Which DNA Test is Best?

If you’re reading this article, congratulations. You’re a savvy shopper and you’re doing some research before purchasing a DNA test. You’ve come to the right place.

The most common question I receive is asking which test is best to purchase. There is no one single best answer for everyone – it depends on your testing goals and your pocketbook.

Testing Goals

People who want to have their DNA tested have a goal in mind and seek results to utilize for their particular purpose. Today, in the Direct to Consumer (DTC) DNA market space, people have varied interests that fall into the general categories of genealogy and medical/health.

I’ve approached the question of “which test is best” by providing information grouped into testing goal categories.  I’ve compared the different vendors and tests from the perspective of someone who is looking to test for those purposes – and I’ve created separate sections of this article for each interest..

We will be discussing testing for:

  • Ethnicity – Who Am I? – Breakdown by Various World Regions
  • Adoption – Finding Missing Parents or Close Family
  • Genealogy – Cousin Matching and Ancestor Search/Verification
  • Medical/Health

We will be reviewing the following test types:

  • Autosomal
  • Y DNA (males only)
  • Mitochondrial DNA

I have included summary charts for each section, plus an additional chart for:

  • Additional Vendor Considerations

If you are looking to select one test, or have limited funds, or are looking to prioritize certain types of tests, you’ll want to read about each vendor, each type of test, and each testing goal category.

Each category reports information about the vendors and their products from a different perspective – and only you can decide which of these perspectives and features are most important to you.

You might want to read this short article for a quick overview of the 4 kinds of DNA used for genetic genealogy and DTC testing and how they differ.

The Big 3

Today, there are three major players in the DNA testing market, not in any particular order:

Each of these companies offers autosomal tests, but each vendor offers features that are unique. Family Tree DNA and 23andMe offer additional tests as well.

In addition to the Big 3, there are a couple of new kids on the block that I will mention where appropriate. There are also niche players for the more advanced genetic genealogist or serious researcher, and this article does not address advanced research.

In a nutshell, if you are serious genealogist, you will want to take all of the following tests to maximize your tools for solving genealogical puzzles. There is no one single test that does everything.

  • Full mitochondrial sequence that informs you about your matrilineal line (only) at Family Tree DNA. This test currently costs $199.
  • Y DNA test (for males only) that informs you about your direct paternal (surname) line (only) at Family Tree DNA. This test begins at $169 for 37 markers.
  • Family Finder, an autosomal test that provides ethnicity estimates and cousin matching at Family Tree DNA. This test currently costs $89.
  • AncestryDNA, an autosomal test at Ancestry.com that provides ethnicity estimates and cousin matching. (Do not confuse this test with Ancestry by DNA, which is not the same test and does not provide the same features.) This test currently costs $99, plus the additional cost of a subscription for full feature access. You can test without a subscription, but nonsubscribers can’t access all of the test result features provided to Ancestry subscribers.
  • 23andMe Ancestry Service test, an autosomal test that provides ethnicity estimates and cousin matching. The genealogy version of this test costs $99, the medical+genealogy version costs $199.

A Word About Third Party Tools

A number of third party tools exist, such as GedMatch and DNAGedcom.com, and while these tools are quite useful after testing, these vendors don’t provide tests. In order to use these sites, you must first take an autosomal DNA test from a testing vendor. This article focuses on selecting your DNA testing vendor based on your testing goals.

Let’s get started!


Many people are drawn to DNA testing through commercials that promise to ‘tell you who you are.” While the allure is exciting, the reality is somewhat different.

Each of the major three vendors provide an ethnicity estimate based on your autosomal DNA test, and each of the three vendors will provide you with a different result.

Yep, same person, different ethnicity breakdowns.

Hopefully, the outcomes will be very similar, but that’s certainly not always the case. However, many people take one test and believe those results wholeheartedly. Please don’t. You may want to read Concepts – Calculating Ethnicity Percentages to see how varied my own ethnicity reports are at various vendors as compared to my known genealogy.

The technology for understanding “ethnicity” from a genetic perspective is still very new. Your ethnicity estimate is based on reference populations from around the world – today. People and populations move, and have moved, for hundreds, thousands and tens of thousands of years. Written history only reaches back a fraction of that time, so the estimates provided to people today are not exact.

That isn’t to criticize any individual vendor. View each vendor’s results not as gospel, but as their opinion based on their reference populations and their internal proprietary algorithm of utilizing those reference populations to produce your ethnicity results.

To read more about how ethnicity testing works, and why your results may vary between vendors or not be what you expected, click here.

I don’t want to discourage anyone from testing, only to be sure consumers understand the context of what they will be receiving. Generally speaking, these results are accurate at the continental level, and less accurate within continents, such as European regional breakdowns.

All three testing companies provide additional features or tools, in addition to your ethnicity estimates, that are relevant to ethnicity or population groups.

Let’s look at each company separately.

Ethnicity – Family Tree DNA

Family Tree DNA’s ethnicity tool is called myOrigins and provides three features or tools in addition to the actual ethnicity estimate and associated ethnicity map.

Please note that throughout this article you can click on any image to enlarge.

On the myOrigins ethnicity map page, above, your ethnicity percentages and map are shown, along with two additional features.

The Shared Origins box to the left shows the matching ethnic components of people on your DNA match list. This is particularly useful if you are trying to discover, for example, where a particular minority admixture comes from in your lineage. You can select different match types, for example, immediate relatives or X chromosome matches, which have special inheritance qualities.

Clicking on the apricot (mitochondrial DNA) and green (Y DNA) pins in the lower right corner drops the pins in the locations on your map of the most distant ancestral Y and mitochondrial DNA locations of the individuals in the group you have selected in the Shared Origins match box. You may or may not match these individuals on the Y or mtDNA lines, but families tend to migrate in groups, so match hints of any kind are important.

A third unique feature provided by Family Tree DNA is Ancient Origins, a tool released with little fanfare in November 2016.

Ancient Origins shows the ancient source of your European DNA, based on genome sequencing of ancient DNA from the locations shown on the map.

Additionally, Family Tree DNA hosts an Ancient DNA project where they have facilitated the upload of the ancient genomes so that customers today can determine if they match these ancient individuals.

Kits included in the Ancient DNA project are shown in the chart below, along with their age and burial location. Some have matches today, and some of these samples are included on the Ancient Origins map.

Individual Approx. Age Burial Location Matches Ancient Origins Map
Clovis Anzick 12,500 Montana (US) Yes No
Linearbandkeramik 7,500 Stuttgart, Germany Yes Yes
Loschbour 8,000 Luxembourg Yes Yes
Palaeo-Eskimo 4,000 Greenland No No
Altai Neanderthal 50,000 Altai No No
Denisova 30,000 Siberia No No
Hinxton-4 2,000 Cambridgeshire, UK No No
BR2 3,200 Hungary Yes Yes
Ust’-Ishim 45,000 Siberia Yes No
NE1 7,500 Hungary Yes Yes

Ethnicity – Ancestry

In addition to your ethnicity estimate, Ancestry also provides a feature called Genetic Communities.

Your ethnicity estimate provides percentages of DNA found in regions shown on the map by fully colored shapes – green in Europe in the example above. Genetic Communities show how your DNA clusters with other people in specific regions of the world – shown with dotted clusters in the US in this example.

In my case, my ethnicity at Ancestry shows my European roots, illustrated by the green highlighted areas, and my two Genetic Communities are shown by yellow and red dotted regions in the United States.

My assigned Genetic Communities indicate that my DNA clusters with other people whose ancestors lived in two regions; The Lower Midwest and Virginia as well as the Alleghenies and Northeast Indiana.

Testers can then view their DNA matches within that community, as well as a group of surnames common within that community.

The Genetic Communities provided for me are accurate, but don’t expect all of your genealogical regions to be represented in Genetic Communities. For example, my DNA is 25% German, and I don’t have any German communities today, although ancestry will be adding new Genetic Communities as new clusters are formed.

You can read more about Genetic Communities here and here.

Ethnicity – 23andMe

In addition to ethnicity percentage estimates, called Ancestry Composition, 23andMe offers the ability to compare your Ancestry Composition against that of your parent to see which portions of your ethnicity you inherited from each parent, although there are problems with this tool incorrectly assigning parental segments.

Additionally, 23andMe paints your chromosome segments with your ethnic heritage, as shown below.

You can see that my yellow Native American segments appear on chromosomes 1 and 2.

In January 2017, 23andMe introduced their Ancestry Timeline, which I find to be extremely misleading and inaccurate. On my timeline, shown below, they estimate that my most recent British and Irish ancestor was found in my tree between 1900 and 1930 while in reality my most recent British/Irish individual found in my tree was born in England in 1759.

I do not view 23andMe’s Ancestry Timeline as a benefit to the genealogist, having found that it causes people to draw very misleading conclusions, even to the point of questioning their parentage based on the results. I wrote about their Ancestry Timeline here.

Ethnicity Summary

All three vendors provide both ethnicity percentage estimates and maps. All three vendors provide additional tools and features relevant to ethnicity. Vendors also provide matching to other people which may or may not be of interest to people who test only for ethnicity. “Who you are” only begins with ethnicity estimates.

DNA test costs are similar, although the Family Tree DNA test is less at $89. All three vendors have sales from time to time.

Ethnicity Vendor Summary Chart

Ethnicity testing is an autosomal DNA test and is available for both males and females.

Family Tree DNA Ancestry 23andMe
Ethnicity Test Included with $89 Family Finder test Included with $99 Ancestry DNA test Included with $99 Ancestry Service
Percentages and Maps Yes Yes Yes
Shared Ethnicity with Matches Yes No Yes
Additional Feature Y and mtDNA mapping of ethnicity matches Genetic Communities Ethnicity phasing against parent (has issues)
Additional Feature Ancient Origins Ethnicity mapping by chromosome
Additional Feature Ancient DNA Project Ancestry Timeline


Adoption and Parental Identity

DNA testing is extremely popular among adoptees and others in search of missing parents and grandparents.

