New Native Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups Extrapolated from Anzick Match Results

featherI’ve been working with the ancient DNA results these past few days, as discussed in two previous articles, Utilizing Ancient DNA at GedMatch and Analyzing the Native American Clovis Anzick Ancient Results.

As I worked with the Anzick matches at GedMatch at all of the various threshold levels between 1cM and 7cM, each of which produced 1500 matches, except for the 7cM, which produced 1466 matches.  The matches were not always the same, because obviously the sort order was different depending on how matches actually occurred before and after the 1500 cutoff threshold.

Given that, and given the autosomal ethnicity analysis of several individuals, and given that mitochondrial haplogroups A, B, C, and D are not known to be routinely found in the European population, I decided to extract all of the associated mitochondrial DNA haplogroups.  Furthermore, parts of haplogroup X are known to be Native, and haplogroup M, which is quite rare, has long been suspected, but unproven.

In some cases, looking at the Anzick matches, we know that because of the very high level of Native heritage, the individual is either not admixed or only very slightly admixed.  In other words, it makes perfect sense that their mitochondrial DNA is indeed Native as well as their Y haplogroup.  At nearly 100% Native, both of those lines would have to be Native.

We found some surprises.

We found repeated instances of many mitochondrial haplogroups not previously identified as Native.  In fact, with the exception of a couple subgroups of the M and X haplogroups, all of the Native haplogroups were found repeatedly in these samples.

Many of the participants tested at 23andMe, so even if we were to ask them for actual results, they don’t have any to give.  However, even the haplogroup alone is useful, for just this reason – it can be identified as Native.

I maintain an exhaustive list of all Native American mitochondrial haplogroups that have been documented and attributed to Native Americans, along with the source.  To date, there are 62.  I compared the list extracted from the Anzick matches with the known list of proven haplogroups, and found quite a surprise.

There are a total of 85 new haplogroups extracted from this group.  Now granted, there may be a few that will not stand up to scrutiny, in particular, perhaps haplogroup X2b which has long been debated as to whether it is Native as well as European.  Additionally, some of the very basic haplogroups, such as A, B, C, etc. might be broken down further with full sequence testing if that hasn’t already been done. However, the majority of these haplogroups are found repeatedly and in individuals with little or no admixture.  In addition, a paper was released in 2013 that reported that 85-90% of Mexican women’s DNA was indeed Native American.

I view this list of haplogroups as an incredible gift from the analysis of that Anzick child’s remains.  If we can discover this much from the full genomic sequencing of one Native American, imagine what we could do with more.  This new list of 85 provisional Native haplogroups is more, in one fell swoop, than the 62 we have to date from more than 15 years of research.  We’ve increased the list by 138% to a total of 147.

Provisional Native American Haplogroups Extrapolated from Anzick Match Results

  • A
  • A2ab
  • A2c
  • A2c-C64T
  • A2d
  • A2d1a
  • A2e
  • A2f
  • A2f1a
  • A2g
  • A2g1
  • A2h
  • A2h1
  • A2i
  • A2j
  • A2k
  • A2k1
  • A2p
  • A2q
  • A2u
  • A2v
  • A2z
  • B
  • B1
  • B2
  • B2a1a
  • B2a1a1
  • B2b2
  • B2c
  • B2c2b
  • B2d
  • B2f
  • B2g
  • B2g1
  • B4
  • B4’5
  • B4a1a
  • B4a1b1
  • B4f1
  • B5b2a
  • B5b3
  • C1b1
  • C1b11
  • C1b2
  • C1b2a
  • C1b3
  • C1b4
  • C1b7
  • C1ba
  • C1c1
  • C1c1b
  • C1c2
  • C1c5
  • C1c6
  • C2b
  • C4a1
  • C4c1
  • D
  • D1d
  • D4g1
  • D4h1a
  • D4h1a2
  • D4h1a1
  • D4h3a
  • D5a2a
  • D5b1
  • M
  • M1a
  • M1b1
  • M23
  • M3
  • M30c
  • M51
  • M5b3e
  • M7b1’2
  • M9a3a
  • X
  • X2
  • X2a1a
  • X2a1b1a
  • X2b-T225C
  • X2c2
  • X2d
  • X2e1
  • X2e2

I’ll be confirming these as far as possible and  preparing a new comprehensive Native haplogroup list shortly.

