Proving Native American Ancestry Using DNA

Every day, I receive e-mails very similar to this one.

“My family has always said that we were part Native American.  I want to prove this so that I can receive help with money for college.”

The reasons vary, and not everyone wants to prove their heritage in order to qualify for some type of assistance.  Some want to find their tribe and join to reclaim their lost heritage.  Some want to honor their persecuted and hidden ancestors, undoing some of the wickedness of the past, and some simply seek the truth.  Regardless of why, they are all searching for information lost to them.

I’d like to talk about three topics in proving Native Ancestry.  First, I’d like to do some myth-busting.  Second, I’d like to talk a little about conventional research and third, I’d like to discuss what DNA can, and can’t, do for you.

As you read this blog, please click on the links.  I’m not going to repeat something I’ve already covered elsewhere.


Myth 1 – Free College

There is no free college for Native Americans.  There are sometimes scholarships and grants available, mostly by the individual tribes themselves, for their official members.

Myth 2 – Joining a Tribe

Many people think that if they can only figure out which tribe their ancestor descends from, they can join.  This is untrue.  Each tribe is a sovereign nation, and they get to determine their criteria for membership.  Most tribes require a specific percentage of Native “blood,” called blood quantum, in addition to being able to document which tribal member you descend from.  Some tribes require as much as 25% Native heritage, and most require at least 1/16th Native heritage, which is one great-great grandparent.  If you don’t know who in your family was a tribal member it’s unlikely that you would be able to meet the blood quantum requirement.

Myth 3 – DNA Testing Will Reveal my Tribe

Generally, DNA testing does not provide us with the information needed to determine a tribe, although it can clearly tell, using y-line or mitochondrial DNA testing, whether your direct paternal or maternal line was or was not Native.  Sometimes you will be able to infer a tribe based on your matches and their documented history, but the definition of tribes, their names and locations have changed over time.  We are working on improving this ability, but the science simply isn’t there yet and the number of Native people who have tested remains small.

Simply put, most federally recognized tribes aren’t interested in more tribal members.  More members mean a smaller piece of the pie for existing members.  The pot of resources, whatever resources you’re discussing, is only so large and it must be shared by all tribal members.

What is a Tribe?

Tribes in the US fall into two categories.  When most people think about tribes they are talking about federally recognized tribes.  Those are tribes that have some continuity with the past, such as they have always been a tribe, or they still retain tribal lands, etc., and the federal government recognizes them as such.  These are the tribes that qualify for government programs and many own casinos.  As you might imagine, with the influx of casino money, the desire to join a tribe has increased significantly.

The second category is non-federally recognized tribes.  Some are state recognized and others, not at all.  State recognition does not in any way guarantee federal or state funding and there are no universal standards for state recognition.  In other words, your mileage may vary, widely.  Non-federally recognized tribes are often run as non-profit entities.  In many cases, these tribes will help people research and document their genealogy and may be more open to tribal membership for those connecting with their Native heritage.

Be aware that some “tribes” that fall into the non-federally funded category may be less than ethical.  Some tend to come and go.  In one case, to apply to join, one had to provide information such as social security numbers and a complete family pedigree including your children. In some cases, membership is very expensive, hundreds of dollars, but is available to almost anyone for the right price.  When evaluating tribes that are not federally recognized, if something sounds fishy, it probably is.  Caution is the watchword.

In general, the federally recognized tribes do not feel kindly towards the non-federally recognized tribes and view them as “fake,” interlopers trying to get part of that pie.  Of course, the non-federally recognized tribes feel differently; that they are reclaiming their heritage denied them.  Native American politics is nothing new and is fraught with landmines.

No federally recognized tribes, to the best of my knowledge, have considered DNA testing as a criteria for membership.  No federally recognized tribe has endorsed or participated in DNA testing that I’m aware of.  This does not mean that individuals have not privately tested.

Traditional Genealogy Research

Given the criteria for membership in federally recognized tribes, traditional genealogy is the only way to obtain the type of information required.  If your family history includes a tribal name, and east of the Mississippi, that most often is Cherokee, contact the various Cherokee tribes to inquire about membership criteria.  If the membership criteria is 25% blood quantum, and you must live on the reservation, you’re toast… need to continue that line of research if your goal is to join the tribe.

If your goal is simply to find your Native ancestor, that’s another matter entirely.  Begin by using the traditional research tools.

First, look at where your ancestor or that family line was located.  Did they migrate from elsewhere?  How were they listed in the census?  Was someone listed as other than white, indicating mixed race?  Check the records where they lived, tax records and others to see if there is any indication of non-European heritage.  Remember that your non-white ancestor would have retained their “darker” countenance for at least 2 generations after being admixed.  Many Native people were admixed very early.

So first, check the normal genealogy records and look for hints and traces of non-European ancestry.

Second, turn to Native resources that might reflect the Native people in the areas where your family is or was found.  The Access Genealogy site is absolutely wonderful and has an amazingly complete set of records including searchable tribal rolls.  In addition, I add information almost daily to the Native Heritage Project at, which is searchable.  There are many more resources including several collections at

Hopefully, these records will help narrow your focus in your family tree to a particular person or two, not just a general branch.  Family rumors like “Grandma was a Cherokee Princess” are particularly unuseful.  What they more likely mean is that there was indeed some Native ancestry someplace in her line.  Cherokee has become a generic word like Kleenex.  It may also have meant that Indian heritage was claimed to cover much less desirable African heritage.  Institutionalized discrimination existed against any people of color in pre-1967 America, but Indians generally retained some rights that people of African ancestry did not.  Laws varied by state and time.  Take a look at my blog about Anti-Miscegenation Laws and when they were overturned.

Now, let’s look at DNA testing to see what it can do for you.

DNA Testing to Prove Native Ancestry

There are three types of DNA testing that you can do to prove Native Ancestry.  Two are very focused on specific family lines, and one is much more general.

  • Mitochondrial for your direct maternal line.
  • Y-line for your direct paternal line – if you are a male. Sorry ladies.
  • Autosomal to test your ethnic mix and one direct marker test for Native ancestors.

On a pedigree chart, these genealogical lines look like this:

adopted pedigree

You can see the path that the blue Y chromosome takes down the paternal line to the brother and the path the red mitochondrial DNA takes down the maternal line to both the brother and the sister.  Autosomal tests the DNA of all of the 16 ancestral lines shown here, but in a different sort of way.

Let’s look at each type of testing separately.

Y-Line DNA – For Paternal Line Testing for Males

The Y-line testing tests the Y chromosome which is passed intact from father to son with no DNA from the mother. This is the blue square on the pedigree chart. In this way, it remains the same in each generation, allowing us to compare it to others with a similar surname to see if we are from the same “Smith” family, for example, or to others with different surnames, in the case of adoption or Native heritage.  Native American genetics isn’t terribly different than adoptees in this situation, because different English surnames were adopted by various family members, into the late 1800s and sometimes into the early 1900s, depending on the location.