The techniques used for adoption and parental search are somewhat different than those used for more traditional genealogy, although non-adoptees may wish to continue to read this section because many of the features that are important to adoptees are important to other testers as well.

Adoptees often utilize autosomal DNA somewhat differently than traditional genealogists by using a technique called mirror trees. In essence, the adoptee utilizes the trees posted online of their closest DNA matches to search for common family lines within those trees. The common family lines will eventually lead to the individuals within those common trees that are candidates to be the parents of the searcher.

Here’s a simplified hypothetical example of my tree and a first cousin adoptee match.

The adoptee matches me at a first cousin level, meaning that we share at least one common grandparent – but which one? Looking at other people the adoptee matches, or the adoptee and I both match, we find Edith Lore (or her ancestors) in the tree of multiple matches. Since Edith Lore is my grandmother, the adoptee is predicted to be my first cousin, and Edith Lore’s ancestors appear in the trees of our common matches – that tells us that Edith Lore is also the (probable) grandmother of the adoptee.

Looking at the possibilities for how Edith Lore can fit into the tree of me and the adoptee, as first cousins, we fine the following scenario.

Testing the known child of daughter Ferverda will then provide confirmation of this relationship if the known child proves to be a half sibling to the adoptee.

Therefore, close matches, the ability to contact matches and trees are very important to adoptees. I recommend that adoptees make contact with www.dnaadoption.com. The volunteers there specialize in adoptions and adoptees, provide search angels to help people and classes to teach adoptees how to utilize the techniques unique to adoption search such as building mirror trees.

For adoptees, the first rule is to test with all 3 major vendors plus MyHeritage. Family Tree DNA allows you to test with both 23andMe and Ancestry and subsequently transfer your results to Family Tree DNA, but I would strongly suggest adoptees test on the Family Tree DNA platform instead. Your match results from transferring to Family Tree DNA from other companies, except for MyHeritage, will be fewer and less reliable because both 23andMe and Ancestry utilize different chip technology.

For most genealogists, MyHeritage is not a player, as they have only recently entered the testing arena, have a very small data base, no tools and are having matching issues. I recently wrote about MyHeritage here. However, adoptees may want to test with MyHeritage, or upload your results to MyHeritage if you tested with Family Tree DNA, because your important puzzle-solving match just might have tested there and no place else. You can read about transfer kit compatibility and who accepts which vendors’ tests here.

Adoptees can benefit from ethnicity estimates at the continental level, meaning that regional (within continent) or minority ethnicity should be taken with a very large grain of salt. However, knowing that you have 25% Jewish heritage, for example, can be a very big clue to an adoptee’s search.

Another aspect of the adoptees search that can be relevant is the number of foreign testers. For many years, neither 23andMe, nor Ancestry tested substantially (or at all) outside the US. Family Tree DNA has always tested internationally and has a very strong Jewish data base component.

Not all vendors report X chromosome matches. The X chromosome is important to genetic genealogy, because it has a unique inheritance path. Men don’t inherit an X chromosome from their fathers. Therefore, if you match someone on the X chromosome, you know the relationship, for a male, must be from their mother’s side. For a female, the relationship must be from the mother or the father’s mother’s side. You can read more about X chromosome matching here.

Neither Ancestry nor MyHeritage have chromosome browsers which allow you to view the segments of DNA on which you match other individuals, which includes the X chromosome.

Adoptee Y and Mitochondrial Testing

In addition to autosomal DNA testing, adoptees will want to test their Y DNA (males only) and mitochondrial DNA.

These tests are different from autosomal DNA which tests the DNA you receive from all of your ancestors. Y and mitochondrial DNA focus on only one specific line, respectively. Y DNA is inherited by men from their fathers and the Y chromosome is passed from father to son from time immemorial. Therefore, testing the Y chromosome provides us with the ability to match to current people as well as to use the Y chromosome as a tool to look far back in time. Adoptees tend to be most interested in matching current people, at least initially.

Working with male adoptees, I have a found that about 30% of the time a male will match strongly to a particular surname, especially at higher marker levels. That isn’t always true, but adoptees will never know if they don’t test. An adoptee’s match list is shown at 111 markers, below.

Furthermore, utilizing the Y and mitochondrial DNA test in conjunction with autosomal DNA matching at Family Tree DNA helps narrows possible relatives. The Advanced Matching feature allows you to see who you match on both the Y (or mitochondrial) DNA lines AND the autosomal test, in combination.

Mitochondrial DNA tests the matrilineal line only, as women pass their mitochondrial DNA to all of their children, but only females pass it on. Family Tree DNA provides matching and advanced combination matching/searching for mitochondrial DNA as well as Y DNA. Both genders of children carry their mother’s mitochondrial DNA. Unfortunately, mitochondrial DNA is more difficult to work with because of the surname changes in each generation, but you cannot be descended from a woman, or her direct matrilineal ancestors if you don’t substantially match her mitochondrial DNA.

Some vendors state that you receive mitochondrial DNA with your autosomal results, which is only partly accurate. At 23andMe, you receive a haplogroup but no detailed results and no matching. 23andMe does not test the entire mitochondria and therefore cannot provide either advanced haplogroup placement nor Y or mitochondrial DNA matching between testers.

For additional details on the Y and Mitochondrial DNA tests themselves and what you receive, please see the Genealogy – Y and Mitochondrial DNA section.

Adoption Summary

Adoptees should test with all 4 vendors plus Y and mitochondrial DNA testing.

  • Ancestry – due to their extensive data base size and trees
  • Family Tree DNA – due to their advanced tools, chromosome browser, Y and mitochondrial DNA tests (Ancestry and 23andMe participants can transfer autosomal raw data files and see matches for free, but advanced tools require either an unlock fee or a test on the Family Tree DNA platform)
  • 23andMe – no trees and many people don’t participate in sharing genetic information
  • MyHeritage – new kid on the block, working through what is hoped are startup issues
  • All adoptees should take the full mitochondrial sequence test.
  • Male adoptees should take the 111 marker Y DNA test, although you can start with 37 or 67 markers and upgrade later.
  • Y and mitochondrial tests are only available at Family Tree DNA.

Adoptee Vendor Feature Summary Chart

Family Tree DNA Ancestry 23andMe MyHeritage
Autosomal DNA – Males and Females
Matching Yes Yes Yes Yes – problems
Relationship Estimates* Yes – May be too close Yes – May be too distant Yes – Matches may not be sharing Yes –  problematic
International Reach Very strong Not strong but growing Not strong Small but subscriber base is European focused
Trees Yes Yes No Yes
Tree Quantity 54% have trees, 46% no tree (of my first 100 matches) 56% have trees, 44% no tree or private (of my first 100 matches) No trees ~50% don’t have trees or are private (cannot discern private tree without clicking on every tree)
Data Base Size Large Largest Large – but not all opt in to matching Very small
My # of Matches on 4-23-2017 2,421 23,750 1,809 but only 1,114 are sharing 75
Subscription Required No No for partial, Yes for full functionality including access to matches’ trees, minimal subscription for $49 by calling Ancestry No No for partial, Yes for full functionality
Other Relevant Tools New Ancestor Discoveries
Autosomal DNA Issues Many testers don’t have trees Many testers don’t have trees Matching opt-in is problematic, no trees at all Matching issues, small data base size is problematic, many testers don’t have trees
Contact Methodology E-mail address provided to matches Internal message system – known delivery issues Internal message system Internal message system
X Chromosome Matching Yes No Yes No
Y-DNA – Males Only
Y DNA STR Test Yes- 37, 67, and 111 markers No No No
Y Haplogroup Yes as part of STR test plus additional testing available No Yes, basic level but no additional testing available, outdated haplogroups No
Y Matching Yes No No No
Advanced Matching Between Y and Autosomal Yes No No No
Mitochondrial DNA- Males and Females
Test Yes, partial and full sequence No No No
Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroup Yes, included in test No Yes, basic but full haplogroup not available, haplogroup several versions behind No
Advanced Matching Between Mitochondrial and Autosomal Yes No No No

Genealogy – Cousin Matching and Ancestor Search/Verification

People who want to take a DNA test to find cousins, to learn more about their genealogy, to verify their genealogy research or to search for unknown ancestors and break down brick walls will be interested in various types of testing

Test Type Who Can Test
Y DNA – direct paternal line Males only
Mitochondrial DNA – direct matrilineal line Males and Females
Autosomal – all lines Males and Females

Let’s begin with autosomal DNA testing for genealogy which tests your DNA inherited from all ancestral lines.

Aside from ethnicity, autosomal DNA testing provides matches to other people who have tested. A combination of trees, meaning their genealogy, and their chromosome segments are used to identify (through trees) and verify (through DNA segments) common ancestor(s) and then to assign a particular DNA segment(s) to that ancestor or ancestral couple. This process, called triangulation, then allows you to assign specific segments to particular ancestors, through segment matching among multiple people. You then know that when another individual matches you and those other people on the same segment, that the DNA comes from that same lineage. Triangulation is the only autosomal methodology to confirm ancestors who are not close relatives, beyond the past 2-3 generations or so.

All three vendors provide matching, but the tools they include and their user interfaces are quite different. 

Genealogy – Autosomal –  Family Tree DNA

Family Tree DNA entered DNA testing years before any of the others, initially with Y and mitochondrial DNA testing.

Because of the diversity of their products, their website is somewhat busier, but they do a good job of providing areas on the tester’s personal landing page for each of the products and within each product, a link for each feature or function.

For example, the Family Finder test is Family Tree DNA’s autosomal test. Within that product, tools provided are:

  • Matching
  • Chromosome Browser
  • Linked Relationships
  • myOrigins
  • Ancient Origins
  • Matrix
  • Advanced Matching

Unique autosomal tools provided by Family Tree DNA are:

  • Linked Relationships that allows you to connect individuals that you match to their location in your tree, indicating the proper relationship. Phased Family Matching uses these relationships within your tree to indicate which side of your tree other matches originate from.
  • Phased Family Matching shows which side of your tree, maternal, paternal or both, someone descends from, based on phased DNA matching between you and linked relationship matches as distant as third cousins. This allows Family Tree DNA to tell you whether matches are paternal (blue icon), maternal (red icon) or both (purple icon) without a parent’s DNA. This is one of the best autosomal tools at Family Tree DNA, shown below.