 

63 thoughts on “New Native Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups Extrapolated from Anzick Match Results

  1. This is very exciting, I have seen several TV documentaries about the Clovis over the years. Are there plans to make public other extinct populations for comparison with living individuals as in the case of the Clovis Anzick infant?

      • I made a mistake on my post, it should have said “ancient”, not “extinct”, I posted the correct one. I have a question about lowering the threshold for SNPs, how low can they go and be considered IBD or does it matter if they are IBS with such an ancient person’s DNA?

  2. Roberta, please add my haplo to that list as well, if you can – X2c1a. I have X2C1 from 23andme, and FTDNA added the a, so you might put X2c1 as well. I am a Sizemore descendant through Lydia Sizemore Blevins, and I matched Clovis on 23andme. I did have to reduce the cM but there was a lot of it.

    • Hi, my test is with 23andme my mtDNA haplogroup is B4’5 my 2x great grandmother was half Chickasaw and half Choctaw (may have Cherokee on that side too, her father’s) her mother was Chickasaw. I have my maternal grandmother, mother and myself. I’m curious about the Clovis on 23andme? My results just show Asian/Native American and I haven’t found that kind of detail. Can you direct me to where i find that on 23andme?

      Thanks,
      Jackie

    • Hi. I just learned that I too have the X2c1 subgroup of X. We have been told through the years that we have Cherokee from my mothers side. It is early and I am still looking. But one site did show a link with the Cherokee tribe as well as 30% of Hutterites tested also from this Haplogroup.

      Mark

      • X subhaplogroup X2c1 has nothing to do with Native Americans, it is an X subhaplogroup exclusive to West Eurasians, so your maternal line should be from Europe.

    • Lynn,

      I am a Sizemore descendant also the 5th great granddaughter of George “All” and Agnes Shepherd Sizemore through their son George Goldenhawk and Sallie Anderson Sizemore through their daughter Nancy Sizemore and John M Hoover. Who was your Lydia Sizemore’s mother?? this is the first time I am seeing a Sizemore female with a possible Native American Haplogroup. So, I am wondering if some of the other people who tested and thought they were related to certain people within these families could have been wrong about the maternal side of their lineage or just plain wrong from the start. Thanks.

      Michelle Centers nee Orsik
      My mother was Linda Carol Hoover d/o Ray and Della Hall Hoover. He was the s/o Granville and Elizabeth Collins Hoover. Granville was the s/o George and Nancy Nan Lawson Hoover. George was the s/o John and Nancy Sizemore Hoover.

  3. Way to go, Roberta! You are amazing and your quest for answers is limitless! This is the exact way that science advances – people noticing something, asking a question, then trying to find the answer. Cannot even imagine how many hours you spend per day on this quest!

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  7. There is a lot of confusion when it comes to the Indian census rolls, mainly refering to the Southwestern area of Arizona, California, Coloradoand New Mexico. Many were not created until the 1930’s. There were many indian natives who lived on small native lands by waterways and were not documented as such on any of the census due to them not residing on the newly development of “reservations”. Many native americans lived in such isolated and remote areas, and they were not counted in the census rolls and then later considered, “mexicans” from the lands of Mexico, presently southwestern America. Many of the native people were sometimes married out of the tribe to non native, european Americans outside the reservations. With this in mind, they too were not listed on any of the Indian rolls. This left many natives out of any documentation of their native ancestry. Today, many natives have fallen through the cracks of documentation flaws and have become a tribe without a home literally.

    In the 1800’s, many mineral mines were opening across the southwest. Many natives tribes did not look favorably of natives working in the mines. So, many were excommunicated from the native tribal community due to this. Many tribal leaders felt moving away from communities gave away to new influences of the New immigrants and easterners moving West. This left the notion that many if the natives left the sacred surroundings of cultural obdiences and family traditions. The influx of anglos from the east and the presence of American government rulings proved detrimental due to the unpredictability of the future intentions of the newly formed government.

    Now with new foreigners arriving and the hardship many natives were now faced with, left many with so much uncertainty of the future of the livelihood of the Indian nation. With the chance to become financially independent from the new arrivals of immigrants into the west, many natives who went to work in newly formed mining, Many, if not all Natives, were look upon negatively by the tribal nations for leaving the securities of the native communities. Not only did native Indians leave to work in the mines but also many became ranchers and farmers providing goods to residences of the newly formed mining towns.

