamm, shown in Mexico and South America in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B2b2 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

B2c – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Hispanic – Parsons, Asia – Herrnstadt

B2c1 – Achilli, 2008, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B2c2a – shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B2c2b – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B2d – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, N America – Mishmar, Ngoebe, Wayuu – Tamm, shown in South America in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B2e – Waiwai – Fagundes

B2f – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Mexico – Kumar, Chile – FTDNA, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B2g – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B2g1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B2k – Mexico – Kumar, Venezuela – Gomez-Carballa

B2-T16211C! – shown in Mexico in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B4 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

B4a1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

B4a1a1 – found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade.  This haplogroup is found in 20% of the mtDNA of Madagascar. Goncalves 2013, Polynesian motif

B4a1a1a – found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade.  This haplogroup is found in 20% of the mtDNA of Madagascar. Goncalves 2013, Polynesian motif

B4a1b1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

B4b – 2007 Tamm

B4bd – 2007 Tamm

B4f1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

B4’5 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, shown as European and East Asian and Mexican and South America and Nicaragua and Guatemaula and Cuba and Pacific Islands and identified as Ho-Chunk and descended from Pistikiokonay Pushmataha, b. 1766 (Choctaw) and Eastern Cherokee and Chickasaw and Creek in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA

B5b2a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

B5b3 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

Haplogroup C

C – Cherokee East and Mexico and Turkey and Puerto Rico and Ecuador and Argentina and Poland and Canada in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C1 is Native – 2008 Achilli, 2007 Tamm, Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa

C1 – Kumar 2011, Poturujara – Fagundes 2008, Arara do Laranjal and Quechua and Yanomama and Waiwai and Zoro – Fagundes 2008, Native American – Mishmar 2003, Warao – Ingman 2000

C1a – Kumar 2011, Ulchi – Starikovskaya, Siberia – Derenko, Nanaitci – Ingham_gyll

C1b, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, Wayuu – 2007 Tamm, Mexican American – Kumar 2011, Quechua and Zoro and Arara and Poturujara – Fagundes 2008, Peru – Tito, Colombia – Zheng, Samish on Guemes Island and Fidalgo Island, British Columbia, American Indian DNA Project, 2014,

C1b1 – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Mexico – Kumar, N America – Mishmar,

C1b2 – Hispanic – Parsons, Puerto Rico – FTDNA, Peru – Tito, Asia – Herrnstadt

C1b3 – Hispanic – Parsons, Peru – Tito

C1b4 – Hispanic – Parsons

C1b5 – Mexican – Kumar

C1b5a – Hispanic – Parsons, Mexican – Kumar

C1b6 – Yanomama – Fagundes

C1b7 – Mexican – Kumar

C1b7a – Mexican – Kumar

C1b8 – Mexican – Kumar

C1b8a – Mexican – Kumar

C1b9 – Mexican – Kumar

C1b10 – Mexican – Kumar

C1b11 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Pima, Mexico – Hartman, Mexico – Kumar, Mexico – Zheng

C1b12 – Mexico – Kumar

C1b13 – found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade, Goncalves 2013, Chilean and Kolla – de Saint Pierre

C1b13a – Huilliche and Chilean – de Saint Pierre

C1b13a1 – Huilliche and Chilean – de Saint Pierre

C1b13b – Huilliche, Chilean and Spain – de Saint Pierre

C1b13c – Mapuche and Chilean – de Saint Pierre

C1b13c1 – Chilean and Penuenche – de Saint Pierre

C1b13d – Chilean – de Saint Pierre

C1b13e – Chilean – de Saint Pierre

C1b14 – Mexico – Kumar

C1b2 – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Puerto Rico and Taino in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C1b2a – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

C1b3 – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

C1b – Mexico and Ecuador in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C1b1 – Mexico in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C1b2 – Puerto Rico in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C1b4 – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Puerto Rico in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C1b5 – Achilli, 2008

C1b7 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

C1b11 – Mexico in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C1ba – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