  • In Common With and Not In Common With features allow you to sort your matches in common with another individual a number of ways, or matches not in common with that individual.
  • Filtered downloads provide the downloading of chromosome data for your filtered match list.
  • Stackable filters and searches – for example, you can select paternal matches and then search for a particular surname or ancestral surname within the paternal matches.
  • Common ethnicity matching through myOrigins allows you to see selected groups of individuals who match you and share common ethnicities.
  • Y and mtDNA locations of autosomal matches are provided on your ethnicity map through myOrigins.
  • Advanced matching tool includes Y, mtDNA and autosomal in various combinations. Also includes matches within projects where the tester is a member as well as by partial surname.
  • The matrix tool allows the tester to enter multiple people that they match in order to see if those individuals also match each other. The matrix tool is, in combination with the in-common-with tool and the chromosome browser is a form of pseudo triangulation, but does not indicate that the individuals match on the same segment.

  • Chromosome browser with the ability to select different segment match thresholds to display when comparing 5 or fewer individuals to your results.
  • Projects to join which provide group interaction and allow individuals to match only within the project, if desired.

To read more about how to utilize the various autosomal tools at Family Tree DNA, with examples, click here.

Genealogy – Autosomal – Ancestry

Ancestry only offers autosomal DNA testing to their customers, so their page is simple and straightforward.

Ancestry is the only testing vendor (other than MyHeritage who is not included in this section) to require a subscription for full functionality, although if you call the Ancestry support line, a minimal subscription is available for $49. You can see your matches without a subscription, but you cannot see your matches trees or utilize other functions, so you will not be able to tell how you connect to your matches. Many genealogists have Ancestry subscriptions, so this is minimally problematic for most people.

However, if you don’t realize you need a subscription initially, the required annual subscription raises the effective cost of the test quite substantially. If you let your subscription lapse, you no longer have access to all DNA features. The cost of testing with Ancestry is the cost of the test plus the cost of a subscription if you aren’t already a subscriber.

This chart, from the Ancestry support center, provides details on which features are included for free and which are only available with a subscription.

Unique tools provided by Ancestry include:

  • Shared Ancestor Hints (green leaves) which indicate a match with whom you share a common ancestor in your tree connected to your DNA, allowing you to display the path of you and your match to the common ancestor. In order to take advantage of this feature, testers must link their tree to their DNA test. Otherwise, Ancestry can’t do tree matching.  As far as I’m concerned, this is the single most useful DNA tool at Ancestry. Subscription required.

  • DNA Circles, example below, are created when several people whose DNA matches also share a common ancestor. Subscription required.

  • New Ancestor Discoveries (NADs), which are similar to Circles, but are formed when you match people descended from a common ancestor, but don’t have that ancestor in your tree. The majority of the time, these NADs are incorrect and are, when dissected and the source can be determined, found to be something like the spouse of a sibling of your ancestor. I do not view NADs as a benefit, more like a wild goose chase, but for some people these could be useful so long as the individual understands that these are NOT definitely ancestors and only hints for research. Subscription required.
  • Ancestry uses a proprietary algorithm called Timber to strip DNA from you and your matches that they consider to be “too matchy,” with the idea that those segments are identical by population, meaning likely to be found in large numbers within a population group – making them meaningless for genealogy. The problem is that Timber results in the removal of valid segments, especially in endogamous groups like Acadian families. This function is unique to Ancestry, but many genealogists (me included) don’t consider Timber a benefit.
  • Genetic Communities shows you groups of individuals with whom your DNA clusters. The trees of cluster members are then examined by Ancestry to determine connections from which Genetic Communities are formed. You can filter your DNA match results by Genetic Community.

Genealogy – Autosomal – 23and Me

Unfortunately, the 23andMe website is not straightforward or intuitive. They have spent the majority of the past two years transitioning to a “New Experience” which has resulted in additional confusion and complications when matching between people on multiple different platforms. You can take a spin through the New Experience by clicking here.

23andMe requires people to opt-in to sharing, even after they have selected to participate in Ancestry Services (genealogy) testing, have opted-in previously and chosen to view their DNA Relatives. Users on the “New Experience” can then either share chromosome data and results with each other individually, meaning on a one by one basis, or globally by a one-time opt-in to “open sharing” with matches. If a user does not opt-in to both DNA Relatives and open sharing, sharing requests must be made individually to each match, and they must opt-in to share with each individual user. This complexity and confusion results in an approximate sharing rate of between 50 and 60%. One individual who religiously works their matches by requesting sharing now has a share rate of about 80% of their matches in the data base who HAVE initially selected to participate in DNA Relatives. You can read more about the 23andMe experience at this link.

Various genetic genealogy reports and tools are scattered between the Reports and Tools tabs, and within those, buried in non-intuitive locations. If you are going to utilize 23andMe for matching and genealogy, in addition to the above link, I recommend Kitty Cooper’s blogs about the new DNA Relatives here and on triangulation here. Print the articles, and use them as a guide while navigating the 23andMe site.

Note that some screens (the Tools, DNA Relatives, then DNA tab) on the site do not display/work correctly utilizing Internet Explorer, but do with Edge or other browsers.

The one genealogy feature unique to 23andMe is:

  • Triangulation at 23andMe allows you to select a specific match to compare your DNA against. Several pieces of information will be displayed, the last of which, scrolling to the bottom, is a list of your common relatives with the person you selected.

In the example below, I’ve selected to see the matches I match in common with known family member, Stacy Den (surnames have been obscured for privacy reasons.)  Please note that the Roberta V4 Estes kit is a second test that I took for comparison purposes when the new V4 version of 23andMe was released.  Just ignore that match, because, of course I match myself as a twin.

If an individual does not match both you and your selected match, they will not appear on this list.

In the “relatives in common” section, each person is listed with a “shared DNA” column. For a person to be shown on this “in common” list, you obviously do share DNA with these individuals and they also share with your match, but the “shared DNA” column goes one step further. This column indicates whether or not you and your match both share a common DNA segment with the “in common” person.

I know this is confusing, so I’ve created this chart to illustrate what will appear in the “Shared DNA” column of the individuals showing on the list of matches, above, shared between me and Stacy Den.

Clicking on “Share to see” sends Sarah a sharing request for her to allow you to see her segment matches.

Let’s look at an example with “yes” in the Shared DNA column.

Clicking on the “Yes” in the Shared DNA column of Debbie takes us to the chromosome browser which shows both your selected match, Stacy in my case, and Debbie, the person whose “yes” you clicked.

All three people, meaning me, Stacy and Debbie share a common DNA segment, shown below on chromosome 17.

What 23andMe does NOT say is that these people. Stacy and Debbie, also match each other, in addition to matching me, which means all three of us triangulate.

Because I manage Stacy’s kit at 23andMe, I can check to see if Debbie is on Stacy’s match list, and indeed, Debbie is on Stacy’s match list and Stacy does match both Debbie and me on chromosome 17 in exactly the same location shown above, proving unquestionably that the three of us all match each other and therefore triangulate on this segment. In our case, it’s easy to identify our common relative whose DNA all 3 of us share.

Genealogy – Autosomal Summary

While all 3 vendors offer matching, their interfaces and tools vary widely.

I would suggest that Ancestry is the least sophisticated and has worked hard to make their tools easy for the novice working with genetic genealogy. Their green leaf DNA+Tree Matching is their best feature, easy to use and important for the novice and experienced genealogist alike.  Now, if they just had that chromosome browser so we could see how we match those people.

Ancestry’s Circles, while a nice feature, encourage testers to believe that their DNA or relationship is confirmed by finding themselves in a Circle, which is not the case.

Circles can be formed as the result of misinformation in numerous trees. For example, if I were to inaccurately list Smith as the surname for one of my ancestor’s wives, I would find myself in a Circle for Barbara Smith, when in fact, there is absolutely no evidence whatsoever that her surname is Smith. Yet, people think that Barbara Smith is confirmed due to a Circle having been formed and finding themselves in Barbara Smith’s Circle. Copying incorrect trees equals the formation of incorrect Circles.

It’s also possible that I’m matching people on multiple lines and my DNA match to the people in any given Circle is through another common ancestor entirely.

A serious genealogist will test minimally at Ancestry and at Family Tree DNA, who provides a chromosome browser and other tools necessary to confirm relationships and shared DNA segments.

Family Tree DNA is more sophisticated, so consequently more complex to use.  They provide matching plus numerous other tools. The website and matching is certainly friendly for the novice, but to benefit fully, some experience or additional education is beneficial, not unlike traditional genealogy research itself. This is true not just for Family Tree DNA, but GedMatch and 23andMe who all three utilize chromosome browsers.

The user will want to understand what a chromosome browser is indicating about matching DNA segments, so some level of education makes life a lot easier. Fortunately, understanding chromosome browser matching is not complex. You can read an article about Match Groups and Triangulation here. I also have an entire series of Concepts articles, Family Tree DNA offers a webinar library, their Learning Center and other educational resources are available as well.

Family Tree DNA is the only vendor to provide Phased Family Matches, meaning that by connecting known relatives who have DNA tested to your tree, Family Tree DNA can then identify additional matches as maternal, paternal or both. This, in combination with pseudo-phasing are very powerful matching tools.

23andMe is the least friendly of the three companies, with several genetic genealogy unfriendly restrictions relative to matching, opt-ins, match limits and such. They have experienced problem after problem for years relative to genetic genealogy, which has always been a second-class citizen compared to their medical research, and not a priority.

23andMe has chosen to implement a business model where their customers must opt-in to share segment information with other individuals, either one by one or by opting into open sharing. Based on my match list, roughly 60% of my actual DNA matches have opted in to sharing.