    With reference to the census rolls, many non natives anglos married native Indians and began having children. Many of these Anglos were submitted into the Indian rolls making them now native. It was unfortunate that the native nations looked negatively on the natives who didn’t follow the American formations of the “reservations” and relied on the U.S. government on the little support provided and mistreatment the local indian natives received. This mistreatment led many to not conform to the “reservation” and chose to seek a life outside the reservations where they had built homes outside the communities of their tribal ancestors. You can’t place blame on the natives that chose to make a living elsewhere to provide a life for their families rather than being confined on reservations unknowing the intentions of the newly formed reservations of the 1800’s and the uncertainty of the future survival of those in that time if unrest.

    Many native american families who now live have lived away from the communities of the Indian reservations and were not documented on any Indian rolls are left out of their communities to carry on traditions as a whole. Many Familes rely on traditions passed down from their great grandparents and other family members. There are many natives indians in the southwest who live outside the native communities for no fault of their own. With new generations coming to DNA to seek out their cultural and ancestral rights are being turned down yet again. With many tribes not considering DNA as a factor to prove ancestral connections, this leave many without a connection to their community of their culture.

    Hopefully, DNA will play an intricate part of bringing back family members who were left out due to the circumstances of uncertainty at a time of unrest and mistreatment of the native community. Many of us have strong DNA percentageS of around 25% to 60% of native American DNA from the southwest. Many have categorized the native Americans of the southwest, who don’t live on reservations, as Mexican or Hispanic, leaving their native Indian ancestry behind forever. Until DNA will be accepted in the native American communities if the southwest, we will have to wait and see how it will be moving forward.

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    • I’m a2g1 of new Mexico the best place to find. native American ancestry the best place is 23andme or family tree the two leading dna researching ancestry companies. 50 to 60 percent of Navajo and apache carry a2g1. And they are from the Pacific northwest. 90 percent of Which the native American tribe’s carry a2g1 and the inuit carrys, a 100 percent of a2g1 but the apache and Navajo moved to the southwest about 500 years ago. From the Pacific northwest they are not Mexican

  9. Do you have anything on M5a1b? My halogroup from 23and me. My brother, M269, from ftdna. Thank you in advance.

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  12. Hi Roberta, this is very interesting thread, however I am uncertain how exactly you extrapolated some of mt haplogroups from the Anzick data. Would it be possible for you to describe how the process works? I am most interested in the M’s:
    M, M1a, M1b1, M2a3, M3, M30c, M30d1, M51, M5b3e, M7b1’2, M9a3a. Any detail on this would be very much appreciated. Neil

      • Hi Roberta, so is what you’re saying is you provisionally assign these M haplogroups as possibly Native American by comparing stretches of of the Anzick DNA to people on the FTDNA database you found matching stretches and were thus able to infer that Native Americans once possibly carried the range of mtdna’s on your list? Have I got that right? I have absolutely nothing against this sort of quest for a clearer understanding of Native American origins I am just really interested in mtdna M since reading Malhi’s 2007 paper on ancient dna from China Lake. Any greater detail you could provide would be much appreciated. Neil

      • No, at GedMatch because you can select your own threshold. You can do the same thing with the kit. I have not updated this information from the Anzick kit since that time. I also contacted the people and eliminated any with explanations that would put their ancestor outside of the Native population.

  13. Hello Roberta,

    My name is Marisa and I just got my Ancestry DNA kit results back this week. My haplogroup is B2c and I’m very interested in learning more. The Ancestry DNA results don’t provide you with too much information and I am wondering how I would go about getting the raw data from them to transfer it in to GEDmatch. On the haplogroup certificate I see a box on the right that says mtDNA Markers. Is this the information that needs to be transferred? I don’t see any place to manage your data. Please help! Thank you!
    Marisa

    • I’m confused, because you don’t receive haplogroup information from AncestryDNA through Ancestry.com. If you’re talking about the other test that is called Ancestry by DNA, that’s entirely different. You don’t have anything to download from them. Many people think they are taking the Ancestry DNA test but they order the Ancestry by DNA test by accident. If you want to learn more about your mitochondrial haplogroup, the only company to offer full testing is Family Tree DNA. They and Ancestry.com both also offer the Family Finder test. I would very much like for you to test at Family Tree DNA because haplogroup B2c is quite rare. I wrote about it here. https://dna-explained.com/2016/03/14/native-american-haplogroup-b2c-discovered-in-the-eastern-us-and-canada/

      You can read about the different kinds of DNA tests here: https://dna-explained.com/2012/10/01/4-kinds-of-dna-for-genetic-genealogy/

      Where is your matrilineal line (your mother, her mother, her mother, etc.) from?

