Native American Mitochondrial Haplogroups

Today, what I’m sharing with you are my research notes.  If you follow my blogs, you’ll know that I have a fundamental, lifelong interest in Native American people and am mixed blood myself.  I feel that DNA is just one of the pieces of history that can be recovered and has a story to tell, along with early records, cultural artifacts and oral history.

In order to work with Native American DNA, and the various DNA projects that I co-administer, it’s necessary to keep a number of lists and spreadsheets.  This particular list was originally the first or earliest reference or references to a Native American mitochondrial (maternal line) haplogroup where it is identified as Native in academic papers.  I have since added other resources as I’ve come across them.

For those wondering why I’ve listed Mexican, this article speaks to the very high percentage of Native American mitochondrial DNA in the Mexican population.

Please note that while some of these haplogroups are found exclusively among Native American people, others are not and are also found in Europe and/or Asia.  In some cases, branches are exclusively Native.  In other cases, we are still sorting through the differences.  For haplogroups though to be only Native, I have put any other submission information, which is often from Siberia.

I have labeled the major founding haplogroups, as such.  This graphic from the paper, “Beringian Standstill and the Spread of Native American Founders” by Tamm et al, provided the first cumulative view of the mitochondrial Native founder population.

beringia map

Haplogroups A, B, C, D and X are known as Native American haplogroups, although not all subgroups in each main haplogroup are Native, so one has to be more specific.

Please note that I am adding information from haplogroup projects at Family Tree DNA.  This information is self-reported and should only be utilized with confidence after confirming the accuracy of the information.

Please note that in earlier papers and projects, not all results may have been tested to the full sequence level, so results in base haplogroups, like A and B, for example, may well fall into subclades with additional testing.

The protocol and logic for adding the Anzick results for consideration, along with other evidence is discussed in this article.  In short, for the 12,500 year old Anzick specimen to match any currently living people at relatively high thresholds, meaning 5cM or over, the living individual would likely have to be heavily Native.  Most matches are from Mexico, Central America and South America.  Many mitochondrial DNA haplogroups are subgroups of known Native groups, but never before documented as Native.  Therefore, the protocol I followed for inclusion was any subgroup of haplogroups A, B, C, D, M or X.  Some individuals are unhappy that some haplogroups were among the Anzick results and that I have not removed them at their request, in particular, M23.  To arbitrarily remove a haplogroup listing would be a breach of the protocol I followed.  Research does not always provide what is expected.  I have includes links to notes where appropriate.

Phylotree Versions

The Phylotree is the document that defines the mutations that equate to haplogroup names.

Please note that most papers don’t indicate which version of the Phylotree they used when sequencing the DNA. Haplogroup names sometimes change with new versions of the Phylotree.  Phylotree builds occurred as follows:

Family Tree DNA updated from build 14 to 17 in March 2017.

As of April 2017, 23andMe is still utilizing Build 12 from 2011.

Roberta’s Native Mitochondrial DNA Notes

Haplogroup A

A

A1

A1a

  • In Build 17, previous haplogroup A4a1 became A1a

A2

  • Native, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli
  • Hispanic American – 2008 Just
  • Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa
  • Mexican, Achilli, 2008
  • Eskimo – Volodko, 2008
  • Dogrib – Eskimo – Volodko, 2008
  • Apache – Volodko, 2008
  • Mexico and Central America – Eskimo – Volodko, 2008
  • Apache – Volodko, 2008
  • Ache and Guarani/Rio-das-Cobras and Katuana and Poturujara and Surui and Waiwai and Yanomama and Zoro – Fagundes 2008
  • Waiwai, Brazil, Zoro, Brazil, Surui, Brazil, Yanomama, Brazil, Kayapo, Brazil, Arsario, Colombia, Cayapa, Ecuador, Kogui, Colombia – Fagundes 2008
  • Arsario and Cayapa – Tamm 2007
  • Kogui – Tamm 2007
  • Colombia – Hartmann 2009
  • Waorani tribe, Ecuador – Cardoso 2012
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (192 A2s with no subgroup),
  • Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope – Raff 2015
  • Ancient remains from Lauricocha cave central Andean highlands – Fehren-Schmitz 2015
  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014
  • Chumash – Breschini and Haversat 2008
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017
  • Wari Culture, Huaca Pucllana, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Lima Culture, Huaca Pucllana, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Chancay culture, Pasamayo, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Lauricocha culture, Lauricocha, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Tiwanaku culture, Lauricocha, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Paisley 5 Mile Point Caves, 11,000-10,800 YBP – Gilbert et al, 2008
  • Manabi, San Ramon, Pichincha, Quito, Imbabura, Chimborazo, Riobamba, Tungurahua, Pillaro, Cotopaxi, Salcedo, Azuay and Cuenca in Ecuador, Native and Cayapa, also Peru, 6 ancient and several contemporary – Brandini, 2017
  • Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvadore, Guatemaula, Mexico, Nicaragua, Puerto Rico, Peru, Venezuela, in Canada – British Columbia, New Brunswick, Northwest Territory, Nova Scotia, Ontario, Quebec, Vancouver Island, in the US – Alabama, Alaska, Caswell County, NC, Crawford County, PA, Michigan, Mississippi, tribes – Choctaw, Mi’kmaq – Haplogroup A2 Mitochondrial Project at Family Tree DNA, August 7, 2019

A2a and A2b

  • Paleo Eskimo, identified in only Siberia, Alaska and Natives from the American SW (Achilli 2013)
  • Raff 2015 – Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope

A2a

  • Aleut – 2008 Volodko
  • Eskimo – Volodko, 2008
  • Apache – Volodko – 2008
  • Siberian Eskimo, Chukchi, Dogrib, Innuit and Naukan – Dryomov, 2015
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 A2a)
  • Common among Eskimo, Na-Dene and the Chukchis in northeasternmost Siberia, Athabaskan in SW (Achilli 2013), circumpolar Siberia to Greenland, Apache 48%, Navajo 13%
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

A2aa

  • Waiwai and Poturujara tribes in Brazil Fagundes, 2008
  • Peru – Brandini, 2017

A2ab

A2ac

  • Chimborazo, Pallatanga, Riobana, Pichincha, Cayambe, Quito, Mejia in Ecuador, Mestizo and Cayapa – Brandini, 2017
  • Hispanic – Just, 2015
  • Colombia – Rieux, 2014
  • Venezuela – Brandini, 2017

A2ac1

  • Colombia, Cuba – Behar, 2012
  • Colombia – HGDP

A2ac2

  • Chimboro, Penipe, Santo Domingo, El Poste, Pichincha, Quito, Bolivar, Chimbo in Ecuador, Native Tsachila and Mestizo – Brandini, 2017

A2ad

A2ac

A2am

A2ar

  • Guatemaula – Sochtig, 2015

A2a1

A2a2

A2a3

A2a4

A2a5

A2ab

A2ac

A2ac1

A2ad

A2ae

A2af

A2af1a

A2af1a1

A2af1a2

A2af1b1

A2af2

A2ag

A2ah

A2ai

A2ak

A2al

A2am

A2ao1

A2ap

A2aq

A2ar

A2as

A2as1

A2at

A2at1

A2au

A2av

  • Hispanic – Just, 2008

A2av1

  • Pichincha, Quito, El Oro, Zaruma in Ecuador, Mestizo and Native Panzaleo, also Peru – Brandini, 2017