Y-line DNA can tell you whether or not you descend from a common male genealogically when compared to another testing participant.  Small mutations do take place and accumulate over time, and we depend on those so that we don’t all “look alike” genetically.  It can also tell you by identifying your deep ancestral clan, called a haplogroup, whether or not you descend from early Native Americans who were here before contact with Europeans.  For that matter, it can also tell you if you descend from those of African, European or Asian ancestry.

Scientists know today that there are only two primary haplogroups indicating deep ancestry that are found among Native American males who were here prior to contact with Indo-Europeans, and those haplogroups are C and Q3.  It is not accurate to say that all C and Q3 individuals exist only in the American Native population, but the American Native population is part of the larger group worldwide that comprises C and Q3.  We find some haplogroup C and Q3 in Europe but none in African populations, although we do learn more every single day in this infant science.

This sometimes becomes confusing, because the single most common male haplogroup among current Cherokee tribal members who have tested is R1b.  How can this be, you ask?  Clearly, one of three possibilities exists:

  1. The Cherokee (or those tribes who were assimilated into the Cherokee) adopted a European male into the tribe or a European male fathered a child that was subsequently raised as Cherokee.
  2. The R1b ancestor was not adopted into the tribe, maintained their European/American identity but married a Cherokee individual woman and their descendants are recognized as Cherokee today.
  3. There is some level of R1b admixture in the Native population that preceded contact with Europeans that we have not yet identified.

Because of the unique haplogroups for Native Americans who preceded European contact, Y-line is the only way to positively confirm that a specific line is or is not of Native American descent.  This obviously applies to all of the individuals in the pedigree chart who directly descend from the oldest known ancestor in this paternal line.

Y-line testing does not indicate anything about the contributions of the other ancestors in this family tree.  In other words, you could be 3/4th Native, with only the direct paternal line being European, and this test would tell you nothing at all about those other three Native lines.

When ordering DNA tests at Family Tree DNA, which is where I recommend that you test, everyone is encouraged to join projects.  There are several types of projects, but to begin with, you should join your surname project.  Not only does this group you with others whom you are likely to match, but this also assures that you receive the project based discounts.  I blogged about how to find and join relevant projects.

You can test at 12, 25, 37, 67 or 111 marker “locations” on the Y chromosome. I generally recommend 37 or 67 to begin which gives you enough to work with but isn’t terribly expensive.  At Family Tree DNA, you can always upgrade later, but it’s less expensive in total to test more initially.  Right now, 37 markers cost $119 and 67 markers are $199, but a sale is currently underway.

After your results are returned, you can then upload or manually enter your results at (upload directly from your Family Tree DNA matches page), and You can then check for matches at these sites as well. Not all of these other sites test as many markers as Family Tree DNA, but the comparison is free and useful.  Even if your haplogroup is not Native American, you may match others with a similar heritage story for their paternal line.

Family Tree DNA also provides significant tools for Y-line DNA as well as Mitochondrial DNA. You can see both Family Tree and Ancestry Y-line results compared on this blog, which shows you how to use both companies’ tools. At Family Tree DNA, for all their tests, you are provided with the e-mail addresses of your matches. At Ancestry and 23andMe, you contact matches through their internal message system. My experience has been that direct e-mails have a better response rate.

The person looking for Native Heritage will be most interested in their haplogroup designation.  If your haplogroup is either Q or C, you’ll want to join your haplogroup project, minimally, as well as other relevant Native American projects, and work with the administrators for further testing.  Remember, neither haplogroup Q nor C are always Native, so deeper testing may be in order.  You may also match others with confirmed Native heritage, including a tribe.

If the haplogroup is not Native, then you’ll have to take a look at possible reasons why.

One can never interpret non-Native haplogroup results of any one line to answer the much broader questions of, “do I have Native heritage”, “how much” and “where?”  What you can do at that point is to continue to test other lines in order to discover the identity of your Native American ancestor.

Obviously, the Y-line test is only for males. Ladies, I feel your pain. However, these next tests are for both sexes.

Mitochondrial DNA – For Direct Maternal Line Testing for Both Sexes

Mitochondrial DNA is inherited by all children from their mother only, with no admixture from the father. Women obtain their mitochondrial DNA from their mother, who got it from their mother, on up the line into infinity. This is the red circle on the right hand side of the pedigree chart. Like Y-line DNA, mitochondrial DNA is passed intact from one generation to the next, except for an occasional mutation that allows us to identify family members and family lines.

Unfortunately, it does not follow any surname. In fact the surname changes with every generation when women marry. This makes it more challenging to work with genealogically, but certainly not impossible. Because of the surname changes in every generation, there are no “surname” projects for mitochondrial DNA, per se, but there are other types of projects.  For example, the Mothers of Acadia project is using mitochondrial DNA to reconstruct the Acadian families including those of Native American heritage.

There are three levels of testing you can take for mitochondrial DNA at Family Tree DNA, which is where I recommend that you test. The mtDNA, the mtDNAPlus and the Full Sequence. The mtDNA test is a starter test that will provide you with a base haplogroup, but will leave people searching for Native ancestry needing a more complete test for full haplogroup identification confirming Native ancestry. I strongly recommend the full sequence test, but if the budget just won’t allow that, then the mtDNAPlus will do until you can afford to upgrade. Family Tree DNA is the only major lab that tests the full sequence region, plus, they have the largest matching data base in the industry.

To put this in perspective for you, the mtDNA and the mtDNAPlus tests both test about 10% of your mitochondrial DNA and the full sequence test tests all of your 16,569 mitochondrial locations. You can then compare them with other people who have taken any of those 3 tests.  Pricing for the mtDNAPlus is currently $139 and the full sequence is $199.

MtDNA testing is not as popular as Y-line testing because it’s more difficult to use genealogically as last names change every generation.  When you look at your matches, you have no idea whatsoever if you might be related to these people in a genealogically relevant time frame by looking at their last names.  Those who have invested the effort to collaboratively work on their mtDNA matches, assuming a full sequence match and a shared geographical history as well, have been pleasantly surprised by what they’ve found.

A haplogroup assigning deep ancestry is provided through mitochondrial testing, so like the Y-line, depending on the haplogroup assigned, you will know if your ancestors were here before European contact.  Maternal haplogroups that indicate Native heritage include A, B, C, D and X.  Like Y-line DNA testing, none of these haplogroups are exclusive to Native Americans, so a full sequence level test will be required to confirm a Native American subgroup.