Their customer base includes fewer serious genealogists and their customers often are not interested in genealogy at all.

Having said that, 23andMe is the only one of the three that provides actual triangulated matches for users on the New Experience and who have opted into sharing.

If I were entering the genetic genealogy testing space today, I would test my autosomal DNA at Ancestry and at Family Tree DNA, but I would probably not test at 23andMe. I would test both my Y DNA (if a male) and mitochondrial at Family Tree DNA.

Thank you to Kitty Cooper for assistance with parent/child matching and triangulation at 23andMe.

Genealogy Autosomal Vendor Feature Summary Chart

Family Tree DNA Ancestry 23andMe
Matching Yes Yes Yes – each person has to opt in for open sharing or authorize sharing individually, many don’t
Estimated Relationships Yes Yes Yes
Chromosome Browser Yes No – Large Issue Yes
Chromosome Browser Threshold Adjustment Yes No Chromosome Browser No
X Chromosome Matching Yes No Yes
Trees Yes Yes – subscription required so see matches’ trees No
Ability to upload Gedcom file Yes Yes No
Ability to search trees Yes Yes No
Subscription in addition to DNA test price No No for partial, Yes for full functionality, minimal subscription for $49 by calling Ancestry No
DNA + Ancestor in Tree Matches No Yes – Leaf Hints – subscription required – Best Feature No
Phased Parental Side Matching Yes – Best Feature No No
Parent Match Indicator Yes No Yes
Sort or Group by Parent Match Yes Yes Yes
In Common With Tool Yes Yes Yes
Not In Common With Tool Yes No No
Triangulated Matches No – pseudo with ICW, browser and matrix No Yes – Best Feature
Common Surnames Yes Yes – subscription required No
Ability to Link DNA Matches on Tree Yes No No
Matrix to show match grid between multiple matches Yes No No
Match Filter Tools Yes Minimal Some
Advanced Matching Tool Yes No No
Multiple Test Matching Tool Yes No multiple tests No multiple tests
Ethnicity Matching Yes No Yes
Projects Yes No No
Maximum # of Matches Restricted No No Yes – 2000 unless you are communicating with the individuals, then they are not removed from your match list
All Customers Participate Yes Yes, unless they don’t have a subscription No – between 50-60% opt-in
Accepts Transfers from Other Testing Companies Yes No No
Free Features with Transfer Matching, ICW, Matrix, Advanced Matching No transfers No transfers
Transfer Features Requiring Unlock $ Chromosome Browser, Ethnicity, Ancient Origins, Linked Relationships, Parentally Phased Matches No Transfers No transfers
Archives DNA for Later Testing Yes, 25 years No, no additional tests available No, no additional tests available
Additional Tool DNA Circles – subscription required
Additional Tool New Ancestor Discoveries – subscription required
Y DNA Not included in autosomal test but is additional test, detailed results including matching No Haplogroup only
Mitochondrial DNA Not included in autosomal test but is additional test, detailed results including matching No Haplogroup only
Advanced Testing Available Yes No No
Website Intuitive Yes, given their many tools Yes, very simple No
Data Base Size Large Largest Large but many do not test for genealogy, only test for health
Strengths Many tools, multiple types of tests, phased matching without parent DNA + Tree matching, size of data base Triangulation
Challenges Website episodically times out No chromosome browser or advanced tools Sharing is difficult to understand and many don’t, website is far from intuitive


Genealogy – Y and Mitochondrial DNA

Two indispensable tools for genetic genealogy that are often overlooked are Y and mitochondrial DNA.

The inheritance path for Y DNA is shown by the blue squares and the inheritance path for mitochondrial DNA is shown by the red circles for the male and female siblings shown at the bottom of the chart.

Y-DNA Testing for Males

Y DNA is inherited by males only, from their father. The Y chromosome makes males male. Women instead inherit an X chromosome from their father, which makes them female. Because the Y chromosome is not admixed with the DNA of the mother, the same Y chromosome has been passed down through time immemorial.

Given that the Y chromosome follows the typical surname path, Y DNA testing is very useful for confirming surname lineage to an expected direct paternal ancestor. In other words, an Estes male today should match, with perhaps a few mutations, to other descendants of Abraham Estes who was born in 1647 in Kent, England and immigrated to the colony of Virginia.

Furthermore, that same Y chromosome can look far back in time, thousands of years, to tell us where that English group of Estes men originated, before the advent of surnames and before the migration to England from continental Europe. I wrote about the Estes Y DNA here, so you can see an example of how Y DNA testing can be used.

Y DNA testing for matching and haplogroup identification, which indicates where in the world your ancestors were living within the past few hundred to few thousand years, is only available from Family Tree DNA. Testing can be purchased for either 37, 67 or 111 markers, with the higher marker numbers providing more granularity and specificity in matching.

Family Tree DNA provides three types of Y DNA tests.

  • STR (short tandem repeat) testing is the traditional Y DNA testing for males to match to each other in a genealogically relevant timeframe. These tests can be ordered in panels of 37, 67 or 111 markers and lower levels can be upgraded to higher levels at a later date. An accurate base haplogroup prediction is made from STR markers.
  • SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) testing is a different type of testing that tests single locations for mutations in order to confirm and further refine haplogroups. Think of a haplogroup as a type of genetic clan, meaning that haplogroups are used to track migration of humans through time and geography, and are what is utilized to determine African, European, Asian or Native heritage in the direct paternal line. SNP tests are optional and can be ordered one at a time, in groups called panels for a particular haplogroup or a comprehensive research level Y DNA test called the Big Y can be ordered after STR testing.
  • The Big Y test is a research level test that scans the entire Y chromosome to determine the most refined haplogroup possible and to report any previously unknown mutations (SNPs) that may define further branches of the Y DNA tree. This is the technique used to expand the Y haplotree.

You can read more about haplogroups here and about the difference between STR markers and SNPs here, here and here.

Customers receive the following features and tools when they purchase a Y DNA test at Family Tree DNA or the Ancestry Services test at 23andMe. The 23andMe Y DNA information is included in their Ancestry Services test. The Family Tree DNA Y DNA information requires specific tests and is not included in the Family Finder test. You can click here to read about the difference in the technology between Y DNA testing at Family Tree DNA and at 23andMe. Ancestry is not included in this comparison because they provide no Y DNA related information.

Y DNA Vendor Feature Summary Chart

Family Tree DNA 23andMe
Varying levels of STR panel marker testing Yes, in panels of 37, 67 and 111 markers No
Test panel (STR) marker results Yes Not tested
Haplogroup assignment Yes – accurate estimate with STR panels, deeper testing available Yes –base haplogroup by scan – haplogroup designations are significantly out of date, no further testing available
SNP testing to further define haplogroup Yes – can purchase individual SNPs, by SNP panels or Big Y test No
Matching to other participants Yes No
Trees available for your matches Yes No
E-mail of matches provided Yes No
Calculator tool to estimate probability of generational distance between you and a match Yes No
Earliest known ancestor information Yes No
Projects Surname, haplogroup and geographic projects No
Ability to search Y matches Yes No Y matching
Ability to search matches within projects Yes No projects
Ability to search matches by partial surname Yes No
Haplotree and customer result location on tree Yes, detailed with every branch Yes, less detailed, subset
Terminal SNP used to determine haplogroup Yes Yes, small subset available
Haplogroup Map Migration map Heat map
Ancestral Origins – summary by ancestral location of others you match, by test level Yes No
Haplogroup Origins – match ancestral location summary by haplogroup, by test level Yes No
SNP map showing worldwide locations of any selected SNP Yes No
Matches map showing mapped locations of your matches most distant ancestor in the paternal line, by test panel Yes No
Big Y – full scan of Y chromosome for known and previously unknown mutations (SNPs) Yes No
Big Y matching Yes No
Big Y matching known SNPs Yes No
Big Y matching novel variants (unknown or yet unnamed SNPs) Yes No
Filter Big Y matches Yes No
Big Y results Yes No
Advanced matching for multiple test types Yes No
DNA is archived so additional tests or upgrades can be ordered at a later date Yes, 25 years No

Mitochondrial DNA Testing for Everyone

Mitochondrial DNA is contributed to both genders of children by mothers, but only the females pass it on. Like the Y chromosome, mitochondrial DNA is not admixed with the DNA of the other parent. Therefore, anyone can test for the mitochondrial DNA of their matrilineal line, meaning their mother’s mother’s mother’s lineage.

Matching can identify family lines as well as ancient lineage.

You receive the following features and tools when you purchase a mitochondrial DNA test from Family Tree DNA or the Ancestry Services test from 23andMe. The Family Tree DNA mitochondrial DNA information requires specific tests and is not included in the Family Finder test. The 23andMe mitochondrial information is provided with the Ancestry Services test. Ancestry is omitted from this comparison because they do not provide any mitochondrial information.

Mitochondrial DNA Vendor Feature Summary Chart

Family Tree DNA 23andMe
Varying levels of testing Yes, mtPlus and Full Sequence No
Test panel marker results Yes, in two formats, CRS and RSRS No
Rare mutations, missing and extra mutations, insertions and deletions reported Yes No
Haplogroup assignment Yes, most current version, Build 17 Yes, partial and out of date version
Matching to other participants Yes No
Trees of matches available to view Yes No
E-mail address provided to matches Yes No
Earliest known ancestor information Yes No
Projects Surname, haplogroup and geographic available No
Ability to search matches Yes No
Ability to search matches within project Yes No projects
Ability to search match by partial surname Yes No
Haplotree and customer location on tree No Yes
Mutations used to determine haplogroup provided Yes No
Haplogroup Map Migration map Heat map
Ancestral Origins – summary by ancestral location of others you match, by test level Yes No
Haplogroup Origins –match ancestral location summary by haplogroup Yes No
Matches map showing mapped locations of your matches most distant ancestor in the maternal line, by test level Yes No
Advanced matching for multiple test types Yes No
DNA is archived so additional tests or upgrades can be ordered at a later date Yes, 25 years No


Overall Genealogy Summary

Serious genealogists should test with at least two of the three major vendors, being Family Tree DNA and Ancestry, with 23andMe coming in as a distant third.