A2av1a

  • Tungurahua, Pillaro, Ambato, Chimborazo, Riobamba in Ecuador, Mestizo and Native Panazaleo, also Peru – Brandini, 2017

A2aw

  • Carchi, Tulcan, Carchi, Montufar San Gabriel in Eduador, Mestizo and Native Cayambe – Brandini, 2017

A2b

A2b1

A2c

A2c-C64T

A2d

A2d1

A2d1a

A2d2

A2e

A2f

A2f1

A2f1a

A2f2

A2f3

A2g

A2g1

A2h

A2h1

A2i

A2j

A2j1

A2k

A2k1

A2k1a

A2l

A2m

A2n

A2p

A2p1

A2q

A2q1

A2r

A2r1

A2t

A2u

A2u1

A2u2

A2v

A2v1

A2v1a

A2v1b

A2w

A2w1

A2x

A2y

A2y1

  • Chimborazo, La Moya, Imbabura, San Rafael, in Ecuador, Native Otavalo, Mestizo and Waorani, also Peru – Brandini, 2017

A2z

A2z1

  • Peru – Brandini, 2017
  • Puerto Rico – Behar, 2012
  • Puerto Rico – HGDP
  • Hispanic – Just, 2008
  • Hispanic – Just, 2014

A2z2

A2-C64T

A2-C64T-A189G (please note that under Build 17, most of haplogroup A2 has been reassigned)

A2-C64T-T16111C! (please note that in Build 17, this haplogroup is now A2-T16111C!)

A3

A4 (Please note that in Build 17, people previously assigned A4 were reassigned to other haplogroups based on their mutations, including haplogroups A, A18, A2-T16111C!, A2-G153A!, A-T152C!, A-T152C!-A200G, A A2ao, A2q1, A12a and possibly others. Haplogroup A4 itself no longer exists.)

A4a (please note that in Build 17, A4a became A1)

  • Kumar 2011 – Siberian founder of A2, not found in Americas

A4a1 (please note that in Build 17, A4a1 became A1a)

A4b (please note that in Build 17, A4b became A12a)

A4c (Please note that in Build 17, A4c became A13)

  • Siberian founder of A2, not found in Americas – Kumar 2011

A5

A5a

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 A5a)

A6

A7

A8

A9

A10

A11

A12

A12a

  • In Build 17, previous haplogroup A4b became A12a

A13

Haplogroup B

B

B1

B2

  • Native, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli, 2007 Tamm
  • Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa
  • Quecha and Ache and Gaviao and Guarani/Rio-das-Cobras and Kayapo-Dubemkokre and Katuena and Pomo and Waiwai and Xavante and Yanomama – Fagundes 2008
  • Ache, Paraguay, Gaviano, Brazil, Xavante, Brazil, Quechua, Bolivia, Guarani, Brazil, Kayapo, Brazil, Guarani, Brazil, Yanomama, Brazil, Cayapa, Ecuador, Coreguaje, Colombia, Ngoebe, Panama, Waunana, Colombia – Fagundes 2008
  • Hispanic American – Just 2008
  • Colombia – Hartmann 2009
  • Mexican American – Kumar 2011
  • Cayapa and Coreguaje and Ngoebe and Waunana and Wayuu and Coreguaje – Tamm 2007
  • Pima – Ingman 2000
  • Native American – Mishmar 2003
  • Colombian and Mayan – Kivisild 2006
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Colombia – Hartman
  • Yaqui – FTDNA
  •  Shown with European and Mexican and South American entry in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 B2)
  • Aancient remains from Lauricocha cave central Andean highlands – Fehren-Schmitz 2015
  • Central Alaska from circa 11,500 before present – 2015, Tackney et al
  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 
  • Aymara, Atacameno, Mapuche, Tehuelche in Chile and Argentina, South America – de Saint Pierre, 2012
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017
  • Ychsma culture, Huaca Pucllana, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Lima culture, Huaca Pucllana, Peru –  Llamas, 2016
  • Pica-Tarapaca culture, Pica-8, Chile – Llamas, 2016
  • Inca culture, Pueblo Viejo, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Chancay culture, Pasamayo, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Lauricocha culture, Lauricocha, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Tiwanaku culture, Tiwanaku, Bolivia – Llamas, 2016
  • Aceramic culture, Cueva Cadelaria, Mexico – Llamas, 2016
  • Upward Sun River, Tackney 2015
  • High percent B2 published populations: Yakama, Wishram, N. Paiute/Shoshoni, Washo, Fremont (500-1500 YBP,) Tommy Site (850-1150 YBP,) Anasazi (1010-2010 YBP,) Navajo, Jemez, Hualapai, Pai Yuman, Zuni, River Yuman, Delta Yuman, Tohono O’odham (Papago), Akimal O’odham (Pima,) Quechan/Cocopa, Nahua-Atopan, Embera, Puinave, Curriperco, Ingano, Uungay, San Martin, Peruvian Highlanders (550-450 YBP,), Yacotogia 1187 YBP, Ancash, Arequpa, Chimane, Puno (Quecha,) Quechua 2, Aymara 2, Trinitario, Quebrada de Humahuaca, Atacamenos, Chorote, Gram Chaco – Tackney 2015 supplement 2
  • Sinixt, Quecha, Coreguaje, Waunana, Wayuu – Tackney 2015 supplement 1
  • Paisley 5 Mile Point Caves, 11,000-10,800 YBP – Gilbert et al, 2008
  • LatacungaCotopaxi, Angamarca, Loja, Ganil, Saquisili, Canar, Azogues, Pichincha, Quito in Ecuador, Mestizo and Native, also Peru,  5 ancient and several Mestizo – Brandini, 2017

B2a

  • Found just to the south of A2a, widespread in SW and found in one Chippewa clan, one Tsimshian in Canada and tribes indigenous to the SW, Mexico, possibly Bella Coola and Ojibwa, evolved in North America – Achilli 2008 and 2013,
  • Chihuahua, Mexico – Achilli, 2013
  • Found with Mexican entry and descended from Dorothee Metchiperouata b.c.1695 (Illinois) in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (14 B2a)
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

B2aa

B2aa1

B2aa1a

B2aa2

  • Mexico – Behar, 2012
  • Mexico – Kumar, 2011

B2ab

  • Peru, ancient and contemporary – Brandini, 2017
  • Bolivia, ancient sample – Llamas, 2016