After you receive your results, you can enter the mtDNA and mtDNAPlus portions into public data bases. There are no public data bases for the full sequence segment because there may be medical implications in some of those mutations, so they are not displayed publicly although they are compared privately within the Family Tree DNA data base. You will want to enter your data and check for matches at (upload directly from your matches page at Family Tree DNA), and, although beware of Ancestry’s accuracy issues.

Testing the Y-line and mitochondrial DNA individually gives us a great deal of very specific information about 2 lines in your pedigree chart.  The best method of identifying Native American ancestors is indeed to test as many lines on your DNA pedigree chart using this methodology as possible.  Let’s take a minute to look at how to create a DNA pedigree chart.

DNA Pedigree Chart

If your Y-line and mitochondrial DNA have proven not to be Native, that doesn’t mean that the rest of your lines aren’t.

Let’s take a look at how to create a DNA pedigree chart so that you can focus your Y-line and mitochondrial DNA testing for other lines.

The purpose of a DNA pedigree chart is to provide guidance in terms of inheritance and also to provide a way of documenting your progress.  My chart is shown below, as an example.

DNA Pedigree

You can see the Y-line of my father and the mitochondrial line of my mother, on both ends of the pedigree chart.  At the top of each line, I have recorded the haplogroup information for each family.  Color coding each line helps in tracking descendants who would carry the DNA of the ancestor of that line.  For example, my mother’s father’s mother’s line is the yellow Miller line.  I need to find a daughter of my grandfather’s sisters, or their children, or their daughter’s children, to test for that mitochondrial DNA line.  Which reminds me, I need to call my cousin.  Family reunions, picnics and holidays are great for this type of thing.  Sadly, so are funerals.

I blogged about how to put together your own DNA pedigree chart.  You can get a free copy and instructions on my website too, at under the Publications tab.  If you’re Native and adopted, then refer to the adoptee blog instead, or in addition.

But sometimes, we can’t find the right people in order to test, so we move to autosomal testing to help us fill in the blanks.

Autosomal Testing – For Both Sexes – The Rest of the Story 

Autosomal DNA testing tests all of your 23 pairs of chromosomes that you inherit from both of your parents. You get half of each chromosome from each parent. You can see this pattern on the pedigree chart, represented by all of the 16 genealogical lines. Therefore, as you move up that tree, you should have inherited about 25% of your DNA from each grandparent, about 12.5% of your DNA from each great-grandparent, as have all of their other great-grandchildren.

Therefore beginning with your parents, you carry the following approximate amount of DNA from each of these ancestors. I say approximate, because while you do receive exactly 50% of your DNA from each parent, there is no guarantee that their parents DNA was admixed in your parents such that you receive exactly 25% from each grandparent, but it’s close.  You can see the percentages in the chart below.

Generation Relationship % of Their DNA You Carry






















Given this chart, if the Native percentage is back beyond 6 generations and drops below the 1% threshold, it’s extremely difficult to discern today.

Autosomal testing will pick up relationships reliably back to about the 6th or 7th generations, and sporadically beyond that.

Autosomal testing provides you minimally with two things.  First, with a list of “cousin matches” by percentage and estimated relationship.  Second, percentages of ethnicity.  It’s this second part that’s most important for the person seeking to prove Native American heritage.

Percentages of Ethnicity

As the field of genetic genealogy has moved forward, research has begun to indicate that certain autosomal markers are found in higher or lower frequencies in different ethnic populations.

For example, if someone has the Duffy Null allele, or genetic marker, we know they positively have African admixture.  We don’t know how much African admixture, or from which line, or when that individual with African admixture entered their family tree, but we know for sure they existed.

Attempting to determine the population frequency of varying markers and what that means relative to other populations is the key to this analysis.  Few markers are simply present or absent in populations, but are found in varying frequencies.  Some populations are widely studied in the research literature, and others are virtually untouched.  Thousands have only been recently discovered as part of the National Geographic, Genographic project.

The process of compiling this information in a meaningful manner so that it can be analyzed is a formidable task, as the information is often found in nearly inaccessible academic and forensic research publications.  It’s difficult to determine sometimes if the DNA analysis of 29 individuals in a small village in northern Italy is, for example, representative of that village as a whole, of northern Italy, or more broadly for all of Italy.  Is it representative of Italy today or Italy historically?  These and other similar questions have to be answered fully before the data from autosomal testing can be useful and reliable.

Having said this, the recent release of the National Geographic, Genographic Project version 2.0 holds great promise.  It’s one of 4 autosomal tests on the market today that provide next-generation chip based wide spectrum testing which replaces the older CODIS type testing.   The difference between the old and new technology is using 15 or 20 markers versus a half a million or so.  They aren’t even in the same ballpark.  If you want to see a comparison of the older type tests, read my paper titled Revealing American Indian and Minority Heritage Using Y-Line, Mitochondrial, Autosomal and X Chromosome Testing Data Combined with Pedigree Analysis.

Let’s take a look at all 4 of the contemporary autosomal tests and what they have to offer.

Genographic 2.0

Of the 4 tests, the Geno 2.0 is the newest and appears to reach back the deepest in time, meaning it may well be picking up anthropological results, not just genealogical results.  We don’t know exactly how the analysis is done, but we do know, in general, that if you evaluate segments, you will get results closer in time than if you evaluate individual ancestry informative markers (AIMS).

You can take a look at the results of a man with Native ancestry on both his paternal and maternal sides.  You can also take a look at the reference populations used by National Geographic in this overview of their test results.

If you want to order this test visit  The price is $199.  You also receive your Y-line and mtDNA haplogroups, but no marker values for comparison to others. However, the Y haplogroup testing is the most advanced in the world.  You can see why in the Geno 2.0 announcement here.

I have found the Geno 2.0 test to be somewhat more sensitive autosomally than others, but it’s still very new and I have not yet been able to do a complete comparison.  Results have only been coming back for a couple of weeks.

Family Tree DNA

Family Tree DNA sells the Family Finder test. Right now it is priced at $199 or bundled with attractive pricing with either the Y-line or mitochondrial DNA tests. I often like to use this tool in conjunction with the Y-line and mitochondrial DNA tests to see, if you match someone closely, whether you are actually related to them in a recent timeframe or if it is further back. Family Tree DNA is the only one of the autosomal testing companies that has the ability to do this type of advanced comparison.  Compared to 23andMe and Geno 2.0, they are the only ones to offer traditional Y-line and mitochondrial DNA testing which provides individual marker results and matches.

In addition to a list of autosomal matches, you will receive your breakdown of ethnicity, by percent.  The results below are for the same man with Native ancestry whose Geno 2.0 results are shown in the Geno 2.0 – First Peek blog.

native pop finder

You can read more about the Family Tree DNA autosomal product on their FAQ.