No genetic genealogy testing regimen is complete without Y and mitochondrial DNA for as many ancestral lines as you can find to test. You don’t know what you don’t know, and you’ll never know if you don’t test.

Unfortunately, many people, especially new testers, don’t know Y and mitochondrial DNA testing for genetic genealogy exists, or how it can help their genealogy research, which is extremely ironic since these were the first tests available, back in 2000.

You can read about finding Y and mitochondrial information for various family lines and ancestors and how to assemble a DNA Pedigree Chart here.

You can also take a look at my 52 Ancestors series, where I write about an ancestor every week. Each article includes some aspect of DNA testing and knowledge gained by a test or tests, DNA tool, or comparison. The DNA aspect of these articles focuses on how to use DNA as a tool to discover more about your ancestors.

Testing for Medical/Health or Traits

The DTC market also includes health and medical testing, although it’s not nearly as popular as genetic genealogy.

Health/medical testing is offered by 23andMe, who also offers autosomal DNA testing for genealogy.

Some people do want to know if they have genetic predispositions to medical conditions, and some do not. Some want to know if they have certain traits that aren’t genealogically relevant, but might be interesting – such as whether they carry the Warrior gene or if they have an alcohol flush reaction.

23andMe was the first company to dip their toes into the water of Direct to Consumer medical information, although they called it “health,” not medicine, at that time. Regardless of the terminology, information regarding Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s, for example, were provided for customers. 23andMe attempted to take the raw data and provide the consumer with something approaching a middle of the road analysis, because sometimes the actual studies provide conflicting information that might not be readily understood by consumers.

The FDA took issue with 23andMe back in November of 2013 when they ordered 23andMe to discontinue the “health” aspect of their testing after 23andMe ignored several deadlines. In October 2015, 23andMe obtained permission to provide customers with some information, such as carrier status, for 36 genetic disorders.

Since that time, 23andMe has divided their product into two separate tests, with two separate prices. The genealogy only test called Ancestry Service can be purchased separately for $99, or the combined Health + Ancestry Service for $199.

If you are interested in seeing what the Health + Ancestry test provides, you can click here to view additional information.

However, there is a much easier and less expensive solution.

If you have taken the autosomal test from 23andMe, Ancestry or Family Tree DNA, you can download your raw data file from the vendor and upload to Promethease to obtain a much more in-depth report than is provided by 23andMe, and much less expensively – just $5.

I reviewed the Promethease service here. I found the Promethease reports to be very informative and I like the fact that they provide information, both positive and negative for each SNP (DNA location) reported. Promethease avoids FDA problems by not providing any interpretation or analysis, simply the data and references extracted from SNPedia for you to review.

I would be remiss if I didn’t mention that you should be sure you really want to know before you delve into medical testing. Some mutations are simply indications that you could develop a condition that you will never develop or that is not serious. Other mutations are not so benign. Promethease provides this candid page before you upload your data.

Different files from different vendors provide different results at Promethease, because those vendors test different SNP locations in your DNA. At the Promethease webpage, you can view examples.


Traits fall someplace between genealogy and health. When you take the Health + Ancestry test at 23andMe, you do receive information about various traits, as follows:

Of course, you’ll probably already know if you have several of these traits by just taking a look in the mirror, or in the case of male back hair, by asking your wife.

At Family Tree DNA, existing customers can order tests for Factoids (by clicking on the upgrade button), noted as curiosity tests for gene variants.

Family Tree DNA provides what I feel is a great summary and explanation of what the Factoids are testing on their order page:

“Factoids” are based on studies – some of which may be controversial – and results are not intended to diagnose disease or medical conditions, and do not serve the purpose of medical advice. They are offered exclusively for curiosity purposes, i.e. to see how your result compared with what the scientific papers say. Other genetic and environmental variables may also impact these same physiological characteristics. They are merely a conversational piece, or a “cocktail party” test, as we like to call it.”

Test Price Description
Alcohol Flush Reaction $19 A condition in which the body cannot break down ingested alcohol completely. Flushing, after consuming one or two alcoholic beverages, includes a range of symptoms: nausea, headaches, light-headedness, an increased pulse, occasional extreme drowsiness, and occasional skin swelling and itchiness. These unpleasant side effects often prevent further drinking that may lead to further inebriation, but the symptoms can lead to mistaken assumption that the people affected are more easily inebriated than others.
Avoidance of Errors $29 We are often angry at ourselves because we are unable to learn from certain experiences. Numerous times we have made the wrong decision and its consequences were unfavorable. But the cause does not lie only in our thinking. A mutation in a specific gene can also be responsible, because it can cause a smaller number of dopamine receptors. They are responsible for remembering our wrong choices, which in turn enables us to make better decisions when we encounter a similar situation.
Back Pain $39 Lumbar disc disease is the drying out of the spongy interior matrix of an intervertebral disc in the spine. Many physicians and patients use the term lumbar disc disease to encompass several different causes of back pain or sciatica. A study of Asian patients with lumbar disc disease showed that a mutation in the CILP gene increases the risk of back pain.
Bitter Taste Perception $29 There are several genes that are responsible for bitter taste perception – we test 3 of them. Different variations of this gene affect ability to detect bitter compounds. About 25% of people lack ability to detect these compounds due to gene mutations. Are you like them? Maybe you don’t like broccoli, because it tastes too bitter?
Caffeine Metabolism $19 According to the results of a case-control study reported in the March 8, 2006 issue of JAMA, coffee is the most widely consumed stimulant in the world, and caffeine consumption has been associated with increased risk for non-fatal myocardial infarction. Caffeine is primarily metabolized by the cytochrome P450 1A2 in the liver, accounting for 95% of metabolism. Carriers of the gene variant *1F allele are slow caffeine metabolizers, whereas individuals homozygous for the *1A/*1A genotype are rapid caffeine metabolizers.
Earwax Type $19 Whether your earwax is wet or dry is determined by a mutation in a single gene, which scientists have discovered. Wet earwax is believed to have uses in insect trapping, self-cleaning and prevention of dryness in the external auditory canal of the ear. It also produces an odor and causes sweating, which may play a role as a pheromone.
Freckling $19 Freckles can be found on anyone no matter what the background. However, having freckles is genetic and is related to the presence of the dominant melanocortin-1 receptor MC1R gene variant.
Longevity $49 Researchers at Harvard Medical School and UC Davis have discovered a few genes that extend lifespan, suggesting that the whole family of SIR2 genes is involved in controlling lifespan. The findings were reported July 28, 2005 in the advance online edition of Science.
Male Pattern Baldness $19 Researchers at McGill University, King’s College London and GlaxoSmithKline Inc. have identified two genetic variants in Caucasians that together produce an astounding sevenfold increase of the risk of male pattern baldness. Their results were published in the October 12, 2008 issue of the Journal of Nature Genetics.
Monoamine Oxidase A (Warrior Gene) $49.50 The Warrior Gene is a variant of the gene MAO-A on the X chromosome. Recent studies have linked the Warrior Gene to increased risk-taking and aggressive behavior. Whether in sports, business, or other activities, scientists found that individuals with the Warrior Gene variant were more likely to be combative than those with the normal MAO-A gene. However, human behavior is complex and influenced by many factors, including genetics and our environment. Individuals with the Warrior Gene are not necessarily more aggressive, but according to scientific studies, are more likely to be aggressive than those without the Warrior Gene variant. This test is available for both men and women, however, there is limited research about the Warrior Gene variant amongst females. Additional details about the Warrior Gene genetic variant of MAO-A can be found in Sabol et al, 1998.
Muscle Performance $29 A team of researchers, led by scientists at Dartmouth Medical School and Dartmouth College, have identified and tested a gene that dramatically alters both muscle metabolism and performance. The researchers say that this finding could someday lead to treatment of muscle diseases, including helping the elderly who suffer from muscle deterioration and improving muscle performance in endurance athletes.
Nicotine Dependence $19 In 2008, University of Virginia Health System researchers have identified a gene associated with nicotine dependence in both Europeans and African Americans.

Many people are interested in the Warrior Gene, which I wrote about here.

At Promethease, traits are simply included with the rest of the conditions known to be associated with certain SNPs, such as baldness, for example, but I haven’t done a comparison to see which traits are included.


Additional Vendor Information to Consider

Before making your final decision about which test or tests to purchase, there are a few additional factors you may want to consider.

As mentioned before, Ancestry requires a subscription in addition to the cost of the DNA test for the DNA test to be fully functional.

One of the biggest issues, in my opinion, is that both 23andMe and Ancestry sell customer’s anonymized DNA information to unknown others. Every customer authorizes the sale of their information when they purchase or activate a kit – even though very few people actually take the time to read the Terms and Conditions, Privacy statements and Security documents, including any and all links. This means most people don’t realize they are authorizing the sale of their DNA.

At both 23andMe and Ancestry, you can ALSO opt in for additional non-anonymized research or sale of your DNA, which you can later opt out of. However, you cannot opt out of the lower level sale of your anonymized DNA without removing your results from the data base and asking for your sample to be destroyed. They do tell you this, but it’s very buried in the fine print at both companies. You can read more here.

Family Tree DNA does not sell your DNA or information.

All vendors can change their terms and conditions at any time. Consumers should always thoroughly read the terms and conditions including anything having to do with privacy for any product they purchase, but especially as it relates to DNA testing.

Family Tree DNA archives your DNA for later testing, which has proven extremely beneficial when a family member has passed away and a new test is subsequently introduced or the family wants to upgrade a current test.  Had my mother’s DNA not been archived at Family Tree DNA, I would not have Family Finder results for her today – something I thank Mother and Family Tree DNA for every single day.

Family Tree DNA also accepts transfer files from 23andMe, Ancestry and very shortly, MyHeritage – although some versions work better than others. For details on which companies accept which file versions, from which vendors, and why, please read Autosomal DNA Transfers – Which Companies Accept Which Tests?