B2ab1

B2ab1a

B2ab1a1

B2ac

B2ad

B2ae

B2ag

B2ag1

B2ah

B2a1

B2a1a

B2a1a1

B2a1b

B2a2

B2a3

B2a4

B2a4a

B2a4a1

B2a5

B2b

  • Achilli, 2008
  • Yanomama, Pomo, Xavante, Kayapo – Fagundes, Cayapa – Tamm
  • Shown in Mexico and South America in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (40 B2b)
  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017
  • Yschsma culture, Huaca Pucllana, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Wari culture, Huaca Pucllana, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Lima culture, Huaca Pucllana, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Inca culture, Pueblo Viejo, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Chancay culture, Pasamayo, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Cayapa – Tackney 2015 supplement 1
  • Loja, Tungurahua, Pichincha, Pedro vicente Malonado in Ecuador, Native, Mestizo and Native Saraguro, also Peru, ancient and contemporary – Brandini, 2017
  • Pomo in California – Fagundes, 2008
  • Xavante in Brazil – Fagundes, 2008
  • Colombia – HGDP
  • Hispanic – Just, 2015
  • Bolivia – Taboada-Echalar, 2013
  • Hoopa Tribe – private correspondence to Roberta Estes, August 2019

B2b1

B2b2

B2b2a

  • Bolivia – Toboada-Echalar, 2013

B2b3

B2b3a

B2b4

  • Mexico – Kumar, 2011

B2b5

  • Pichincha, Juan Montalvo, Cotopaxi, Mulalo, San Miguel de Los Bancos, Imbabura, Ibarra, Loja, Onocapa, Quito in Ecuador, Native Cayambe, Cayapa and Mestizo, also Peru and Venezuela – Brandini, 2017

B2b5a

B2b5a1

B2b5b

B2b5b1

B2b5b1a

B2b5b1a1

  • Pichicha, Ruminaui, Loja, Linderos, Ganil, Onocapa, Bolivar, Pinato in Ecuador, Native, Native Quincha, Mestizo – Brandini, 2017

B2b6a

B2b6a1

  • Pichincha, Quito, Ruminahui, Loja, Ganil in Ecuador, Native and Mestizo, also Peru – Brandini, 2017

B2b6a1a

  • Chimborazo, Riobamba, Chimborazo, Colta, Cotopaxi, Salcedo, Loja, Onacapa, Loja, Ganil, Quito, Pichincha, Pujili, Machachi in Ecuador, Native Puruha, Native Quitu-Cara/Cayambe Mestizo and Native – Brandini, 2017

B2b6b

B2b6b1

B2b6b1a

  • Loja, Gonzanama in Ecuador, Mestizo and Native, also Peru – Brandini, 2017

B2b7

B2b8

B2b8a

B2b9

B2b9a

B2b9b

B2b9c

  • Los Rios, Babahoyo in Ecuador, Mestizo, also Peru, 2 ancient – Brandini, 2017

B2b10a

B2b10b

B2b11

B2b11a

B2b11a1

B2b11a1a

B2b11b

B2b11b1

B2b12a

  • Morona-Santiago, Yaupi in Ecuador, Native Shuar, also Peru – Brandini, 2017

B2b12b

B2b13

B2c

B2c1

B2c1a

B2c1b

B2c1c

B2c2

B2c2a

B2c2b

B2d

B2e

B2f

B2g

B2g1

B2g2

B2h

B2i2

B2i2a1a

B2i2b

B2i2b1

B2j

B2k

B2l

  • Peuhuenche, Mapuche, Huilliche, Mapuche ARG and Tehuelche Chile and Argentina, South America – de Saint Pierre, 2012
  • Wintu tribe descendant, Wintu DNA Project at Family Tree DNA, August 2019

B2l1

  • Mexico – HGDP

B2l1a

B2l1a1

B2m

B2n

B2o

B2o1

  • Loja, Quilanga, Chimborazo, El Altar in Ecuador, Mestizo – Brandini, 2017

B2o1a

  • Bolivia – Taboada-Eschalar, 2013

B2p

B2q

B2q1

  • Pichincha, Zambiza, Loja, Catacocha, Onacapa in Ecuador, Native and Mestizo, also Peru – Brandini, 2017

B2q1a

  • Loja, Ganil, El Oro, Arenillas in Ecuador, Mestizo, also Peru – Brandini, 2017

B2q1a1

B2q1b

B2r (Phylotree V17)

B2s

B2t

B2u

B2v

B2w

B2y

B2y1

B2y2

B2z

B2z1

  • Cotopaxi and Sigchos in Ecuador, Mestizo and Native Panzaleo (Quincha) – Brandini, 2017

B2z1a

  • Loja, Ganil, Onacapa in Ecuador, Native and Mestizo – Brandini, 2017

B2-T16311C!

B4

B4a1a

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 B4a1a)

B4a1a1

  • Found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade.  Goncalves 2013, Polynesian motif,
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 B4a1a1) – full genome sequencing shows these remains to be entirely Polynesian, Malaspinas, 2015, Estes 2015.
  • Note August 30, 2016 – Te Papa’s archival records dating back to 1883/84 indicate that a Māori skull and a Moriori skull were sent to the National Museum in Rio de Janeiro in the early 1880s. In 2013-14, the findings of DNA research which included samples of Botocudo Indians housed at National Museum in Rio de Janeiro indicated that two of the Botocudo ancestors had typical Polynesian DNA sequences. It seems likely that these two “Botocudo Indians” with Polynesian DNA are the Tupuna (ancestors) that were sent from the Wellington Colonial Museum (now Te Papa) in the 1880s.   

B4a1a1a

  • Found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade.  Goncalves 2013, Polynesian motif – full genome sequencing shows these remains to be entirely Polynesian, Malaspinas, 2015, Estes 2015. See August 30, 2016 note for B4a1a1.

B4a1b

B4a1b1

B4b

B4b1

B4bd

B4c1b

B4f1

B4’5

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Shown as European and East Asian and Mexican and South America and Nicaragua and Guatemaula and Cuba and Pacific Islands and identified as Ho-Chunk and descended from Pistikiokonay Pushmataha, b. 1766 (Choctaw) and Eastern Cherokee and Chickasaw and Creek in the Haplogroup B project at Family Tree DNA
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (15 B4’5)
  • Please note that not all B4’5 is Native

B5b2a

B5b3

B2e

  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 

B21

  • Found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade, Goncalves 2013

Haplogroup C

C

C1

  • Native – 2008 Achilli, 2007 Tamm
  • Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa, Kumar 2011
  • Poturujara – Fagundes 2008
  • Hispanic American – Just 2008
  • Arara do Laranjal and Quechua and Yanomama and Waiwai and Zoro – Fagundes 2008
  • Waiwai, Brazil, Zoro, Brazil, Quechua, Bolivia, Arara, Brazil, Poturujara, Brazil – Fagundes 2008
  • Native American – Mishmar 2003
  • Warao – Ingman 2000
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (25 C1 with no subgroup)
  • Remains from Wizard’s Beach in Nevada– Chatters, 2015
  • Aymara, Atacameno, Mapuche, Huilliche, Kawesqar, Mapuche, Teheulche and Yamana in Chile and Argentina, South America – de Saint Pierre, 2012
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017
  • Tiwanaku culture, Tiwanaku, Bolivia – Llamas, 2016
  • Wizard’s Beach, Nevada – Tackney, 2016
  • High Percent C1 published populations: Norris Farms 700 YBP, Cecil (3600-2860 YBP,) Cook 2000 YBP, Hualapai, Delta Yuman, Akimal O’odham (Pima,), La Calenta (Tainos) (1330-320 YBP,) Arawaken, Guambiano, Desano, Movina, Ignaciano