C1c, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, Kogui nd Arsario – 2007 Tamm, Mexican American – Kumar 2011, Kogui – Tamm 2007, Hispanic – Parsons, Canada – Achilli, Canada – Behar, Cherokee and Cuba in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C1c1 – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

C1c1a – Asia – Herrnstadt, Pima, Mexico – Hartman and Lippold, Mexico – Zheng

C1c1b – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Mexico and USA – Behar, Mexico in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C1c2 – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, HIspanic – Parsons, Mexico – Kumar, Cuba – FTDNA

C1c3 – Arsario and Kogui – Tamm, Columbia Behar and Rieux

C1c4 – Doiminica – Bravi, Mexico – Kumar

C1c5 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Hispanic – Parsons, Mexico – Kumar, Pima – Lippold, Mexico – Zheng, Mexico in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C1c6 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Mexico – Kumar and Behar, Hispanic – Just

C1c7 – Mexico – Kumar

C1c8 – USA – Achilli

C1d, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, Coreguaje – 2007 Tamm, Tamaulipas and Guanajuato and Chihuahua and Kolla-Salta and Buenos Aires and Boyacá, Colombia and Mexico – Perego 2010, Mexican American – Kumar 2011

C1d-C194T – Mexico, and Argentina and Columbia – Perego,

C1d1 – Indman 2000, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Lima, Peru and Buenos Aires and Loreta, Peru and Imbabura, Ecuador and Mestizos in Colombia and Minas Gerais, Brazil and Cajamarca, Peru and Huanucu,Peru and Puca Puca, Peru and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil and Chaco, Paraguay and Kolla-Salta and Piura, Peru and Huancavelica, Peru and Corrientes and Los Lagos, Chile and Oklahoma and Kuna Yala, Panama and Darien, Panama and Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua and Eduador and Uruguay and Nicaragua – Perego 2010, Fagundes 2008, Tamm, 2007, Coreguaje – Tamm, Warao – Ingman, American – Kivisild, Hispanic – Parsons, Brazil – Rieux

C1d1a – Sonora and Mexico – Perego 2010

C1d1a1 – Oklahoma and Montana and Quebec and Zacatecas – Perego 2010, Canada-Cree – Rieux

C1d1b – Argentina and Kolla-Salta and Diaguita-Catamarca and Buenos Aires and Rio negro and Corrientes and Flores, Uruguay – Perego 2011

C1d1b1 – Argentina – Perego

C1d1c – Oaxaca and Mexico – Perego 2010

C1d1c1 – Just 2008, Texas and Michigan – Perego 2010, Kumar 2011, Hispanic – Parsons, Mexican – Kumar

C1d1d – Buenos Aires and Rio Grande do Sul, Brzil and Uruguay and Argentina – Perego 2010, Coreguaje – Tamm

C1d1e – Bio-Bio, Chile and Rio Negro – perego 2010

C1d2 – Mestizos in Colambia – Perego 2010

C1d2a – Mestizos in Colombia – Perego 2010

C1d3 – Uruguay – Sans

C2 – Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa

C2b – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

C4 – 2007 Tamm

C4a – Native American and Siberian, Kumar 2011

C4a1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Buryat and Eleeut – Derenko, India and Russia and Turkey – FTDNA, India in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C4b – Kumar 2011

C4c, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, 2007 Tamm – found in only 2 samples, an Ijka sample from South America and a Shuswap speaker from North America, Suswap Speaker, North America – Malhi 2010 (Suswap is now C4c1)

C4c1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Suswap – Malhi, N American – Kashani

C4c1a – North American – Kashani, Cherokee in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA

C4c1b – North American – Kashani

C4c2 – North American – Kashani

C4e – Uika – Tamm 2007, Shor and Teleut – Derenko

Haplogroup D

D – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Choctaw and Korea and Japan and Mexico and Venezuela found in the Haplogroup D project at Family Tree DNA