      • Wow! Well that explains a lot! I wish I had known they were two different tests before I spent so much money on them for my whole family! Lol…So, my family on my both my parent’s sides are from Mexico, but specifically from the San Juan de los Lagos area (according to my Grandma who has since passed away) and we may also have family from Arizona and Texas (on my mom’s father’s side) which is where my grandmother, mother and myself were born and raised. I am in the process of putting together our family tree through Ancestry.com (hence thinking I was purchasing their product) but would most definitely be willing to do another test through Family Tree DNA to get more information and to contribute to any ongoing DNA research on my haplogroup in particular. I find all of this so exciting since I was raised by only my mother’s side of the family as an only child, and recently found my father and siblings at age 37 through Ancestry.com and using DNA testing (my dad is a private investigator…ironic, huh?). I will try to get my testing done as soon as possible since I’m eager to learn more about my ancestry. According to the results from Ancestry by DNA, I am 24% Indigenous, 24% East Asian (Beringer theory?), 6% Sub-Saharan African, and 46% European (yeah, I guess we gotta claim them too, lol!). On the haplogroup page there is a box with a lot of numbers and letters titled mtDNA Markers. Is this information anymore helpful than what I just shared with you? You can reach me at this email mariazteca13@gmail.com if you have any more information/questions, and I’ll let you know when I take the Family Tree DNA test. How can I best reach you?

        Marisa Y. Villegas

  14. Thank you so much for your work. I was adopted as an infant in California. Not knowing my true nationality I went to 23 and me. I found I am 24% Chumash and have a haplogroup of a2c. I also have ancestry from the Iberian peninsula. I am very interested in my new found ancestry and was excited to find your website and interest in native DNA.
    Sandra D.

  15. I’m confused how can aznick be related to multiple seperate Clades of mtDna? This DNA games changes by slow accretion of mutations not via recombination. Which means it cannot be A B D C and X. Unless it was ancestral to all which Aznick is too young to be.

  16. I have a maternal family haplogroup of A2q from ftdna but can’t find anything online about it. Some family tradition says this is Choctaw from before the Civil War. Do you have any confirmation or information?

  17. I have always been told I was part Native American. I am x2c1. do you think there is a possibility that I am part Native American?
    thank you!

  18. I have a question – my maternal haplogroup is M1a1a and when I run my Admixutre on GEDmatch I do show traces of NA so would you say that I more than likely do have NA in my family history? Like so many other people, family lore is that a Great-Grandmother was NA (Dad said his Great so that would be my 2nd Great (?)).

    • If you believe that your father’s line carried the Native American, then your haplogroup has nothing to do with that. Your haplogroup is from your mother’s mother’s mother’s line. What do you know about that lineage?

      • Thank you for getting back to me. We know nothing about my mother’s family. Unfortunately she has pasted and she didn’t know anything about them. I only found the marriage certificate for her mother and her father about 2 weeks ago. Until then we didn’t even know his name.

      • I read your article so even though the old belief was that M was not a NA haplogroup based on the new testing it is? So is the sub group haplogroup M1a1a a NA haplogroup?

      • Not that we know of, but research is ongoing. That’s one reason why I asked what you know about that line. Do you know anything at all. Is the family African American, European, some of each, don’t know?

      • What I have done so far on her line there is no African or African American. They are from the MIdwest (NC, Indiana, Illinois), East Coast here in the states, and European from England, Wales, Germany.

  19. My Haplogroup is B4’5 results from 23 and me. My Great Grandfather always said he was half Pima Indian. Of course I can not confirm this because his birth certificate is non existent. I do not believe my great grandparents were married. He and my Grandmother were from Arizona. Do you happen to know the haplogroup of Pima Indians?

    • There is no specific haplogroup for the Pima Indians. Is there a male descendant that carries his surname that you could test for the Y DNA? That would be very helpful to you.

  20. Hi! I actually just received results from African Ancestry that says I belong to baplogroup B4a1a. The match was 100%. This has left me with so many questions. It was actually quite surprising, I mean like I was shocked. I have never heard the term “haplogroup” and I’m just really confused as to what this means about my lineage. I’ve read a few articles but they have left me just scratching my head . I guess I need it explained in layman terms. Any information you can give would help.

  21. Hi, I’m curious about haplogroup B2f have any information this? I know B has a high percentage in the southwest and northwest of Mexico, but I’m trying to narrow the search to tribes.

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