C1a

C1b

  • Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli
  • Wayuu – 2007 Tamm
  • Pima, Mexico – Hartmann 2009
  • Mexican American – Kumar 2011
  • Quechua and Zoro and Arara and Poturujara – Fagundes 2008
  • Peru – Tito
  • Colombia – Zheng
  • Samish on Guemes Island and Fidalgo Island, British Columbia, American Indian DNA Project, 2014
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (26 C1b)
  • Central Alaska from circa 11,500 before present – 2015 Tackney et al
  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014
  • Mexico and Ecuador in the Haplogroup C project at Family Tree DNA
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017
  • Inca culture, Llullaillaco, Argentina – Llamas, 2016
  • Ychsma culture, Huaca Pucllana, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Wari culture, Huaca Pucllana, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Lima culture, Huaca Pucllana, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Inca culture, Pueblo Viejo, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Chancay culture, Pasamayo, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Chullpa Botigiriayocc, Peru- Llamas, 2016
  • Tiwanaku culture, Tiwanaku, Bolivia – Llamas, 2016
  • Aceramic culture, Cueva Candelaria, Mexico – Llamas, 2016
  • Mexico, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Brazil – Gomez-Carballa 2015
  • Upward Sun River, Alaska – Tackney, 2015
  • Canary, Hispanic, Pima – Tackney 2015 supplement 1
  • Pichincha, Quito, Chimborazo, Guamote, Cotopaxi, Salcedo, Machachi, Azuay, Cuenca, Loja in Ecuador, Mestizo, Native Quitu-Cara/Cayambe and Native Puruha, also in Peru, 7 ancient and 16 contemporary, Mestizo – Brandini, 2017
  • Wintu tribal survivors, private correspondence to Roberta Estes, August 2019

C1b1

C1b1a

  • Mexico, USA – Gomez-Carballa, 2015

C1b1b

  • Mexico, USA – Gomez-Carballa 2015

C1bi

  • Gomez-Carbala, 2015, Complete Mito Genome of 500 Year Old Inca Child Mummy

C1b2

C1b2a

C1b2a1

C1b2b

  • Puerto Rico – Gomez-Carballa 2015

C1b3

C1b4

C1b5

C1b5a

  • Hispanic – Parsons
  • Mexican – Kumar
  • Mexico, USA – Gomez-Carballa 2015

C1b5b

C1b6

  • Yanomama – Fagundes
  • Brazil – Gomez-Carballa 2015

C1b7

C1b7a

C1b7a1

  • Mexico, USA – Gomez-Carballa 2015

C1b7b

  • Mexico, USA – Gomez-Carballa 2015

C1b8

C1b8a

C1b8a1

  • Mexico, USA – Gomez-Carballa 2015

C1b9

C1b9a

C1b10

C1b10a

  • Mexico, USA – Gomez-Carballa 2015

C1b11

C1b11a1

  • Mexico, USA – Gomez-Carballa 2015

C1b11b1

  • Mexico, USA – Gomez-Carballa 2015

C1b12

C1b12a

  • Mexico, USA – Gomez-Carballa 2015

C1b13

  • Found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade, Goncalves 2013
  • Chilean and Kolla – de Saint Pierre, Dec. 2012
  • Atacameno, Pehuenche, Mapuche, Huilliche, Kawesqar, Mapuche, Tehuelche and Yamana in Chile and Argentina, South America – de Saint Pierre, 2012
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017
  • Chile, Argentina – Gomez-Carballa 2015

C1b13a

C1b13a1

C1b13a1a

C1b13b

C1b13c

C1b13c1

C1b13c2

  • Chile, Argentina – Gomez-Carballa 2015

C1b13d

C1b13e

C1b14

C1b11

C1b15

C1b15a

  • Brazil – Gomez-Carballa 2015

C1b16

C1b17

C1b18

C1b19

  • Peru – Gomez-Carballa 2015
  • Peru, 9 ancient and 2 contemporary – Brandini, 2017

C1b20

C1b21

C1b21a

  • Peru – Gomez-Carballa 2015
  • Peru, 2 ancient and 2 contemporary – Brandini, 2017

C1b22

C1b23

  • Loja, Tuncarta, Onacapa, Ganil, Catacocha in Ecuador, Native, Native Saraguro and Mestizo – Brandini, 2017

C1b24

C1b25

C1b26a

C1b26a1

C1b27

C1b28

C1b29

  • Bolivar, Cotopaxi, Mana, Quito, Loja in Ecuador, Native and Mestizo – Brandini, 2017

C1ba

C1b-T16311C

C1c

C1c1

C1c1a

C1c1b

C1c2

C1c3

C1c4

C1c5

C1c6

C1c7

C1c8

C1c8-A19254G, C16114T

C1d

  • Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli
  • Coreguaje – 2007 Tamm
  • Coreguaje, Colombia – Fagundes 2008
  • Tamaulipas and Guanajuato and Chihuahua and Kolla-Salta and Buenos Aires and Boyacá, Colombia and Mexico – Perego 2010
  • Chihuahua, Mexico, Salta, Argentina – Perego 2010
  • Mexican American – Kumar 2011
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (4 C1d)
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017
  • Hispanic, Coreguaje – Tackney 2015 supplement 1

C1d-C194T

  • Mexico, and Argentina and Colombia – Perego,

C1d1

  • Warao, Venezuela – Ingman 2000
  • Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil and Lima, Peru and Buenos Aires and Loreta, Peru and Imbabura, Ecuador and Mestizos in Colombia and Minas Gerais, Brazil and Cajamarca, Peru and Huanucu,Peru and Puca Puca, Peru and Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil and Chaco, Paraguay and Kolla-Salta and Piura, Peru and Huancavelica, Peru and Corrientes and Los Lagos, Chile and Oklahoma and Kuna Yala, Panama and Darien, Panama and Puerto Cabezas, Nicaragua and Eduador and Uruguay and Nicaragua – Perego 2010
  • Fagundes 2008
  • Tamm, 2007
  • Coreguaje – Tamm
  • Warao – Ingman
  • American – Kivisild
  • Hispanic – Parsons
  • Brazil – Rieux
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017
  • Loja, Ganil in Ecuador, Mestizo, also Lima in Peru and 1 ancient sample – Brandini, 2017

C1d1a

C1d1a1

C1d1b

  • Argentina and Kolla-Salta and Diaguita-Catamarca and Buenos Aires and Rio negro and Corrientes and Flores, Uruguay – Perego 2011
  • Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Loreto, Peru, Minas Gerais, Brazil, Cajamarca, Peru, Huánuco, Peru, Puca Pucara, Peru, Chaco, Paraguay, Huancavelica, Peru, Los Lagos, Chile, Panama – Perego 2010
  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

C1d1b1

C1d1c

C1d1c1

C1d1d

C1d1e

C1d1f

  • Imbabura, Pichincha, Ruminahui, Quito, Cotopaxi in Ecuador, Mestizo – Brandini, 2017