D1 is Native, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, Coreguaje – 2007 Tamm, Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa, Mexican American – Kumar 2011, North American – Henstadt 2008 and Achilli 2008, Katuena and Poturujara and Surui and Tiryo and Waiwai and Zoro andGaviao and Guarani/Rio-das-Cobras  – Fagundes 2008, Guarani – Ingman 2000, Native American – Mishmar 2003, Guarani and Brazilian and Que Chia and Pima Indian – Kivisild 2006, British Colombia found in the Haplogroup D project at Family Tree DNA

D1a – Achilli, 2008

D1a1a1 – Aleut – 2008 Volodko

D1b – Achilli, 2008

D1c – Achilli, 2008

D1d – Achilli, 2008, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

D1f – Kumar 2011

D1g – found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade, Goncalves 2013

D2 – Aleut, Commander Islands and Eskimo, Siberia – 2002 Derbeneva, 2007 Tamm, Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa, Tlingit, Commander Island – Volodko 2008,

D2a – NaDene – 2002 Derbeneva, 2008 Achilli, Eskimo in Siberia – Tamm 2007

D2a1 – among Aleut Islanders and northernmost Eskimos

D2a1a – Aleut – 2008 Volodko

D2a1a – Commander Islands – 2008 Volodko (100%)

D2a2 – Chukchi – Derenko, Ingman, Tamm and Volodko, Eskimo – Tamm and Volodko, Siberia – Derbeneva

D2b – 2007 Tamm, Aleut 2002 Derbeneva, Russia – Derenko

D2c – Eskimo – 2002 Derbeneva

D3 – Inuit – 2008 Achilli, 2007 Tamm

D3a2a – Greenland – 2008 Volodko

D3a2a – Canada – 2008 Volodko

D4 – 2007 Tamm

D4e1 – Mexican American – Kumar 2011

D4e1c – Kumar 2011 – found in Mexican Americans (2 sequences only)

D4g1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

D4h1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

D4h1a1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

D4h1a2 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

D4h3, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, 2007 Tamm

D4h3a – Mexican American – Kumar 2011, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

D4h3a7 – Ciu 2013 – British Columbia – may be extinct

D5a2a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

D5b1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

Haplogroup M

M – discovered in prehistoric sites, China Lake, British Columbia – 2007 Malhi, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

M1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

M1a1e – USA – Olivieri, many Eurasian in Genbank

M1b1 – Anzick Pr ovisional Extract, Estes 2014

M23 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Madagascar – Recaut and Debut, Madagascar Motif

M3 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

M30c – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

M51 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

M5b3e – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

M7b1’2 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

M9a3a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

Haplogroup X

X is a founding lineage – found in ancient DNA Washington State –  2002 Malhi, 2007 Tamm, Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

X2 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

X2a is Native, Beringian Founder Haplogroup  – 2008 Achilli, 2007 Tamm, 2000 Schurr, Newfoundland found in the Haplogroup X project at Family Tree DNA

X2a1 – Chippewa – Fagundes, Ojibwa – Achilli and Perego, Canadian Ojibwa – Rieux

X2a1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Sioux and USA – Perego

X2a1a1 – Jemez and Siouian – Fagundes

X2a1b – W Chippewa – Fagundes, USA and Obijwa – Perego

X2a1b1 – USA – Perego

X2a1b1a – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, W Chippewa and Chippewa – Fagundes

X2a1c – W Chippewa – Fagundes, USA – Perego

X2a2 – Navajo – Mishmar, USA – Perego

X2b is European – note that 2008 Fagundes removed a sample from their analysis because they believed X2b was indeed European not X2a Native

X2b-T225C – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

X2b3 – America – Kivisild

X2c2 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

X2d – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

X2e1 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014, Behar notes two submissions at mtdnacommunity that are likely European

X2e2 – Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes 2014

X2g – identified in single Ojibwa subject – Achilli 2013, Obijwa – Perego

X2e – Altai people, may have arrived from Caucus in last 5000 years

X6 – found in the Tarahumara and Huichol of Mexico, 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa

MtDNA References

Reconciling migration models to the Americas with the variation of North American native mitogenomes, Alessandro Achjilli et al, PNAS Aug. 2013, http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/08/08/1306290110.full.pdf+html