If you tested on a compatible version of the 23andMe Test (V3 between December 2010 and November 2013) or the Ancestry V1 (before May 2016) you may want to transfer your raw data file to Family Tree DNA for free and pay only $19 for full functionality, as opposed to taking the Family Finder test. Family Tree DNA does accept later versions of files from 23andMe and Ancestry, but you will receive more matches if you test on the same chip platform that Family Tree DNA utilizes instead of doing a transfer.

Additional Vendor Considerations Summary Chart

Family Tree DNA Ancestry 23andMe
Subscription required in addition to cost of DNA test No Yes for full functionality, partial functionality is included without subscription, minimum subscription is $49 by calling Ancestry No
Customer Support Good and available Available, nice but often not knowledgeable about DNA Poor
Sells customer DNA information No Yes Yes
DNA raw data file available to download Yes Yes Yes
DNA matches file available to download including match info and chromosome match locations Yes No Yes
Customers genealogically focused Yes Yes Many No
Accepts DNA raw data transfer files from other companies Yes, most, see article for specifics No No
DNA archived for later testing Yes, 25 years No No
Beneficiary provision available Yes No No


Which Test is Best For You?

I hope you now know the answer as to which DNA test is best for you – or maybe it’s multiple tests for you and other family members too!

DNA testing holds so much promise for genealogy. I hesitate to call DNA testing a miracle tool, but it often is when there are no records. DNA testing works best in conjunction with traditional genealogical research.

There are a lot of tests and options.  The more tests you take, the more people you match. Some people test at multiple vendors or upload their DNA to third party sites like GedMatch, but most don’t. In order to make sure you reach those matches, which may be the match you desperately need, you’ll have to test at the vendor where they tested. Otherwise, they are lost to you. That means, of course, that eventually, if you’re a serious genealogist, you’ll be testing at all 3 vendors.  Don’t forget about Y and mitochondrial tests at Family Tree DNA.

Recruit family members to test and reach out to your matches.  The more you share and learn – the more is revealed about your ancestors. You are, after all, the unique individual that resulted from the combination of all of them!

Update: Vendor prices updated June 22, 2017.



I receive a small contribution when you click on some of the links to vendors in my articles. This does NOT increase the price you pay but helps me to keep the lights on and this informational blog free for everyone. Please click on the links in the articles or to the vendors below if you are purchasing products or DNA testing.

Thank you so much.

DNA Purchases and Free Transfers

Genealogy Services

Genealogy Research

240 thoughts on “Which DNA Test is Best?

  1. Question, had brother tested thru Family Tree DNA and ran a 12,67, and Family Finder with test. Can FTDNA run more test from the sample given in 2007 and also can it be transferred to Ancestry? Always enjoy your articles and information you so readily provide to others.

  2. This is an excellent summary of the information people need to make a decision about which test to take. Thank you, Roberta!

    A comment: I spend a lot of time working with adoptees and agree that they should do all the testing you recommend, ideally. But if an adoptee can afford only one test initially, I’d recommend it be AncestryDNA’s.


  3. Thank Roberta, I am going to keep this and study it. and study it some more. LOL!.
    As i posted recently, I tested with FTDNA in 2007 on my mtDNA FGS and am H1a1.

    For the 1st time, I tested with Family Finder and got my results back on April 18, 2017.

    I am European 100%.
    British Isles 79% and Southeastern European 21%. I looked my map over again. the darkest part of the map is the UK but it spreads out as I enlarge it, I now see that the lighter blue covers the northwest parts of Belgium, the Netherlands and the northwest part of France. I don’t know if that is an overlap or means something else.

    I understand my British descent because my mothers lineage is about most of that. i posted I didn’t understand my Southeastern European 21% coming from Greece, Italy, Sardinia, parts of the southern Balkans. I have been doing genealogy on both of my parents since 1982. I can’t explain this but was thinking it might be from migration patterns of which I have no knowledge of.

    I did send off my samples today for further testing on my origins with both 23andMe and Ancestry to compare with FTDNA results. I will post those when I get them which might be about 8 weeks. Meanwhile, I appreciate you posting this and will study it and hopefully understand my results better. I am sure that I am not the only learner here. I didn’t understand why my fathers German never showed up as his mother and her father have the surname of Rinehart. That is close enough to me that I thought it would show upon my results.

    • Marianne did you get your report back ? I’m interested to hear the difference between the kits.

      • I got all three results fro FTDNA, Ancestry and 23andMe. Their similar but I don’t have a clue where I get anything from Italy and Greece although two of the companies have me there.

        By Family Tree DNA based in Houston

        European 100%
        Broken down British Isles 79% and Southeastern European 21 % contains Italy and Greece and Balkan States

        23andMe Results
        99.7% Northwestern European 95.9%.. broken down,,,
        British & Irish 53.5%
        French & German 21.3%
        Scandinavian 1.3%
        Broadly Northwestern European 19.8%
        Southern European 1.4%
        Iberian 0.2%
        Broadly Southern European 1.2%
        Broadly European 2.3%

        Ancestry Results broken down
        Europe 100%
        Great Britain 39%
        Ireland 26%
        Europe West 14%
        Scandinavia 9%

  4. Only 36 of my top 100 matches (excluding my own kits) at FTDNA have trees. At AncestryDNA, 52 have trees linked to their DNA (6 are private), and an additional 22 have unlinked trees, for a total of 74 out of 100.

    • Ironically, only one of my top 100 at Ancestry was private. More used to be private, but I think with the influx of the newer testers that don’t have trees that the percentage of private trees has dropped and apparently gotten pushed out of the top 100. I think perhaps too that some people have realized that they can’t get all the features with a private tree so some have become public. I saw one tree with only 3 people, but I still counted it as a tree.

  5. Wow! Another labour of love! And, we love you!

    Just want to caution about Ancestry’s many levels of subscriptions and their No Refund policy. I use the World Explorer which is ~ $150 every 6 months. I can cancel at any time during this period, but there is never a refund for early cancellation. For those on a limited budget who want to try a subscription, you can do so on a monthly basis for less than $30, but if you do not want to continue, you need to call and cancel the day before, or the subscription will roll over, and they will charge you. There is no refund! At one time they had a free 2-week trial. If they still do, you have to cancel it before the expiration day, or……..you got it…..it will roll over, they will charge you, and there is no refund. They never tell you about their subscription policy, or perhaps I just missed it.

    Roberta, you mentioned the $59 level. For how long is this subscription?

    I now have more than 25,000 matches at Ancestry, and they roll in on a daily basis with about 10% trees.

    • Wow, only 10% of the new matches with trees. That’s frightening. I don’t know how long the $59 is for, positively, as I’ve never done it but I thought it was for a year. It’s is very minimal and I think it only provides you with the ability to see the trees and access the additional features for the DNA test, but I’m not positive. I couldn’t find anything about the $59 Insight version compared to the others.

  6. The chart showing what’s available at AncestryDNA with and without a subscription is either outdated or misleading. I cancelled my subscription a year ago just to find out what I could actually see without it. Not only did I lose “full” access to matches’ trees; I couldn’t access them at all. I believe there was a time when several generations were displayed to customers without subscriptions, but not anymore.

  7. I don’t like the FTDna contact system. Just my personal opinion. You’re forced to set up stuff using MSN if you want to contact anyone. They really need to change that.

    • With the Geno 2.0 NG test, you will receive your ethnicity and your Y and mtDNA haplogroups. There is nothing at all wrong with that test and their pages are nice for the consumer. You don’t receive cousin matching, as they don’t do that.

  8. Hi Roberta!

    I really find your emails informative & interesting!

    I would like to re-post this article (giving you credit, of course) on a relative’s genealogy page for one line of my relatives, if that’s OK! So many get sucked into ancestry.com because of their ads & familiarity with the website (& I don’t believe they are the best)!

    Do you have a website, so I could post a URL or link to this article or do you have this article in another format? When I tried to copy from the email, it had formatting issues & boxes, which I don’t know how to correct!

    Thank you so much!


  9. Another good option to mention is that you can test With Ancestry.com and download the raw data and upload to FamilyTreeDNA. That saves a person about $50.

    • Actually, the transfer and matching is free, as this article mentions. To unlock all features costs $19. However, if someone tested on the Ancestry V2 chip since May 2016, when Ancestry changed their chip, they will probably want to test on the FTDNA platform because they will receive about twice as many matches and their ethnicity estimates will be more detailed if they test on the chip used by FTDNA. People who tested before May of 2016 at Ancestry do not need to test on the FTDNA platform because at that time, they used the same chip.

    • Yes, I’m going to review the results shortly. Every company says they are good:) If you are all British, they would probably be a good choice for ethnicity. You don’t get cousin matching.

      • You may not get cousin matching yet, but sounds like they plan on offering matching in the near future. It’s on my to-do list later this year and I look forward to seeing your review of it. Sounds like it has some good potential and hopefully it should be transferable to GEDmatch at some point based on the number of SNPs tested. Will be interesting to see how Y-DNA and mtDNA results compare to FTDNA and 23andMe.

  10. Great article Roberta! Always so informative. I’ve been struggling with how to “attack” a report I have been working on with the information provided by some of the testing results on FamilyTree DNA. I’ve been going back and forth between the FTDNA learning site and lots of your articles. Your links within this article are going to be a tremendous help!

  11. Hi Roberta
    In FTDNA myOrigins, is there any way to see who shares trace regions with you? e.g. Can you see who in your matches also have Native American DNA?

    • Yes, if you look at the shared origins chart on the bottom left of your map, those are the people who match you on the 3 highest common regions, each. There is no way to sort everyone by region, although that is a good idea.

      • Thanks Roberta. I am only seeing European matches. Which probably means I don’t share the trace region with my matches and is probably wrong.

  12. Hi Roberta,
    I was wondering if you had any thoughts on the newer DNA testing companies that have come out since this article.
    Are you familiar with Helix? Their website says I can get their full DNA test which includes, Y, Mitochondrial and Autosomal for $149. That’s quite a bit cheaper than Family Tree DNA. Do you think the Helix one is as good or better than FTDNA?