Another company that sells autosomal testing is In addition to a list of cousins, you also receive admixture percentages, and their specialty, health traits.  You also receive a paternal and maternal haplogroup, but with no markers for personal comparison.  These Y-line and mitochondrial results are not as accurate at the Geno 2.0 nor the Family Tree DNA Y-line and mitochondrial DNA full sequence tests.

Be aware that while people who test at Family Tree DNA are interested in genealogy, the typical person at 23andMe tested for the health portion, not the genealogy portion, and may not answer contact requests or may know very little about their family history.

Right now, their test is $99, and you can download your results and upload them to Family Tree DNA for an additional $89, making the total price similar to the Family Tree DNA test. However, you need to be somewhat technically savvy to complete the download/upload process.

23andMe recently released a new version of their software which added quite a bit of resolution after years of being woefully behind.  Native American wasn’t even a category previously.  You can take a look at the new format here.

Ancestry recently introduced an autosomal test.  You receive matches and ethnicity percentages.  However, their ethnicity percentages have significant issues and I would not recommend them at this time.  Their cousin matches come with no analysis tools.  So for now, just skip Ancestry and concentrate on the other resources.

One Last Autosomal Test

One marker value in particular, known as D9S919 is present in about 30% of the Native people.  The value of 9 at this marker is not known to be present in any other ethnic group, so this mutation occurred after the Native people migrated across Beringia into the Americas, but long enough ago to be present in many descendants.  You can test this marker individually at Family Tree DNA, which is the only lab that offers this test.  If you have the value of 9 at this marker, it confirms Native heritage, but if you don’t carry 9, it does NOT disprove Native heritage.  After all, many Native people don’t carry it.

To order this test, for existing Family Tree DNA clients, click on the “Order Upgrade” orange button on the right hand side of your personal page, then on “Advanced Test”, then enter “autosomal” in the drop down box, then you will see the list below. D9S919 is the last one and it costs $15.  There may be a $10 one time transfer fee as well if your DNA sample is not in the Houston lab.

native d9s919 order

Swimming in Many Pools

As you can see there are lots of tools available to you that can be used individually or in conjunction with each other.  Like anything else, the more work and effort you are willing to devote to the search, the more likely you are to be successful.

Most people test their Y-line and mitochondrial DNA, not just for Native ancestry, but to learn more about the lines they can test for themselves without reaching out to other family members.

Use your DNA pedigree chart to plan who to ask in your extended family to test for which lines.

Plan to test with multiple autosomal testing companies.  Autosomal testing in particular is still in its infancy. I like to use the results of multiple companies, especially when you are dealing with small amounts of admixture.  They use different markers, combinations, analysis tools and reference populations, so you can expect slightly different results.  One company may pick up slight minority admixture while another may not.  This has happened repeatedly with both my Native and African minority admixture.


After you obtain your results from either Family Tree DNA or 23andMe, you’ll want to download your raw data results and then upload the file to This is a privately run “donation” site, not associated with any of the testing companies, meaning there is no subscription or fee to use the tools, but they do appreciate and are funded by donations.

After uploading your results you can utilize several admixture tools to compare and contrast your results.

Getting Help

If you’re struggling with working through your family possibilities for who to test, I do offer a DNA Test Plan service.

If you would like a Personalized DNA Report for Y-line or mitochondrial results, those are available as well.

If you have what amounts to a quick question that I can answer in less than an hour, including prep, I offer the Quick Consult service.

For more extensive consulting, contact me.  You can see my services here.

In Summary

Finding our Native ancestors is a way to pay homage to their lives and to the culture that was stripped from their descendants, ironically, by using their own DNA that has been gifted from them to us.  Native people, after contact with Europeans were marginalized, and that’s the best that can be said.  Many were killed, either intentionally or by European diseases, or enslaved.  The results are that Native people left few if any individual records and those that might be available often can’t be identified or linked to them personally.  For those who cannot unearth their Native ancestry using conventional genealogical means, genetic testing is the last hope left.  Fortunately, the tools and our knowledge improve every day.  We’re making great strides with what we can do, enlarging what was a pinhole into a keyhole, allowing us to peer into the past.  So, click your heels, order your tests and let’s see where your DNA takes you.

394 thoughts on “Proving Native American Ancestry Using DNA

  1. If you are certain that you have a Native American ancestor within the past 6-8 generations, don’t expect it to show up in your DNA analysis. There is good reason for this. [I and my siblings are 1/32 Creek Indian and there is no sign of this ancestor in the DNA of those who have been tested.} There is one exception to this omission, and I will get to that in a moment. First, Native Americans are not a specific race. All tribes descended from people who migrated from Eurasia across the Arctic land bridge, from locations such as Siberia, Mongolia, Korea and China. They came hundreds of generations ago (13,000 or more years). Whatever their ethnic origin, this would be so diluted by more recent generations in your heritage as to render their DNA invisibly small. If it should show up, it would be as a trace of northeast Asia. Your Native American ancestors are simply invisible in your DNA. Now, the exception to this is that the DNA of specific tribes can be catalogued and the tribe can be uniquely portrayed if the samples were taken from pure-blood tribal members (not intermingled with persons outside the tribe). If the tribe from which you descended has been catalogued in the Ancestral DNA data base and your ancestor is say within six generations of you, your analysis should show your connection with this tribe. Otherwise, the absence of such a tag in your DNA analysis does not mean that you do not have this ancestry, so don’t worry about it. I read months ago that Native American tribes are being catalogued and added to the DNA database.

    • HOW many years are considered a generation is it 20 years, or thirty years? On ancestry dna my Native American didn’t show, but I showed Central Asia at 2%, when I uploaded to Gedmatch, it’s showing on most of their calculators, I’m also showing Siberian, East Asian, Aleut, several different tribes of Russia, and the Altaic area.

  2. My granddaughters father is said to be 1/2 American Indian his mother said that it was a one night stand so no way if finding him. Abby is a beautiful black eyed dark skin child would like to find out so we can bring her in touch with why she’s dark and dark eyes and we are not I. Irish

  3. Pingback: Ethnicity Testing and Results | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  4. Hi. I participated in the National Geographic genome program a number of years ago. My mother’s mitochondrial DNA shows that my maternal genetic relatives are in Sweden, Northern England, Ireland and Scotland, which makes sense because we’ve always known her great-grandparents came from Sweden.
    I also did the Ancestry(dot) com DNA testing. It showed 1% Native American DNA, 99% Jewish – which we are. We are Jewish. However, we were always told one of our ancestors on my father’s side was Mary Corn (Cornwoman?) from somewhere around Omaha, NE. She’s sort of a mystery woman as she left no records and, obviously, died long ago. We can find nothing whatsoever on her. Does this make sense?
    I’m not looking to join a tribe or bother anyone. I’m just curious. Thanks!