The Phylogeny of the Four Pan-American MtDNA Haplogroups: Implications for Evolutionary and Disease Studies, Achilli et al, PLOS, March 2008,

http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0001764

Mitochondrial genome diversity in arctic Siberians with particular reference to the evolutionary history of Beringia and Pleistocenic peopling of the Americans, Natalia Volodko, et al, American Journal of Human Genetics, June 2008  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18452887

Decrypting the Mitochondrial Gene Pool of Modern Panamanians, Ugo Perrego, et al, PLOS One, June 2012, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0038337

Ancient DNA Analysis of Mid-Holocene Individuals from the Northwest Coast of North America Reveals Different Evolutionary Paths for Mitogenomes, Yinqui Ciu et al, PLOS One, July 2013  http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0066948

Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Fuonders, Erika Tamm et al, PLOS One, September 2007, http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000829

Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in the Aleuts of the Commander Islands and Its Implications for the Genetic History of Beringia, Olga Derbeneva et al, American Journal of Human Genetics, June 2002, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC379174/

Mitochondrial haplogroup M discovered in prehistoric North Americans, Ripan Malhi et al, Journal of Archaeological Science 34 (2007), http://public.wsu.edu/~bmkemp/publications/pubs/Malhi_et_al_2007.pdf

Brief Communication: Haplogroup X Confirmed in Prehistoric North America, Ripan Malhi et al, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2002, http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/34275/10106_ftp.pdf

Mitochondrial DNA and the Peopling of the New World, Theodore Schurr, American Scientist, 2000, http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~tgschurr/pdf/Am%20Sci%20Article%202000.pdf

A Reevaluation of the Native American MtDNA Genome Diverstiy and Its Bearing on the Models of Early colonization of Beringia, Fagundes et al, PLOS One, Sept. 2008, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0003157

High Resolution SNPs and Microsatellite Haplotypes Point to a Single, Recent Entry of native American Y Chromosomes into the Americas, Zegura et al, Oxford Journals, 2003, http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/1/164.full.pdf

Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins, Kumar et al, Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology, October 2011, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/293

Mitochondiral genome variation and the origin of modern humans, Ingman et al, Natuer 2000, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v408/n6813/full/408708a0.html

Characterization of mtDNA Haplogroups in 14 Mexican Indigenous Populations, Human Biology, 2007

Achilli A, Perego UA, Bravi CM, Coble MD, et al. (2008) The Phylogeny of the Four Pan-American MtDNA Haplogroups: Implications for Evolutionary and Disease Studies. PLoS ONE 3(3): e1764. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001764 http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0001764

Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins, Kumar et al, 2011, Evolutionary Biology, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/293/

Identification of Polynesian mtDNA haplogroup in remains of Botocudo Americndians from Brazil, Goncalves et al, 2013, PNAS  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3631640/

Updated September 26, 2014
Updated December 6, 2014 – Anzick data
Updated December 7, 2014 – GenBank submissions utilizing Ian Logan’s GenBank by Haplogroup Program and Haplogroup A, A2, A4, B, C, D, M and X projects at Family Tree DNA

Please note that submissions styled with the researcher’s surname and no paper date, such as “Chippewa – Perego” are from GenBank submissions and are listed as recorded at GenBank.

42 thoughts on “Native American Mitochondrial Haplogroups

  1. My paternal aunt ordered her mtDNAPlus and the haplogroup came back as X. What would be the most economical followup to determine her subgroup? Will the FMS test provide it, or should I direct her to Geno 2.0 or 23andMe?

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  5. I am wondering about mt-haplogroup A2e. It is not on this list. Family Tree has identified my father’s mt-dna as being of this group. How can I find out more about it? There seems to be very little available with one forum stating that it has been found among the Tarahumara of northern Mexico and also a small tribe in northern South America.

  6. Oh, now we are talking! c1d as Kolla makes sense. I had no idea that this tribe was found in Buenos Aires. I would have always located it in Salta or Jujuy (the northern tip of Argentina). This makes more sense to me than the DPLM world 22 results. Thanks!