C1d2

C1d2a

C1d3

C1d-C194T

C1e

C2

  • Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa

C2b

C4

  • 2007 Tamm
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (4 C4 with no subgroup)
  • Chippewa – White Earth Reservation, Minnesota – private test at 23andMe
  • Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope – Raff 2015
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

C4a

C4a1

C4b

C4c

Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli

C4c1

C4c1a

C4c1b

C4c2

C4e

Haplogroup D

D

D1

  • Native, Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli
  • Coreguaje – 2007 Tamm
  • Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa
  • Hispanic American – 2008 Just
  • Mexican American – Kumar 2011
  • North American – Henstadt 2008 and Achilli 2008
  • Katuena and Poturujara and Surui and Tiryo and Waiwai and Zoro and Gaviao and Guarani/Rio-das-Cobras  – Fagundes 2008
  • Gaviao, Brazil, Surui, Brazil, Waiwai, Brazil, Katuena, Brazil, Poturujara, Brazil, Tiryo, Brazil – Fagundes 2008
  • Karitiana, Brazil – Hartmann 2009
  • Guarani – Ingman 2000
  • Native American – Mishmar 2003
  • Guarani and Brazilian and Que Chia and Pima Indian – Kivisild 2006
  • British Colombia found in the Haplogroup D project at Family Tree DNA
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (59 D1)
  • D1 from 12,000-13,000 skeletal remains found in the Yukatan, Chatters et al 2014, Chatters et al 2015
  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014
  • Chumash, Rumsen, Yokuts, Tubatulabal, Mono, Gabrielino – Breschini and Haversat 2008
  • Aymara, Atacameno, Huilliche, Kawesqar, Mapuche, Yamana in Chile and Argentina, South America – de Saint Pierre, 2012
  • Rio Negro, Argentina, Buenos Aires, Argentina, Tarapaca, Chile, Maule, Chile, Atacama, Chile, Mapuche, Argentina, Biobio, Chile, Cordoba, Argentina, Valparaiso, Chile – Bodner 2012
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017
  • Ychsma culture, Huaca Pucllana, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Inca culture, Pueblo Viejo, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Chancay culture, Pasamayo, Peru – Llamas, 2016
  • Loja in Eduador, Mestizo, also several Peru, Mestizo and 3 ancient samples

D1a

D1a1a1

D1a2

D1b

D1c

D1d

D1d1

D1d2

D1f

D1f1

D1f2

D1f3

D1g

  • Found in skeletal remains of the now extinct Botocudos (Aimores) Indians of Brazil, thought to perhaps have arrived from Polynesia via the slave trade, Goncalves 2013
  • Aymara, Pehuenche, Mapuche, Huilliche, Mapuche, Tehuelche, Yamana in Chile and Argentina, South America – de Saint Pierre, 2012
  • New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D1g1

D1g1a

D1g2

D1g2a

D1g3

D1g4

D1g5

D1g6

D1h

D1i

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D1i2

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D1j

  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 

D1j1a

  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D1j1a1

  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 

D1k

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017
  • Mexico – HGDP
  • Hispanic – Just, 2008
  • Mexico – Kumar, 2011

D1k1

D1k1a

D1m

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D1n

D1o

D1p

D1q

D1q1

D1r

D1r1

D1s

D1s1

D1t

D1u

D1u1

D2

  • Aleut, Commander Islands and Eskimo, Siberia – 2002 Derbeneva
  • 2007 Tamm
  • Mexican – 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa
  • Tlingit, Commander Island – Volodko 2008
  • Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope, ancient Paleo-Eskimos – Raff 2015
  • Miwok – Breschini and Haversat 2008
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D2a

  • NaDene – 2002 Derbeneva
  • 2008 Achilli
  • Eskimo in Siberia – Tamm 2007
  • Late Dorset ancient sample, Tlingit (Commander Island) – Dryomov 2015
  • Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope – Raff 2015
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D2a1

  • Aleut Islanders and northernmost Eskimos, Saqqaq Ancient sample, Middle Dorset ancient sample – Dryomov 2015
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D2a1a

  • Aleut – 2008 Volodko
  • Aleut – Dryomov 2015
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017
  • Commander Islands – 2008 Volodko (100%)

D2a1b

  • Sireniki (Russian) Eskimo – Dryomov 2015
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D2a2

  • Chukchi – Derenko, Ingman, Tamm and Volodko
  • Eskimo – Tamm and Volodko
  • Siberia – Derbeneva
  • Eskimos and Chikchi – Dryomov 2015
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D2b

  • 2007 Tamm
  • Aleut 2002
  • Derbeneva, Russia – Derenko
  • Siberian mainland cluster – Dryomov 2015
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D2c

  • Eskimo – 2002 Derbeneva
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D3

  • Inuit – 2008 Achilli
  • 2007 Tamm
  • Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope (noted as currently D4b1a) – Raff 2015
  • Ancient Neo-Eskimos, Kitanemuk, Kawaiisu – Breschini and Haversat 2008
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D3a2a

  • Greenland – 2008 Volodko

D3a2a

  • Canada – 2008 Volodko

D4

  • 2007 Tamm
  • Cayapa, Ecuador – Fagundes 2008
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 D4)
  • Chumash – Breschini and Haversat 2008
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4b1

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 D4b1)

D4b1a

  • Inupiat people from Alaska North Slope (noted as formerly D3), ancient Neo-Eskimos – Raff 2015
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4b2a2

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 D4b2a2)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4e1

  • Mexican American – Kumar 2011
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4e1a1

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 D4e1a1)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4e1c

  • Kumar 2011 – found in Mexican Americans (2 sequences only)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4g1

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h1a

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h1a1

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h1a2

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h3

  • Beringian Founder Haplogroup – 2008 Achilli
  • 2007 Tamm
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 D4h3)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h3a

  • Veracruz, Mexico, Arequipa, Peru, Loreto, Peru, Ancash, Peru, San Luis Potosi, Mexico, Maranhao, Brazil – Perego 2009
  • Mexican American – Kumar 2011
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 D4h3a)
  • Raff and Bolnick, Nature February 2014 – Anzick’s haplogroup
  • Remains from On Your Knees Cave in Alaska, Chatters, 2015
  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 
  • Aymara, Mapuche, Huilliche, Kawesqar, Tehuelche, Yamana in Chile and Argentina, South America – de Saint Pierre, 2012
  • Native American Mitochondrial
  • DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017
  • On Your Knees Cave, Alaska, 10,300 YPB – Lindo 2017
  • Peru and Ecuador, Cayapa and Mestizo – Brandini, 2017

D4h3a1

  • Coquimbo, Chile, O’Higgins, Chile, Coquimbo, Chile, Santiago, Chile, Los Lagos, Chile, Bio-Bio, Chile – Perego 2009

D4h3a1a

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h3a1a1

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h3a2

  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 

D4h3a3

  • Chihuahua, Mexico, Tarahumara, Mexico, Nuevo Leon, Mexico – Perego 2009

D4h3a4

D4h3a5

  • Maule, Chile, Los Lagos, Chile, Santiago, Chile – Perego 2009
  • Equador and Peru – Brandini, 2017