  5. You didn’t mention African American looking for Native American ancestry, You said European ancestry look in the census for person stated other than white, well I’m of African American ancestry I looked in a 1880 census on my 2nd great grandmother, and it said she was other than Negro or Black it said she was Mulatto, which is another way of saying she was part Native American.

    • Typically, mulatto on a census means “mixed.” I doesn’t specific mixed in what manner – just means “not entirely white.” It is from the census taker’s perspective. Sometimes the census will say Indian, but once admixing has occurred, they just tend to say mulatto.

      • Thank you for responding very quickly. You are correct the census taker didn’t know really how to classify her so they put mulatto, My grandmother was very proud of her American Indian grandmother, You are right about my ancestry. Com dna testing it is the least accurate. have my dna results for Native American at 0 percent, I downloaded my dna then uploaded my dna to Gedmatch, it’s showing Amerindian on practically every test, I’m showing Lumbee on a couple of test, They are tribe in North Carolina, not federally reconized but state reconized, on one test specifically for people of mostly African decent on Gedmatch called PuntDNA have me at 2.02 percent which would be about right, because , the full-blood was back in the 1800’s, seem lazy they didn’t take the time to calculate properly.

    • No. Mulatto is having one parent Caucasian and one parent African American. Especially during that time. Your 2nd great grandmother was a child of a slave owner which is the only reason she would ever be considered Mulatto.

      • Hello Roberta has already explained it to me, are you a genealogist? Although, Yes I do have European admixture this particular 2nd great grandmother was definitely part Native! As Roberta stated the census taker gave their interpretation of what they thought she was.

  6. How do I get the information to take the $199.00 testing? My Grandfather and Grandmother were amount a group that petitioned the Cherokee Tribe in the 1800’s to e recognized as tribe members. I have not found out the result yet but they are not on the Dawes roll to the best of my knowledge. I know from visiting the Muskogee Library my relatives back three generations.

  7. Pingback: Native American Haplogroup C Update – Progress!!! | Native Heritage Project

  8. I learned a lot from having my dna uploaded to ged.commatch, I learned from reading their forums that if you run your kit through and you show Southeast Asian, Northeast Asian, Siberian, Meloneian, Polonesian, and Mesoamerican, you can count them toward Native American, because they are all within the same dna group, I’m showing all these groups, except Polonesian and Meloneian , but a lot of my cousin matches at ancestry are showing Polonesian. My mother said that

  9. My mother said that we were decedent from Cherokee, One of my cousin matches from ancestry, who was a child when she saw my greatgrandfather also said it was Cherokee. I read a lot of articles about Native American origins and history , I learned that they migrated over the land bridge from Siberia down to the Pacific Coast of the US, maybe that’s why on couple of tests I’m showing

  10. I (and my family) recently took the Ancestry DNA test. I was surprised to see I was about 33% Native American, and my mother was about 66%. (Sounds right mathwise, anyway). While free college would be cool, I don’t think I’d join a tribe or anything, but I want to know more about that side of the family. My Great Grandma on my Mom’s side was apparently (Physically looking like one, anyway) full or close to full Native American.

    Basically, what tests and groups, resources, etc are the best for what I’m looking for? Regardless of price, I’d like to see my best options. We thought there was Cherokee or Blackfoot in the family or something, but I’d like to know for sure.

    • I’m still learning how dna works, I’m new to genetics, but 33% seems a lot for someone, who had a great grandparent Native American, my 2 times greatgrandparent was Native, and I didn’t show nowhere near that amount. Roberta can you explain how that’s possible?

      • She’s my Grandma, no greats, and it’s quite possible my grandpa also has Native blood, more probable than not. So, Native blood from both sides of my mom’s. That would probably be it, in your case, maybe on your mom’s and dad’s side both or both parents on either side.

    • I am curious as well. My test was 61% Native American. My mother did not take the test but I cant imagne what her percentage would be. My grandfather mentioned something about Blackfoot indian but passed before I could learn more. I am 32 and want to find out my native hertige. I would love to bring more knowledge to my children about are heritage. I will be visiting Family Tree DNA. Thank you for this amazing informative article.

  11. After reading all the information, I am not sure if there is a way to tell us what we want to know. My husband has been told by many family members, that his father’s mother was Native American. His parents are both deceased, along with all of his father’s siblings and most cousins. If the Y Line only addresses the male line, am I correct in assuming it would not include his paternal grandmother? His father never talked about his family. Supposedly, there is a picture of her in full Native American garb, that exists and is in the possession of a first cousin, but is unavailable to anyone else. I know of one person who did, briefly, see the photo several years ago. Several descendants have said she is Native American, that don’t even know each other, so I think it warrants looking into. I’ve never been able to find anything through genealogy research. She was born in 1865. We aren’t looking for money from a tribe or anything like that. We are just looking to find his heritage. My husbands father was next to the youngest child, and my husband was born when his father was almost 50 yrs old. I think he, at age 63, is the youngest of any of his grandmother’s grandchildren. He only has three cousins still living, two of which are in their 90’s and have dementia or are not of right mind. Is there any way to find out, through DNA, if she definitely is Native American, and if so, what tribe?

  12. my husbands grandparent were cherokee and i wanna learn about how we can receive dna testing free and get him signed up to draw off casino

    • The casinos are meant to benefit the indigenous tribes who live on the reservations, and most of them do not actually benefit from the casinos, as there is much corruption. On some reservations nearly 80% live below the poverty line, 40% without electricity. To want to prove native dna just to attempt to take a share of money intended for those on the reservations is appalling.

      • At least she was honest! I was pretty much resigned to my Cherokee roots being just more family folklore, if it weren’t for my great grandmother’s (my dad’s grandmother) death certificate that listed her as “black.”

        For over 10 years I was in FTDNA and took Y tests up to 111 and the Family Finder and both mtDNA tests. I kept even the most remotely related relatives in my (now huge) tree because you never know where that hint will come from. I uploaded my autosomal and Y data to gedmatch and then uploaded a gedcom of that huge FTM tree.

        A guy contacted me about my Richardson folks and found we matched through my dad’s mom’s family. Then he also mentioned we had some Morris people in common. Interesting because the Morris and Morton/Morrow families were not related to my knowledge. When I followed up on that VERY unlikely lead I found my great grandmother’s family was named Sixkiller in VA in 1700s, and we linked the Sixkillers to her Morris folks through the Starr, Thompson and Golden families. As a matter of fact, many of those families used “Cherokee” given names.