  7. Pingback: Updated Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  8. Pingback: Updated Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups | Native Heritage Project

  9. Roberta, Thanks for putting together this list. If I understand correctly, you have removed those haplogroups which have been determined to have been European or Asian in origin? Perhaps I’m not understanding the list correctly, but according to this paper haplogroup M23 is specific to Madagascar, and not a Native American haplogroup. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/10/605

    Do you have something that would show that this haplogroup is found in Native Americans? Thanks for your help!

    • I didn’t remove anything. This is my personal list of working notes about Native haplogroups. All of the haplogroups fall into the normal A, B, C, D or X with the addition of M because M was found in a burial. That burial was early, and cannot be resequenced, unfortunately. So we don’t know for sure if M is Native or not, although there are other suggestions. In any case, when I found any evidence or hints suggesting that any of these subgroups might be Native, I’ve included the information so that people can go and check for themselves. The Madagascar haplogroup isn’t the only one either. There are Polynesian ones as well that are found among at least one of the mountain tribes, plus some that are found in multiple locations. There have been suggestions of Polynesian admixture in the Native people as well. The Madagascar mtDNA could have gotten there through slavery, although there weren’t a lot of slaves imported from Madagascar. Given that it was found in the closest Anzick matches, I listed it. That it not to imply that it is confirmed Native. None of the M’s are confirmed at all, but they did all have to get into the part of the world somehow. This list is meant to be a working tool. If someone is working with results they think may be Native, within these haplogroups, these are the ones that have any context of Native association at all, at least that I’ve found. Some of these may beg the question, eventually, of what is Native. If a haplogroup is found among a Native tribes or Native people and also elsewhere, it is Native in that context? Is it Native if it helps to identify Native people. Or is it only Native if it’s not found among any other groups?

      • As far as I know, what little I know about the Malagasy slaves, they were brought over to eastern Africa, not directly to the USA. Unfortunately that’s all I know about them, so I wouldn’t know either how Malagasy would’ve made it to Brazil, but even more strangely and highly unlikely are Polynesians making their way to Brazil. We already knew of the technological exchange among the south American indians and Polynesians as evidence of the kumara. But that same paper I provided a link to does go into more detail of the possibilities of how Polynesians could’ve settled in the Americas but also how there is no other evidence of it.

  10. Regarding the B4a1a1 Polynesian motif. A full sequencing test was never done on the Botocudo skulls. They only sequenced HVR1, HVR2 and typed specific mutations on the coding region, and it looks like just 6719C, 15746G, 14022G and 12239T. These specific mutations on the coding region not only exists in my own mtDNA results (I’m a subgroup of the Poly motif) but so does my friend’s who is identified as having the MALAGASY motif. The paper already mentioned how the last scenario of how these two skulls could’ve come back with such a haplogroup is possibly through the slave trade.

    In reality they say that out of the 14 skulls there is evidence of two skulls having Polynesian mtDNA haplogroups, not that they were Polynesians themselves.

    http://www.pnas.org/content/110/16/6465.abstract

    • Those skulls were very interesting. Too bad they can’t be fully sequenced. Did you know Georgia and Tom Bopp. They worked on this motif very early on. This begs the question of when that Polynesian mtDNA was integrated into the Native community, and how. It could have been there for a long time. There seem to be a lot of haplogroups that are relatively rare or not much testing has been done in the those areas.

      • I wish there were more studies on these skulls. It is interesting though, I do admit that.

        I never got to know Tom but have spoken to Georgia on two occasions and she handed me both of the Hawaii projects about 3 or 4 weeks ago actually.

      • And Georgia did explain why they included at least one woman who had the Malagasy motif, and now another woman of whom I got to know that has the malagasy motif.

      • I joined the project (right after I got my mtDNA results) it was a few months after Tom’s passing. I was very fortunate to get to know Georgia as she told me about these early years and with everyone. I got a dose of good history of FTDNA and how it started. I’m very glad I got to learn about all of that too, which to me is important.