D4h3a6

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017
  • Cotopaxi, Farahugsha in Ecuador, Native Panazleo (Quincha), also Peru – Brandini, 2017

D4h3a7

  • British Columbia ancient sample 939, may be extinct – Ciu 2013
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h3a8

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4h3a9

D4h3a11

D4j

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 D4j)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D4j8

  • Gran Chaco, Argentina – Sevini 2014 

D5

D5a2a

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D5b1

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

D6

D7

D8

D9

D10

Haplogroup F

F1a1

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017 – Mexico in American Indian Project

Haplogroup M

M

  • Discovered in prehistoric sites, China Lake, British Columbia – 2007 Malhi
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

M1

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017- Probably Native

M1a

M1a1b

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 M1a1b)

M1a1e

  • USA – Olivieri
  • Many Eurasian in Genbank

M1b1

M2a3

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 M2a3)

M3

M5b3e

M7b1’2

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 M7b1’2)

M9a3a

M18b

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

M23

M30c

M30d1

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 M30d1)

M51

Haplogroup X

X

  • A founding lineage – found in ancient DNA Washington State –  2002 Malhi
  • 2007 Tamm
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2a

X2a1

X2a1a

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Sioux and USA – Perego
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 X2a1a)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2a1a1

  • Jemez and Siouian – Fagundes
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2a1b

X2a1b1

  • USA – Perego
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2a1b1a

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Western Chippewa and Chippewa – Fagundes
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 X2a1b1a)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2a1c

X2a2

  • Navajo – Mishmar
  • USA – Perego
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 X2a2)
  • Manawan in Quebec, Newfoundland Island, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland and Labrador – Haplogroup X Project at Family Tree DNA
  • Estes X2a (2016)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2b

  • European – note that 2008 Fagundes removed a sample from their analysis because they believed X2b was indeed European not X2a Native
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (2 X2b)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017

X2b-T226C

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 X2b-T226T confirmed Irish, not Native)

X2b3

  • America – Kivisild

X2b4

X2b5

  • Not Native American – Cherokee DNA Project

X2b7

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017 – Not Native

X2c

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017 – not Native

X2c1

  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017 – not Native

X2c2

X2d

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017- probably not Native

X2e1

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Behar notes two submissions at mtdnacommunity that are likely European
  • 2 confirmed X2e1 from Valcea , Romania at Family Tree DNA
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017 – probably not Native

X2e2

  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes, September 2014, kits F999912 and F999913
  • Anzick Provisional Extract, Estes January 2015 – (1 X2e2)
  • Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, Estes, 2017 – probably not Native

X2g

  • Identified in single Ojibwa subject – Achilli 2013
  • Ojibwa – Perego

X2e

  • Altai people, may have arrived from Caucus in last 5000 years

X2e1

X6

  • Found in the Tarahumara and Huichol of Mexico, 2007 Peñaloza-Espinosa

MtDNA References

Mitochondiral genome variation and the origin of modern humans, Ingman et al, Natuer 2000, http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v408/n6813/full/408708a0.html

Mitochondrial DNA and the Peopling of the New World, Theodore Schurr, American Scientist, 2000, http://www.sas.upenn.edu/~tgschurr/pdf/Am%20Sci%20Article%202000.pdf

Brief Communication: Haplogroup X Confirmed in Prehistoric North America, Ripan Malhi et al, American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 2002, http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/handle/2027.42/34275/10106_ftp.pdf

Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in the Aleuts of the Commander Islands and Its Implications for the Genetic History of Beringia, Olga Derbeneva et al, American Journal of Human Genetics, June 2002, http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC379174/

High Resolution SNPs and Microsatellite Haplotypes Point to a Single, Recent Entry of native American Y Chromosomes into the Americas, Zegura et al, Oxford Journals, 2003, http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/1/164.full.pdf

Ancient DNA – Modern Connections: Results of Mitochondrial DNA Analyses from Monterey County, California by Gary Breschini and Trudy Haversat published in the Pacific Coast Archaeological Society Quarterly, Volume 40, Number 2, (written 2004 although references are later than 2004, printed 2008)

Ancient individuals from the North American Northwest Coast reveal 10,000 years of regional genetic continuity by John Lindo et al, published in PNAS April 2017

Mitochondrial haplogroup M discovered in prehistoric North Americans, Ripan Malhi et al, Journal of Archaeological Science 34 (2007), http://public.wsu.edu/~bmkemp/publications/pubs/Malhi_et_al_2007.pdf

Beringian Standstill and Spread of Native American Founders, Erika Tamm et al, PLOS One, September 2007, http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0000829

Characterization of mtDNA Haplogroups in 14 Mexican Indigenous Populations, Human Biology, 2007

Achilli A, Perego UA, Bravi CM, Coble MD, et al. (2008) The Phylogeny of the Four Pan-American MtDNA Haplogroups: Implications for Evolutionary and Disease Studies. PLoS ONE 3(3): e1764. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0001764 http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0001764

Complete mitochondrial genome sequences for 265 African American and US “Hispanic” individuals, Forensic Science Int. Genetics, 2 e45-e48, 2008, Just et al

Mitochondrial population genomics supports a single pre-Clovis origin with a coastal route for the peopling of the Americas, American Journal of Human Genetics, 82, 583-592, 2008 Fagundes et al

The Phylogeny of the Four Pan-American MtDNA Haplogroups: Implications for Evolutionary and Disease Studies, Achilli et al, PLOS, March 2008, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0001764

Mitochondrial genome diversity in arctic Siberians with particular reference to the evolutionary history of Beringia and Pleistocenic peopling of the Americans, Natalia Volodko, et al, American Journal of Human Genetics, June 2008  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18452887

A Reevaluation of the Native American MtDNA Genome Diverstiy and Its Bearing on the Models of Early colonization of Beringia, Fagundes et al, PLOS One, Sept. 2008, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0003157

Validation of microarray-based resequencing of 93 worldwide mitochondrial genomes, Hum. Mutat. 30, 115-122, (2009)H Hartmann et al

Distinctive Paleo-Indian migration routes from Beringia marked by two rare mtDNA haplogroups, Current Biology 19 1-8 (2009) Perego et al

Initial peopling of the Americas: A growing number of founding mitochondrial genomes from Beringia, Genome Research 20, 1174-1179, 2010 Perego et al

Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins, Kumar et al, Congress of the European Society for Evolutionary Biology, October 2011, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/293

Large scale mitochondrial sequencing in Mexican Americans suggests a reappraisal of Native American origins, Kumar et al, 2011, Evolutionary Biology, http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/293/

Decrypting the Mitochondrial Gene Pool of Modern Panamanians, Ugo Perrego, et al, PLOS One, June 2012, http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0038337

An Alternative Model for the Early Peopling of Southern South America Revealed by Analyses of Three Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups, de Saint Pierre et al, 2012, PLOS

Rapid coastal spread of first Americans: Novel insights from South America’s Southern Cone mitochondrial genomes, Genome Research 22, 811-820, 2012, Bodner et al