        AND I had two matches sitting in Family Finder probably for years that were Goldens at the predicted 2nd cousin level. Great grandma was very Cherokee as it turned out, but it was not cheap nor easy to find her folks. Luck had LOTS to do with it. Now, if I can just find my Mitchells, who seem to attract only Campbell, Moore and Thompson Y matches.

      • Steve, I read your reply and would love to talk to you privately. I am a Mitchell and have been beating my head on a brick wall for years. I am trying to find how my Mitchells tie into NA ancestry. My father did quite a bit of research and testing through FTDNA before he died, and I have picked up where he left off. Anytime I see someone looking for Mitchells (which hasn’t been often), especially if there is NA ancestry involved, I get excited to find out more. Also, my husband (who also has suspected NA ancestry) has Starrs in his line. He has tested as well. Please let me know if you would like to swap info to see if we have a match anywhere. Thanks! -Heather

      • Steve, I read your reply and would love to talk to you privately. I am a Mitchell and have been beating my head on a brick wall for years. I am trying to find how my Mitchells tie into NA ancestry. My father did quite a bit of research and testing through FTDNA before he died, and I have picked up where he left off. Anytime I see someone looking for Mitchells (which hasn’t been often), especially if there is NA ancestry involved, I get excited to find out more. Also, my husband (who also has suspected NA ancestry) has Starrs in his line. He has tested as well. Please let me know if you would like to swap info to see if we have a match anywhere. Thanks! -Heather

      • I do not know if this is a private reply or not. If not private, I hope I am not boring anyone with this response. My Golden link was discovered only a few months ago so there is lots to learn yet.

        Jacob Choske Golden Sr was apparently born about 1756 in Henry, VA. I know his mother is from Switzerland. According to some “Choske” is not a name but a so-called indian word meaning “first-born.” I have no idea where Jacob Sr’s father came from. Jacob Sr married Harriett Adams and then Mary Ann Adams. Jacob Sr and Mary had a daughter named Ahnewake (or maybe Ahniwake) which I believe is a Cherokee name. Now I really wonder who Jacob Sr’s father is. Ahnewake, or Ann, married John F Thompson in 1800 in Grainger TN. A lot of the Golden and Thompson descendants subsequently ended up in Vermilion county Illinois before spreading out all over the country.

        During my browsings for TN relatives I found an uncle named John Brown married to Hannah Broyles from White county TN with an alias identified on the Ancestry census record of “John Golden.” Why? A couple generations later the Browns married the Mortons in Nacogdoches TX, on my dad’s side, but never suspected my dad’s mom and dad shared family. I am sure they would be surprised too if true. Anyway, I digress….

        Jacob Jr married Elizabeth Starr about 1797. She was born about 1781 in Bradley county, TN. File notes said she died on the Trail of Tears. No proof of that I have found yet nor that she is even Cherokee. Elizabeth’s parents are Eliza Sixkiller and George Starr b about 1760 in Bradley TN. I have seen many references to Golden, Sixkiller and Starr folks in connection to Cherokees, so I suspect Jacob Sr, Jacob Jr, and their families are all mixed blood.

        Jacob Jr and Elizabeth had Ann Golden and she married Thomas Morris Sr. I do not know the ethnicity of Morris, but the word morris is supposed to mean “dark or swarthy” in the five civilized tribes. I cannot prove that is true either. (If you are looking for Lakota words, I am your guy).
        Ann and Thomas Sr had Thomas Jr.

        Thomas Morris Jr married Mary Hodges Edwards from Florida and they had Georgia Ann Morris, who was most definitely dark because her death certificate in Shreveport said she is “negro.”. Georgia married my great grandfather, Elijah Mitchell, supposedly when he was running across Oklahoma to avoid being hanged for killing a man in Speegleville, TX. The boy must have worked fast and had a great gift of persuasion. They settled in LA and AR for the most part.

        The Odom 2g grandparents and prior came from South Carolina and Georgia. I saw several mentions of various wives being either Choctaw or Chowan. e.g., “Choctaw woman” I don’t think my Mitchell people are descended from those lines even though the male spouses would be related.

        Now, just to make things more interesting, I got a dna hit recently to the Callison family and and I found that various branches of Callisons married into my Golden family as well as a Mitchell family in Augusta VA and, they also appear to link to some McCutcheon and Campbells I have also had dna hits on that seemed to start in PA and present day WV. However, I cannot tie them to my 3g grandfather Joseph Mitchell or anyone else in my direct lines genealogically.

        If you are a FTDNA customer, my Y haplo is R-P25 (and mtDNA haplo is J). There is not very many of us! I wonder how we got to Scotland and Ireland? Or maybe I am really German? I hope I have enough years left to find out!


      • Hi again, Steve,
        Great story! First off, our oldest Mitchell ancestor is believed to be Thomas Mitchell of Augusta, VA, b. abt. 1783. He died in Greene Co., TN and all of his known descendants were born, lived, and died in Greene Co., TN until my father came to GA with my mother in the 60s. My dad’s Y haplo is R-U152. It is a family belief that the original Mitchells of our line came from Scotland or Ireland but what happened after they came here and who they might have intermarried with remains a mystery as far as racial makeup is concerned. My father’s DNA showed mostly European and close to 20% Mediterranean with small percentages of Asian and NA. I have matched with Mitchells who have a line in TX but we can’t find where the connection is. I don’t have siblings of Thomas Mitchell or any other children of his besides James and Nancy. Secondly, my husband’s Great Grandmother was a Starr (Rosetha Louise, b.1858, Spalding, GA). Her male line went up from there through Wilkes Co., GA, Morgan Co, GA, to Fredrick, MD with the oldest known Starr ancestor being Henry Starr, b. 1752. From what I know of this line of Starrs, there were many, many of them. Perhaps your Starrs might tie into my husband’s. All of us have tested with FTDNA. Have you uploaded your results to Gedmatch? That is a great tool for more closely comparing DNA of two or more people. I (and my husband) would love to compare kits with you to see if there might be even a distant match. Your Starrs and the Mitchells are the only ones that are familiar to me. When I saw you looking for Mitchells I just had to reach out. Like I said, I don’t see Mitchell hunters very often. I hope we can help each other. Please let me know if any of this sounds even remotely familiar. Thanks!! -Heather

      • I guess “close” only counts in hand grenades and horseshoes. I show a Thomas H Mitchell b 1767 in Augusta VA marrying Margaret Callison and probably his sister Elizabeth also marrying a Callison. The Callisons married Goldens and many ended up in TN. I show lots of these families relating to the McCutcheons, McClungs and McClures in the Augusta VA area … which is important to me because I show Y dna hits for many of them, and I cannot link them to my line genealogically. But these things all get filed in the shoebox and someday they may become meaningful to me. The other thing you may want to sort of keep in the back of your mind is lots of folks, including myself, probably do not do adequate diligence when they identify or accept others judgements on their most distant direct ancestor. The DNA don’t lie, but the claimed relationships may not be accurate. Trust your own research and take others’ opinions with a big grain of salt until you retrace their tracks yourself.