    • Helix is similar to 23andMe in that you only receive your Y and mtDNA haplogroup, plus ethnicity. They do not have cousin matching though, which is why I did not include them. I am supportive of the National Geographic’s Genograpic project and would not hesitate to purchase their kit, but be sure you’re getting what you really want.

  13. Hi Roberta,

    thanks for another great article. I’ve tested a dozen family members on FTDNA and like it very much. Decided during the sale to buy a test from Ancestry for myself. I have qualms about their selling DNA, and probably won’t ask the other members to test there though.

    I’m a relative newbie at this DNA stuff, so a question if you don’t mind. With the FTDNA phasing, when it shows that a match matches both sides, what does that imply exactly? i’ve looked through their forums but haven’t found a good answer. Does it mean that the DNA match matches both sides exactly on each segment, or does it mean that they can match randomly on any segment? For instance, on one both sides match, they match me on three different segments. Does that mean that I would add the match to my spreadsheet on both mom and dad’s side on those three segments?

    I’m afraid I tend to overthink things, and need to get over my fear of embarrassment of silly questions if I want to succeed.

  14. Hi, Roberta. I hear the term “noise” thrown around a lot. What is classified as “noise”? I am confused. My Grandma shows less than 0.1 percent Native American on 23andMe but when I run it through GEDmatch she comes out as a little less or a little more than 1 percent. Some people say it is “noise” from the algorithm. As of right now, I don’t have a paper trail showing proof of Native heritage. Should I dismiss it as “noise”?

    • That’s the catch. Noise CAN BE smaller amounts, but smaller amounts aren’t necessarily noise. There is no absolute way to tell unless you have a small segment that also phased with a parent and hopefully matches to others in the family or with the same family history. So “noise” isn’t cut and dried.

    • Oh okay. Thank you. Well it is quite small so I know that I didn’t inherit that piece from her. I’m not sure if my mom did because I haven’t tested her yet. I will definitely get her to test and see. Her first cousin once removed has the same amount of Native American but I’m not sure which chromosome. He is related to her through her dad’s side. It just confuses me when some people dismiss it as “noise”.

  15. Hi Roberta,

    Thank you for another wonderful article I’ve been recommending several of your latest ones to my newbie friends–followed by some of your other ones after they absorb the first batch.

    I normally only test on FTDNA, but have some AncestryDNA that I just compared test results to people who had already tested with FTDNA. I was shocked at the difference in matching and would like your take on it. I have 2 people I can compare who tested both on FTDNA and AncestryDNA.

    For person A there are 3 matches below:
    One match on FTDNA, where both people tested on FTDNA, was 60cM total over 14 segments, longest segment 13cM on FTDNA; using the AncestryDNA results, the match was only 40cM shared across 4 DNA segments.

    A second match that was a transfer to FTDNA from AncestryDNA, was 83cM total over 17 segments, longest segment 20cM was on FTDNA; using the AncestryDNA results the match was only 40cM across 5 DNA segments.

    A third match with both sides tested on FTDNA was 132 cM total, longest segment 42cM and 21 DNA segments on FTDNA; using the Ancestry DNA results the match was only 95cM over 6 DNA segments.

    For person B
    The match where both sides tested on FTDNA has 201 total cM, longest segment 104cM, over 19 segments; with the AncestryDNA results the match shows only173cm over 7 DNA segments

    When I compared the first match, I initially assumed there was a problem with the Ancestry DNA test results, but then saw the same problem with the second person. I know there is supposed to be loss with transfers, but I’m seeing a big loss when I compare the matches on the Ancestry side. Is this amount of loss normal with AncestryDNA?

    Thank you!

    Thank you!

    • I suspect, from what you are saying, that the tests from Ancestry are on the new Ancestry chip, from May 2016 or after. That’s when they made the big change replacing many of the genealogy SNPs with medically focused SNPs. So the newer Ancestry tests won’t match on as much DNA because about half the locations are different than on the original Ancestry chip from before May 2016.

      • Hi Roberta,

        Yes I believe they were both after May 2016.

        I wasn’t surprised that person A’s second match that was a transfer from Ancestry DNA compared to the FTDNA was lower, although I thought this was seen mainly at more remote cousin levels, which was why FTDNA wasn’t showing 4th and 5th to remote for transfers. This match is predicted to be 1st to 3rd cousin, which I think is high, but was surprised it was less than half the total cM at AncestryDNA.

        I was very surprised to see how large the difference was when I compared the results from an AncestryDNA to AncestryDNA match vs. an FTDNA to an FTDNA match.

        Comparing the results for tests at FTDNA on both sides to the results at Ancestry DNA on both sides for person A, the first match Ancestry was 20cM less for total and the third match was 37cM less.

        Looking at Person B they lost 28 total cM at Ancestry compared to what they showed as a total cM match at FTDNA.

        I guess my mental translation of the difference in the amount of DNA that would match and how many matches you would lose did not meet the stark reality when I looked at actual data.

        It also makes me wonder how close that Person A’s second match is–the match was a transfer and showed 83cM total at FTDNA, that could mean the match might actually be as much as 20-40cm more if they had tested at FTDNA. Or am I thinking about this incorrectly and totally off base?

        Frankly, I don’t see how it is worth it to test at Ancestry. It is bad enough to not have the Chromosome Browser, but I can’t see how you can find matches beyond close ones with this amount of drop off. Now I understand why FTDNA chose not provide the 4th to remote and 5th to remote cousins.

  16. A full sequence mtDNA test is not a recommended test for adoptees. That is a waste of $200, and with so many tests that are needed to be purchased to get into the ‘big 3’, I am perplexed why you would suggest an unnecessary test.

    • I said that adoptees should test with all 3 vendor and take the Y (if male) and mtDNA as well. The mtDNA logic is simply. You cannot be descended from a female whose mtDNA you don’t match, at least with a few mutations. To test at the lower levels doesn’t give you enough resolution. At FTDNA, you can easily tell by using the mtDNA and advanced matching together who you bath on BOTH the full sequence and autosomal – which rules people out but more importantly in, as well. If their match has not tested elsewhere, this combination of tools is very powerful. This is just one of the group of tools that adoptees can and should use to help point the way.

      • I’ve been working unknown parentage cases for almost 4 yrs now and never have we needed to do a mtDNA full sequence.. To have the mtDNA haplogroup is all that is needed and there are cases where it was necessary, such as a foundling matching an aunt but until mtDNA haplogroups were compared at 23andme it was uncertain if this were a maternal or paternal aunt.
        The 23andme test that gives you your haplogroup will be all that is needed. It is unnecessary to spend an additional $199 much less $400 if were wanting to test against a cousin to see if you matched on the direct maternal line.

        • I wasn’t suggesting they pay for someone else’s test. I was suggesting that if their match is at FTDNA, this is one way of determining whether or not the person is potentially matrilineal or not. Not everyone tests at all locations, and if their match has not, and is not at 23andMe, then it’s another tool. The haplogroup can eliminate, but it can’t even approach knowing if the matrilineal line is an actual match or something thousands of years old. Furthermore, some people have not taken the FF test, and if your adoptee matches one of those people full sequence, perhaps they would want to encourage their match to take the FF test, or to at least look at a tree. If your adoptee doesn’t take the mtDNA test, they can’t do this. Why wouldn’t you want them to utilize every tool possible?

  17. You wrote “Additionally, Family Tree DNA hosts an Ancient DNA project where they have facilitated the upload of the ancient genomes so that customers today can determine if they match these ancient individuals.”
    I cannot find this Ancient DNA project anywhere on the FTDNA site. Can you tell us how to find it!

  18. Pingback: LivingDNA Product Review | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  19. Pingback: Concepts – Why Genetic Genealogy and Triangulation? | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  20. My mother was adopted and I was wondering which test you would recommend to help me find out more about her side of my family?My mother passed away several years ago and her birth mother will not share any information.Thank you in advance for your help.

  21. We are trying to find Native American ancestry on my husbands side for my children and his relatives. Our public records from Virginia don’t let us go back far enough or give us enough info. So which test would be good for this?

  22. Hello,
    This was a helpful read. I am fairly new to the genealogy and family tree scene. I have tried using the Apple family search, not found a lot yet. The problem we found in searching is my wife’s Paternal Grandfather was adopted so the records stop there. The interesting item on her mother’s side is they say they are direct decedents of Ethan Allen, still researching. I have relatives who have done a lot of research in my family side, so hope to have that info incorporated soon. My question is about these test. My wife wants to take one of these DNA test to see where her family is from. I have looked on FTDNA and see all sorts of packages. I see the basic package $89 and then the Autosomal plus mtFull Sequence, is this worth the cost of $288? Would it be better to do the FTDNA $89 kit and the $99 kit from Ancestry? Looking for advice as this will be a birthday gift and want to get the most economical value.
    Another question. Both her parents are still living. Do they or should they have the basic testing done? Or does the more expensive test show the results similar to if her parents both had it done. Hope this is not a silly question.

    • Your wife’s mtDNA will be the same as her mother’s, but her autosomal DNA (Family Finder test) will be a combination of her mother and father. For that test, you should test both of her parents as well so she knows which side her matches are from. Also, if you visit http://www.dnaadoption.com, they will help you attempt to identify her paternal grandfather. It can be done.

      • Thank you for the fast reply. So the Sequence test is the best option for her then I take it. Then we could do the autosomal on her parents to help fill some additional information. Again we are new to this and are looking for the best value as we dive into this advanture.

    • Scotland is part of the British Isles and really can’t be separated out. Not sure what your goals are here, but you can test your Y DNA (males only) if that line is from Scotland.

  23. Looking to get a test for my father for father’s day. I read your article, but it is a bit over my head. If I am just looking for something to do for fun and learn about origins and am only going to buy 1 test, which would you prefer?