Arrival of Paleo-Indians to the Southern Cone of South America: New Clues from Mitogenomes, de Saint Pierre et al, Dec. 2012, PLOS

Genetic uniqueness of the Waorani tribe from the Ecuadorian Amazon, Heredity 108, 609-615, 2012, Cardoso et al

Reconciling migration models to the Americas with the variation of North American native mitogenomes, Alessandro Achjilli et al, PNAS Aug. 2013, http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2013/08/08/1306290110.full.pdf+html

Ancient DNA Analysis of Mid-Holocene Individuals from the Northwest Coast of North America Reveals Different Evolutionary Paths for Mitogenomes, Yinqui Ciu et al, PLOS One, July 2013  http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0066948

Identification of Polynesian mtDNA haplogroup in remains of Botocudo Americndians from Brazil, Goncalves et al, 2013, PNAS  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3631640/

Late Pleistocene Human Skeleton and mtDNA Link Paleoamericans and Modern Native Americans” by James Chatters et al, May 2014, Science

Genetic roots of the first Americans, Raff and Bolnick, (February 2014), Nature

Late Pleistocene Human Skeleton and mtDNA Link Paleoamericans and Modern native Americans by Chatters, et al, Science, Vol 244, May 16, 2014

Two ancient genomes reveal Polynesian ancestry among the indigenous Botocudos of Brazil, by Malaspinas et al, Current Biology, November 2014

Botocudo Ancient Remains from Brazil, by Roberta Estes, July 2015

Two contemporaneious mitogenomes from terminal Pleistocene burials in eastern Beringia, Tackney et al, 2015, PNAS

The complete mitogenome of 500-year old Inca child mummy, 2015, Nature, Gomez-Carballa et al

Does Mitochondrial Haplogroup X Indicate Ancient Trans-Atlantic Migration to the Americas? A Critical Re-Evaluation, 2015, PubMed, Raff and Bolnick

Mitochondrial diversity of Iñupiat people from the Alaskan North Slope provides evidence for the origins of the Paleo- and Neo-Eskimo peoples by Raff et al, (April 17, 2015) American Journal of Physical Anthropology  http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22750/
http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2015-04/nu-dsa042715.php

Mitochondrial genome diversity at the Bering Strait area highlights prehistoric human migrations from Siberia to northern North America – Dryomov et al, European Journal of Human Genetics, 2015  http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/ejhg2014286a.htm

MtDNA Haplogroup A10 Lineages in Bronze Age Samples Suggest That Ancient Autochthonous Human Groups Contributed to the Specificity of the Indigenous West Siberian Population by Pilipenko, et al, PLOS One, 2015

A Reappraisal of the early Andean Human Remains from Lauricocha in Peru by Fehren-Schmitz et al, PLosS ONE 10 (6)(2105)

Ancestry and affiliations of Kennewick Man by Rasmussen et al, Nature, June 18, 2015

Ancient mitochondrial DNA provides high-resolution time scale of the peopling of the Americas, Llamas et al, Science Advances April 1, 2016 Vol. 2 No. 4, e1501385     http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/2/4/e1501385     

Native American Haplogroup X2a – Solutrean, Hebrew or Beringian?, 2016, Estes

X2b4 is European, Not Native American, Estes, September 2016

‘Human mitochondrial genomes reveal population structure and different phylogenies in Gran Chaco (Argentina)’ by Sevini, F., Vianello, D., Barbieri, C., Iaquilano, N., De Fanti, S., Luiselli, D., Franceschi, C. and Franceschi, Z., sequences submitted to GenBank in January 2016 from 2014 unpublished paper

Archaeogenomic evidence reveals prehistoric matrilineal dynasty by Kennett et al, 2017, Nature Communications

New Native American Mitochondrial Haplogroups by Roberta Estes, March 2, 2017

DNA from Pre-Clovis Human Coprolites in Oregon, North America by M. Thomas P. Gilbert et al, published in Science May 9, 2008

The Paleo-Indian Entry into South America According to Mitogenomes by Brandini, et al, Molecular Biology and Evolution, Volume 35, Issue 2, February 2018, Pages 299–311

Please note that submissions styled with the researcher’s surname and no paper date, such as “Chippewa – Perego” are from GenBank submissions and are listed as recorded at GenBank.

Page History

  • Updated September 26, 2014
  • Updated December 6, 2014 – Anzick data, please note that I only added extracted information for haplogroups where no academic publication had previously identified the haplogroup as Native
  • Updated December 7, 2014 – GenBank submissions utilizing Ian Logan’s GenBank by Haplogroup Program and Haplogroup A, A2, A4, B, C, D, M and X projects at Family Tree DNA
  • Updated January 2, 2015 – added kit numbers to 2014 Anzick extracted data
  • Updated January 8, 2015 with haplogroups from Dryomov et al, Chatters et al
  • Updated January 9, 2015 with Anzick extraction, including the number of results for each haplogroup.  In the previous Anzick extraction, I only added haplogroups that were not identified previously in academic papers.  In this extraction, I included all haplogroup A. B, C, D, M and X that were not excluded based on e-mail communications with kit owners that would exclude their results based on their family genealogy or geography.
  • Updated April 29, 2015 with results of 2015 Raff study, Estes, Haplogroup A4 Unpeeled study, Raff and Bolnick 2014 and a few private test results
  • Updated May 20, 2015 with A10 results from Pilipenko 015
  • Updated June 19, 2015 with Kennewick Man and results from Chatters paper
  • Updated June 30, 2015 with Fehren-Schmitz paper
  • Updated July 4, 2015 with Malaspinas paper regarding full genome sequencing of Botocudo
  • Updated July 12, 2015 haplogroup C1b7 and C1b7a information
  • Updated November 11, 2015 with Tackney, 2015 and Gomez-Carbala, 2015, information
  • Updated February 2, 2015, X2a Estes paper and C4c1 American Indian Project
  • Updated August 30, 2016 Botocudo Remains
  • Updated September 14, 2016, haplogroup X2b4
  • Updated January 16, 2017 with Sevini’s haplogroups from Gran Chaco, Argentina
  • Updated February 25, 2017 with Kennett’s B2y1 haplogroup from Kennett’s paper
  • Updated February 28, 2017 Monterey, California burials by Breschini and Haversat
  • Updated March 3, 2017 with de Saint Pierre, 2012
  • Updated March 3, 2017 to bulletized format
  • Updated March 3, 2017 with New Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups by Estes
  • Updated March 26, 2017 added haplogroup B2r
  • Updated April 27, 2017 to add Llamas 2016 ancient DNA sequences
  • Updated April 27, 2017 to add Fagundes (2008), Ingman (2000), Just (2008), Perego (2009), Hartmann (2009), Perego (2010), Bodner (2012), Cardoso (2012), Achilli (2013)
  • Updated January 9, 2018 to add Gomez-Carballa 2015 Figure 2 C1b clades
  • Updated February 4, 2018 to add ancient locations from Cui 2008 paper and all references from Tackney 2015 paper
  • Updated August 5, 2019 to add locations from Brandini 2017 paper

______________________________________________________________

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156 thoughts on “Native American Mitochondrial Haplogroups

  1. My paternal aunt ordered her mtDNAPlus and the haplogroup came back as X. What would be the most economical followup to determine her subgroup? Will the FMS test provide it, or should I direct her to Geno 2.0 or 23andMe?