      • I agree! That is the worst (and most ignorant) reason for wanting to prove native heritage! I’m sorry, but it is. Also, the Cherokee do not have any casinos that I am aware of, and tribal membership does not get you any financial advantages, other than possible access to apply for some college grants, if you have your CDIB card. (this does not mean you get a completely FREE education)

  13. Hello, I just received my autosomal dna results from I was pleasantly surprised to see 17% Native American. There is no information as to which tribe that percentage is from. Is it possible from that percentage to find out how far back was my Indian ancestor? Thank you.

  14. First off, super informative article, thank you. My question – Your table with the % of DNA being passed down through generations has two instances of “GGG-grandparents” (5 & 6)… is this a mistake or am I missing a tidbit of information somewhere? I understand the math involved, just wanted to clarify the generation labeling.

  15. I tried to leave a comment, but it lagged and didn’t post, then wouldn’t let me comment.

    But, I’ll keep it short.

    On my mom’s side, we knew there was native blood, she is Mexican. I don’t know if this means anything, probably not, but my great grandma on my mom’s side apparenly looked very nativeish. I don’t know, I’ve never seen picture.

    But I took the Ancestry DNA test to see what all it came up with. I was 32% Native American. That was kind of surprising. My mom’s test came up 66%. I would like her mother, my abuela, to take it as well. That would be interesting.

    We thought it was Blackfoot or Apache or something. We are in the Southern US. Is there any way to tell what tribe it really is?

      • I did test and got 33% native American. My mom came up double, so that sounds pretty solid to me, BUT That means the Native blood is a lot closer to me than I though. I figured it would be like 10% , but it’s a lot more. I want my abuelo and abuela to take it as well, that would be interesting.

        Are there any tests that have pure Blackfoot samples, etc to test from to tell me what I most likely am?

  16. Dear Roberta,
    very interesting article to start with. My grandmother told me that her great-grandmother was an Iroquois/Seneca Native American, who during the Civil War married a Scotsman. After he was killed, she went back to live with her tribe and my grandmothers grandmother then was adopted, here name was Jenny Dickey. Unfortunately the photograph of my great-great-great-grandmother was lost after the death of my grandmother. I still have a picture of her daughter though. I had my DNA tested years ago at Family Tree DNA (mtDNA), hoping to have proof of the Native American history of my family. Unfortunately my Haplogroup turned out to be U (U8a1a1), which is basically European/Eurasian. Now my question is, if the Family Finder test can possibly quantify if there is a percentage of Native American DNA in my DNA, or not. Or is it too far back to quantify (GGG-grandparent)? I would be very happy, if you could answer my question, or give advice. Many thanks, Kurt.

  17. I’m adopted, and when I had my wisdom teeth removed, my oral surgeon said my teeth indicated I was between 1/8 and 1/4 Native American. A few years later, I found my adoptive mother and learned she was 1/4 Cherokee; my dad has some Mingo blood, so it seems the oral surgeon was correct. I have many physical traits which I’m told are NA, but since the state where I was born won’t let me have my original birth certificate, which has my biological mother’s name on it, I can’t prove it. Since my bio-mom died not long after and I don’t have a close relationship with surviving family members, I don’t know much except the last name of my Cherokee great-grandmother, whom I’m told is from the North Carolina tribe, where that last name is quite common. This gives me a lot of information to mull over; I’m still not certain which test would be best in a case like mine.

    • The mitochondrial test will show your mother’s matrilineal line. So her mother, her mother, her mother. An autosomal test will show percentages of various ethnicity. You should do both. Your great-grandmother may have been admixed, but the mtdna is never diluted.

      • I would like to take a mitochondrial test, like theirs the Native American is on my mother’s side, do to financial problems right now I’m unable to take this test, which company is the best for this? I’m not positive that my 2nd great grandmother was full Native, but the third I’m very positive.

  18. Several years ago I had my DNA performed at a place ink Ohio. They reported back to me that
    I was 27% Native American. I strongly suspect that this is from my paternal side seeing that
    my great grandfather, his son, and my father were born and lived in Vermont and New Hampshire.

    The DNA office in Ohio informed me that they could not tell what tribe I descend from. Is there any
    way to determine this. I am 82 years of age and would like to find this out before I cross over to
    the other side.

    Thanks you for your time and hope to hear from you.

    Robert E. Marsh

    • Hi Robert. I’m not familiar with any DNA office in Ohio or any reputable testing company there. I strongly suggest you test your Y DNA (your father’s surname line), mitochondrial DNA (your mother’s matrilineal line) and take the Family Finder test which will give you a reasonably accurate percentage of ethnicity. Early tests were very very inaccurate. I showed about 25% and I have about 2-3%. The Family Tree DNA link is on the sidebar of this blog.

  19. I am wanting to get my grandma and my DNA tested. My grandma didn’t grow up knowing her fathers side of the family. He left when she was very young. She was told that he was Native American from his mothers side. And that she was a full blooded Native woman. What test would be the best in this instance and show as much as scientific DNA that we is out there?
    Thank you, Shauna Barron

  20. Hello, I just read through the article and your information. I am trying to make sure I understand which test I should order. My grandmother (dad’s side) was known to be full blood Indian, my dad half and so on. Which DNA test should I take to confirm any blood DNA?

  21. I was put up for adoption in 1960. It was a closed adoption and my adoptive parents were living in Oklahoma at the time where the adoption records were sealed and are still sealed to this day. I was born in Dallas, Texas where the records are open, but because my adoption records are sealed, so is my birth certificate. I was told I have native american blood, but not knowing who my mother or father are, I don’t know where to start. I am almost 54 years old and have lived with this secret until I am sick about it. I have three sons who will never know my side of their heritage if I don’t find out something. My adoptive parents have already passed away and I was their only child. I have no idea if my biological parents had any other children. All I know is my mother went by the last name of Langley at the time of my birth. I don’t know a first name and I definitely don’t know my father’s first or last name. Can you help me?