        And thanks for making a note of that.

  11. To help eliminate confusion, I’ve added a notation that indicates which of the base haplogroups were the founder haplogroups, along with a graphic from the Tamm paper that illustrates the haplogroup movement.

    • The Claiborne County survey books are available on microfilm through the Family History Center of the Mormon Church. What I did was to order the film and read every page. There is no index, plus you may find your ancestor’s land referenced and draw on another person’s survey.

  12. Roberta Estes, I’ve checked with several genetic genealogist to get further clarification about the M23 haplogroup since it is the haplogroup of my maternal 2nd great-grandmother. I did go back and asked Dr. Claudio Bravi about the M23 haplogroup as he researched M23 and other Malagasy motif haplogroups like B41a1a. His response was :

    Hi Teresa,

    I´ve been researching Native American DNA since 1993, so far nobody has claimed M23 as of local American origen.
    Yes, M23 seems to be restricted to Madagascar and places related through enslaving, i.e. Mauritius, Reunion, Comores, South Africa, St Helen, the Americas, etc. However, since Madagascar was populated from both East Africa and South East Asia, there are no truly “native” Malagasy mtDNAs: all of them trace their roots elsewhere in shallow temporal depths, perhaps 2000 years. So, sooner or later somebody is going to find the Asian source of M23 elsewhere. Borneo may be?

    You may find M23 and other “Malagasy” mtDNAs in those Native Americans that use to held African Americans, like Cherokees, Seminoles, etc. In any case, M23 is rather recently arrived to the Americas. Besides, the expectation is to find almost no diversity in complete M23 sequences, a further proof of their close relatedness and shallow time depth (they derive from rather “recent” common ancestor).”

    Best,
    Claudio

    By the way, my own Malagasy ancestors arrived in NYC , a place where Madagascar slaves landed between 1678-1698 and 1716-1721. This has been well-documented. All 5 of my known M23 cousins have been DNA tested and show SE Asian ancestry as do myself and other relatives who share the same 2nd great-grandmother.

    I would be interested in hearing your response to TL Dixon questions above as I am at a loss as to how you designated M23 as being as being Native American haplogroup. I would appreciate it greatly if you could get back to us. I consider this urgent as I do not want people to be mislead into thinking that M23 is a Native American haplogroup when it is clearly not one. I look forward to hearing from you.

    • If you will take a look at the verbiage for the posting, you will see what I did was to post any finding about haplogroups A, B, C, D, M or X that suggest there may be Native ancestry, with the source. This does not mean every one of the haplogroups, especially subhaplogroups, is confirmed to be Native. Some only have one reference of being found in Mexico, for example, which does not MEAN they are Native but it’s a piece of evidence that can be used to determine Native haplogroups, in conjunction with other evidence. The confirmed haplogroups are noted as founder haplogroups with links to the paper.

  13. Question: I have 4 Native American matches with HVR1 & HVR2 and 1 Native America match with 1 distance of the HVR1 & 2 & coding. Yet my mtdna shows as K1c1 with Family Tree DNA. Could my mother’s ancestors have a tiny bit of Native Amer. MTDNA? Thanks and I love your posts and website. GLK

  14. mtDNA – Ancestral Origins shows a match with 5 USA (Native American) of HVA1 2. and 2 matches for HVA1 & 2 with coding that staes match with 2 USA (Native American) with 1 distance.
    On my mother’s line which is Hungarian/Italian/French/German but surnames only go back about 3 generations but there is a very small East Asian/Native American % from 23 & me 0.1% I don’t know how to contact the 5 & 2 USA (Native Amer.) matches individually as it just gives the place or area. Thanks so much for your thoughts.
    Any further info is always welcome. Gerald Kisabeth

    • The Ancestral origins is what people fill in for that line. People get very confused. If there Native believed to be in the mother’s line, whether it’s in the direct matrilineal line or not, they put Native sometimes, even though the instructions are explicit. So, always take that with a grain of salt unless the haplogroup is indeed Native.

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