    I used to have an Ancestry account, but do not have an active subscription anymore, but I do enable it about 2-3 months every couple of years.

    • For origins only, Family Tree DNA and Ancestry are the best. Family Tree DNA is on sale less expensively, and Ancestry requires a subscription if you want to be able to work with matches, which are included in the Family Finder test at Family Tree DNA for free. Family Tree DNA also includes Ancient Origins, and Ancestry includes Genetic Communities. My personal preference is Family Tree DNA.

  24. I would like to determine Y dna matching to a 10th generation male. I used Family Tree y- dna to 25 sequencing. I know I can go higher from 25 to highest 111. I have talked to people I match to and they have all gone to higher levels without matching beyond 9th generation male What test would get me to 10th generation y-dna male. There are 3 brothers in the 9th generation. We all match to one of the brothers on FTDNA data base. No
    other DNA matches have been made to the descendants of the other 2 brothers.
    What test should I use?

    • I’m not really clear about what you mean here. The people you match today can then help you determine which line to work backwards through genealogy. If no one has tested from the other brothers, you won’t match them. I’d suggest trying to find someone from those 2 brother’s lines to test. If they have already tested, and you don’t match, that means there is a problem in one line or the other.

  25. Hello – I am hoping you can provide advice on which DNA test would be best to help uncover eastern European (Slovakia/Ukrainian) geneology on my father’s side. I have run into a roadblock for his heritage and am hoping to find more via DNA testing.

    • If your father’s Slovakian is on his direct paternal line, the Y DNA test might be quite enlightening. Otherwise, the autosomal. Autosomal will not sort out his ethnicity that granularly, and you won’t know which people match on that line without additional sleuthing, but often people take both. Family Tree DNA is the only one to offer the Y and they also offer the Family Finder autosomal test. Their link is on the sidebar of the blog. Also, this short article will help you understand the different kinds of testing and how they do or don’t relate to each other. https://dna-explained.com/2012/10/01/4-kinds-of-dna-for-genetic-genealogy/

  26. Pingback: Which Ethnicity Test is Best? | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  27. Wouldn’t be easier for members/clients if the Ancient DNA project lists among these ancient individuals names, its Haplogroups. So, if none of them were J1, for example, then, I don’t have to bother on requesting my joining to the group, since I would be obstructing more than contributing, I think.

    • Many people join the projects as a result of autosomal DNA matches. I will look at putting that info in the project description. I never thought about it before. Also, the Y and mtDNA of those samples is NOT in the database, so you won’t match that way.

  28. Thank you so much for your time and your informative blog. I am from Iran. Do any of these companies include Iran in their tests? You mentioned you prefer FTDNA over other companies, but would you say that excluding the cousin matching, Helix and FTDNA are equal?

    • The Nat Geo test changed when Helix began to do the processing, so I can’t give an opinion about the results now. In general, as you can see from the tables, the Nat Geo results, in the past, have been much more general in Nature. You might contact them and ask about the new Helix results. Regarding Iran, there is no company that I know of that isolates Iran. It falls into the Middle East region. Family Tree DNA does specify that region.

  29. Pingback: Ethnicity and Physical Features are NOT Accurate Predictors of Parentage or Heritage | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  30. Thank you for such a great article! All I am interested in is possibly learning more about my ethnicity, so I’m thinking that FamilyTree would be appropriate for me. It costs less, and does not sell my info. Am I on track?

  31. what kind of test would answer this questio: ? i have a sister, but even though we look alike, i suspect i could be my uncle.s child, ie: did we have the same father….?
    my uncle is deceased and was my ( assumed) father.s brother, so we.d still be of the same name and same mother…..since my father and uncle are both deceased, would it be possible to tell by my dna and my sister.s dna…that we had the same father?

  32. Amazing blog!
    Obviously the work of a passionate person, yet very objective and very thorough.

    I’m currently working on a exhibition with my sister (we’re both artists) which will revolve around our perception of roots and heritage.
    As part of our personal researches, we would like to take a dna test to try and find out from where and in which proportions our ancestors come from and maybe try and learn a bit about our more recent family tree. Actually, we really don’t know much about our family but her father is tunisian, mine was from Rwanda and our mother is half belgian and half ukrainian with a dutch surname so it should be interesting.

    I’ve been trying to choose a dna test for a while now but I just can’t decide which one. From one review to another the best choice and the worst seem to be indistinctly interchangeable. There are very few “educated” comparisons and most of them are very careful not to show any preferences except for this one (from the International Society of Genetic Genealogy) who gives a note for “overall accuracy and sophistication of the analysis” of 7/10, 3.5/10 and 4.5/10 to respectively 23andMe, FamilyTree and AncestryDNA with very few explanations why :


    Before reading that comparison, I was leaning towards AncestryDNA but it’s hard to commit to this choice now that I’ve read from what seems to be a trusted source that it holds such a low score.

    What is your opinion about this rating?
    Given our main origins (Tunisia, Rwanda, Belgium and Ukraine) and the fact that we live in Belgium, do you think that one test would be more suitable than the others?

    I think we’ll both take two tests (I’m thinking AncestryDNA and 23andMe) but even then I cannot do much but hope they won’t totally contradict each other.

    Sorry for the lengthy comment and thanks a million in advance

    Gaëtan Streel

    • If I were you, I’d take the Y and mtDNA tests from Family Tree DNA, along with their Family Finder, and then the Ancestry test too. What a wonderful art exhibit. Your Y and mtDNA will be much more specific than any of the ethnicity tests.

  33. hey Roberta – big thank you for the well written article.

    Can you please recommend a vendor for me? Something to start with 🙂 btw Im in Greece.

  34. Hi all and a big thank you to the author(s) of this article for such in-depth breakdown of info regarding DNA testing. I was adopted in the late 60’s in SE Asia and currently live in the US. I have absolutely zero knowledge of my genealogical make-up and tried ConnectMyDNA about five years ago, but am highly skeptical of the results I got (Afghani and Guatemalan???). My question: for an adoptee like myself, whose principal interest is in finding ethnic origin and perhaps have the opportunity to connect with relatives; which is the best DNA tool that you would suggest I use? Obviously, doing all of them would perhaps give me the best overall picture. However, I have limited funds and would like to get the most accurate info for my money. I’m leaning towards Family Tree DNA, but which test??? I cannot afford to take them all.
    My sincerest gratitude for your input and/or suggestions.

      • Ms. Estes, thank you so very much for your quick and helpful response! 1. Family finder 2. Ancestry.com 3. DNAadoption.com. Got it!!! All together appears affordable and hopefully give me some insights. Again, I’m very very grateful.

        • Males can also take the Y DNA test but that will only address one line. After the others, you might consider the y and mitochondrial tests which will tell you a great deal about two distinct lines.

          • Considering my particular circumstances, I highly doubt that locating any living relative is a possibility at this point in time. Having a little clearer idea of my ethnic make-up will satisfy my curiosity sufficiently. And there’s the money factor… Again, thank you for your suggestions. I’ll keep you posted on my results! Tien

  35. I am a double first cousin, mother’s were sisters father’s were brothers. The oldest of us is a female, is she the better person to test for the mitochondria testing. I’ve already taken ancestry.com version that did our father’s side of the family. My great grandmother was supposed to be full blood Cherokee, the reason wanting to do the mitochondrial testing.

  36. I am wanting to purchase multiple dna testing kits as Christmas presents. Ethnic make up is my goal for the kits. I have to keep the cost as low as possible, but want quality tests. Can you recommend a worthwhile test that cost less than the three you reviewed?

  37. Very well done, extremely informative. I done a lot of reading trying to find the best choice for a dna testing kit. You by far provided the best information to make a good choice. Thank you for your efforts.

  38. Hello Roberta,
    Your articles are amazing! I have learned sooooo much from them.
    I have a question for you. My husband is told he might be a decedent from Genghis Khan. We would like to explore this more and our ethnic origins. We are also Pakistani. From reading your articles it seems Family Tree DNA would be a good choice. As for testing: my husband father would test for the Y-chromosome and his mother would do the family finder. Does this sound right to you? We are not interested in finding relatives. We are interested in finding out about our ethnicity origins.

    • A link to Genghis Khan would have to be through is Y chromosome. The ethnicity might provide a hint, but nothing more definitive. So the Y would be the test to use. Also, the haplogroup could indicate a descent from a group believed to be associated with Genghis, but he also had brothers and cousins and there is no absolute way to prove a connection to Genghis.

  39. Dr Estes

    I am fascinated by your work and am deeply seeking your advice on the best way to triangulate a specific piece of DNA data. I know through traditional genealogical research and family oral tradition that my 9x great grandmother is full blood Native American. I was reading your blog about how over 7 x great grandparents that it becomes undetectable the gene, but was also reading about the testing on the matrilineal side. To me it’s interesting because between myself and my 9 x great grandmother every one of those ancestors are women (with exception of two grandfathers);
    Great grandmother
    Great great grandmother
    Great grandmother x 3
    **Great grandFather x 4
    **Great grandFather x 5
    Great grandmother x 6
    Great grandmother x 7
    Great grandmother x 8
    Great grandmother x 9 (100%)
    To me this is just very intriguing and also because the confirmation of this ancestor is in the very well documented colonial records. I am wondering if I was to get my uncles and aunt and cousins and get everyone to test to triangulate – what would be the best testing or specialists to go with? Is it possible that my 3 uncles and 1 aunt and distant relatives that are a generation closer x 8 would be able to detect the pattern? Does the direct matrilineal line mean anything or reveal the best strategy for testing and reviewing results?
    Thank you in advance

  40. Thanks for the info. Very Much As those Adoptees who live in states where the ” Books of Adoption ” are open, chances of getting all of what you want are pretty good. Versus an adoptee born and adopted in the State of New York where you’re treated as if you do not exist or your on parole for life while committing no crime. At 62 I only wish to get an ethnic history and if any other match of any kind is included, well, that’s gravy. Ancestry looks to be best. And if I decide to continue then I shall.

Leave a Reply to robertajestesCancel reply