    • I found a link online where you can go and get non-identifying information on your birth parents. I got it for me but am trying now to get it or my biological brother. That’s how I found out that my birth father had Indian in him. The non-identifying information I got talked about my birth, had their first names only and a brief description of them and their families and what descent they are. You may want to try that. I was also born in 1960 in San Antonio, TX

  22. Robert first and foremost thanks for all this information–I was wanting to read more and more as I did. I feel this site is one I feel very at ease with and your expertise is welcomed. Question I do have for you. My cousins and I are starting our search at this time, my sister recently received an DNA profile back from Ancestry.Com but I am coming to you to ask a question as so many have. We were told My Mom’s – Her Mother’s– Mother was full Nativie American coming from one of the tribes in Oklahoma. I have found records (none for my Mom as I was told her birth was never recorded) but that of My Grandmother’s (my Mom’s Mom) but ONLY of a father’s name nothing showing my Grandmother’s Mom name. WIth that it is puzzling to say the least but starting the search with hopes. My question to you is: what test should I take to see if there is truth to the rumor that my Great Grandmother was Native American. We are only looking for ancestors and wanting to know as my Mother’s Family back in the early 1900’s as told to us basically were nomads traveling a lot BUT lived in Oklahoma enough years for Census with my Grandmother’s Father putting her place of birth as Oklahoma on the census. My cousin’s that I am working with her Dad, My Mother’s half brother (my Mom and her Dad had the same mother different fathers) my cousin’s Dad is still alive. So the question again I am wondering being my Uncle my Mother’s half brother is still alive what test would you recommend for him and which for me. Any help is greatly appreciated and I do believe my cousin has ordered an DNA from Ancestry which I am thinking we should have read your Blog first before ordering from them. My sister’s DNA from Ancestry did show a percentage from West Asia & Africia—HELP and thank you so much for all your advise on this it made me read and want more.

      • Roberta, thanks so much for your reply and the consultation could happen for us as stated our search has just begun. Before consultation myself and my cousin’s Dad (my Mom’s half brother and last relative alive from my Mom’s side) are wanting to do the DNA testing to show Native American ancestory. You mentioned a couple different tests and with that unsure which one you would deem the best one for us. Again my Uncle’s Mom was my Mother’s Mom also, we were told my Grandmother’s Mom was full Native American but have not been able to find out my Great Grandmother’s name. With that being my Uncle is still alive and had the same Mom as my mother wondering which test you would recommend to us. I appreciate your time and reply so much I am wanting to order the kits soon but unsure which would be best for both my Uncle and myself.

      • Great Grandmother (full blood) –> Grandmother –> Mother –> You
        If all in direct line then you would want the mitochondrial DNA test.
        (your mothers mothers mother on up the line to your great grandmother that has the potential full blood Native American)

        Grandmother (full blood) –> Mother –> Uncle
        Same for your Uncle (mitochondrial) since it is his mothers mother that is said to be full blooded.

      • Again Roberta heartfelt thanks and much appreciation for your time and expertise. We will be ordering our test very soon.

        Thanks Roberta so nice finding your blog but most of all feeling confident in your knowledge and guidance is very satisfying.

  23. What if paternal parent has passed away? I want information on learning my heritage. I believe my great great grandmother walked trail of tears. Please let me know what I need to do, but need to Do blood not saliva test to prove several allels
    Thank you for your time

  24. So I have a problem is my biological mother Was drunk and doesn’t remember the guy’s name so how can I figure out What tribe I’m from

  25. You have a lot of good stuff written here. I’m confused on exactly what test I should buy. You prefer Family Finder. When I click on that link, it gives me a list of tests to choose from. I click on a Family Tree DNA, and it gives me Ydna, Family Finder, and mtDNA. Are any of these the “full haplogroup identification” test? If so, which one?

  26. Pingback: Free Access to Native American Records – Limited Time | Native Heritage Project

  27. Pingback: Free Access to Native American Records – Limited Time | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  28. I have always heard all my life that my mother’s mother had an afar with an native american .both my mother and father are now dead as well as my grandparents I’d love to know for sure if what’s been told to us all my life is true and if possible what tribe .grandmother never told anyone his name she was married to someone elce then so his name and tribe has been a mystery to us all .how much would it cost to know thanks jd

  29. Hi. My great grandmother on my mothers side is said to be Choctaw native American from her father, although I’m not sure just how much. It seems like its highly possible side since my grandmother and I are both dark skinned with dark eyes and dark hair. I just want to know which is the best test for me to use to find out what percentage I am since she is maternal but it was her paternal side that it came from…

  30. How doing go about getting a DNA test to prove my Native American Heritage. I would like to find out so I can connect the pieces of my family history

  31. I found out im Cherokee indian.I believe my great grandfather chief Oconostota, well I believe he is my fifth great grandfather.where do I need to go to do the dna testing and is there a number I can call.thank you.kimberlee brown

  32. Hello,

    Thank you for all the information!

    I’m looking for information about my great-great grandmother. I know her Anglicized name but not her Indian name. I don’t know which tribe she was from either, but I do know that she married, emigrated to London, and had a son. I’m drawing a blank on records on the US side of the Atlantic.

    Does anyone have any ideas where I can search??

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  34. i’m at a loss now. my 85 yr old father was DNA tested via with results of 53% native american (which i believe is an oxymoron). we had become acquainted with a story and photos of his mother on being a first native. my son got a DNA test with results of 29% native american. how did this happen? what am I? so i recently purchased a kit to find out. unfortunately i have read this article too late. the price was discounted but am new to this and didn’t research it enough. my father also spoke of his dad having first native blood and my son’s mother (totally caucasian blonde blue-eyed), my ex-wife had a grandmother who was first native out of oklahoma. my son’s search yielded a registered affiliation with the choctaw of oklahoma. are these tests real? when he tells me that he is receiving email from high level matches are we going down the wrong path? this is unbelievable. would i be crossing copyright boundaries if i linked this article and previous articles i have read to an blog? in reading other people’s blog comments and questions on ancestry they wonder why family, church and archival records show they are for a fact a specific lineage that the DNA test show 0%. what is going on?

  35. My mother said her parents were both Indian Both grandparents deceased before I was born. My Mother was raised by siblings all are deceased including my Mother. I am a female . I would love to know for family ancestry reasons only. Which is the best low cost test for me I certainly do not have a lot of money . I am confused with the different test . Any suggestions ?

  36. Pingback: Genealogy and Ethnicity DNA Testing – 3 Legitimate Companies | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  37. I think I’m grasping very loosely into what you’re article goes into depth about and I first just wanted to thank you. My issue is that I was placed into Ny States care after being born in 1970, Cayuga County Ny. I did 23 and me and found that I was 2% American Indian. I’ve had absolutely no luck in flinging any close bio family that it’s dawned on me this may be the way to go.
    Well the further I’m looking the less likely that road would be an easier traveled one itself. However I did gain a lot on information that I’m sure will come of use at some point.
    Thank you again and be blessed your Sister in Christ,

  38. My uncle once told me my father was native but I never had him in my life and til this still isn’t. Is there a way to find out?

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