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  5. I am wondering about mt-haplogroup A2e. It is not on this list. Family Tree has identified my father’s mt-dna as being of this group. How can I find out more about it? There seems to be very little available with one forum stating that it has been found among the Tarahumara of northern Mexico and also a small tribe in northern South America.

  6. Oh, now we are talking! c1d as Kolla makes sense. I had no idea that this tribe was found in Buenos Aires. I would have always located it in Salta or Jujuy (the northern tip of Argentina). This makes more sense to me than the DPLM world 22 results. Thanks!

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  9. Roberta, Thanks for putting together this list. If I understand correctly, you have removed those haplogroups which have been determined to have been European or Asian in origin? Perhaps I’m not understanding the list correctly, but according to this paper haplogroup M23 is specific to Madagascar, and not a Native American haplogroup. http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2164/10/605

    Do you have something that would show that this haplogroup is found in Native Americans? Thanks for your help!

    • I didn’t remove anything. This is my personal list of working notes about Native haplogroups. All of the haplogroups fall into the normal A, B, C, D or X with the addition of M because M was found in a burial. That burial was early, and cannot be resequenced, unfortunately. So we don’t know for sure if M is Native or not, although there are other suggestions. In any case, when I found any evidence or hints suggesting that any of these subgroups might be Native, I’ve included the information so that people can go and check for themselves. The Madagascar haplogroup isn’t the only one either. There are Polynesian ones as well that are found among at least one of the mountain tribes, plus some that are found in multiple locations. There have been suggestions of Polynesian admixture in the Native people as well. The Madagascar mtDNA could have gotten there through slavery, although there weren’t a lot of slaves imported from Madagascar. Given that it was found in the closest Anzick matches, I listed it. That it not to imply that it is confirmed Native. None of the M’s are confirmed at all, but they did all have to get into the part of the world somehow. This list is meant to be a working tool. If someone is working with results they think may be Native, within these haplogroups, these are the ones that have any context of Native association at all, at least that I’ve found. Some of these may beg the question, eventually, of what is Native. If a haplogroup is found among a Native tribes or Native people and also elsewhere, it is Native in that context? Is it Native if it helps to identify Native people. Or is it only Native if it’s not found among any other groups?

      • As far as I know, what little I know about the Malagasy slaves, they were brought over to eastern Africa, not directly to the USA. Unfortunately that’s all I know about them, so I wouldn’t know either how Malagasy would’ve made it to Brazil, but even more strangely and highly unlikely are Polynesians making their way to Brazil. We already knew of the technological exchange among the south American indians and Polynesians as evidence of the kumara. But that same paper I provided a link to does go into more detail of the possibilities of how Polynesians could’ve settled in the Americas but also how there is no other evidence of it.

  10. Regarding the B4a1a1 Polynesian motif. A full sequencing test was never done on the Botocudo skulls. They only sequenced HVR1, HVR2 and typed specific mutations on the coding region, and it looks like just 6719C, 15746G, 14022G and 12239T. These specific mutations on the coding region not only exists in my own mtDNA results (I’m a subgroup of the Poly motif) but so does my friend’s who is identified as having the MALAGASY motif. The paper already mentioned how the last scenario of how these two skulls could’ve come back with such a haplogroup is possibly through the slave trade.

    In reality they say that out of the 14 skulls there is evidence of two skulls having Polynesian mtDNA haplogroups, not that they were Polynesians themselves.

    http://www.pnas.org/content/110/16/6465.abstract

    • Those skulls were very interesting. Too bad they can’t be fully sequenced. Did you know Georgia and Tom Bopp. They worked on this motif very early on. This begs the question of when that Polynesian mtDNA was integrated into the Native community, and how. It could have been there for a long time. There seem to be a lot of haplogroups that are relatively rare or not much testing has been done in the those areas.

      • I wish there were more studies on these skulls. It is interesting though, I do admit that.

        I never got to know Tom but have spoken to Georgia on two occasions and she handed me both of the Hawaii projects about 3 or 4 weeks ago actually.

      • And Georgia did explain why they included at least one woman who had the Malagasy motif, and now another woman of whom I got to know that has the malagasy motif.

      • I joined the project (right after I got my mtDNA results) it was a few months after Tom’s passing. I was very fortunate to get to know Georgia as she told me about these early years and with everyone. I got a dose of good history of FTDNA and how it started. I’m very glad I got to learn about all of that too, which to me is important.

        And thanks for making a note of that.

  11. To help eliminate confusion, I’ve added a notation that indicates which of the base haplogroups were the founder haplogroups, along with a graphic from the Tamm paper that illustrates the haplogroup movement.

    • The Claiborne County survey books are available on microfilm through the Family History Center of the Mormon Church. What I did was to order the film and read every page. There is no index, plus you may find your ancestor’s land referenced and draw on another person’s survey.

  12. Roberta Estes, I’ve checked with several genetic genealogist to get further clarification about the M23 haplogroup since it is the haplogroup of my maternal 2nd great-grandmother. I did go back and asked Dr. Claudio Bravi about the M23 haplogroup as he researched M23 and other Malagasy motif haplogroups like B41a1a. His response was :

    Hi Teresa,

    I´ve been researching Native American DNA since 1993, so far nobody has claimed M23 as of local American origen.
    Yes, M23 seems to be restricted to Madagascar and places related through enslaving, i.e. Mauritius, Reunion, Comores, South Africa, St Helen, the Americas, etc. However, since Madagascar was populated from both East Africa and South East Asia, there are no truly “native” Malagasy mtDNAs: all of them trace their roots elsewhere in shallow temporal depths, perhaps 2000 years. So, sooner or later somebody is going to find the Asian source of M23 elsewhere. Borneo may be?

    You may find M23 and other “Malagasy” mtDNAs in those Native Americans that use to held African Americans, like Cherokees, Seminoles, etc. In any case, M23 is rather recently arrived to the Americas. Besides, the expectation is to find almost no diversity in complete M23 sequences, a further proof of their close relatedness and shallow time depth (they derive from rather “recent” common ancestor).”

    Best,
    Claudio

    By the way, my own Malagasy ancestors arrived in NYC , a place where Madagascar slaves landed between 1678-1698 and 1716-1721. This has been well-documented. All 5 of my known M23 cousins have been DNA tested and show SE Asian ancestry as do myself and other relatives who share the same 2nd great-grandmother.

    I would be interested in hearing your response to TL Dixon questions above as I am at a loss as to how you designated M23 as being as being Native American haplogroup. I would appreciate it greatly if you could get back to us. I consider this urgent as I do not want people to be mislead into thinking that M23 is a Native American haplogroup when it is clearly not one. I look forward to hearing from you.

    • If you will take a look at the verbiage for the posting, you will see what I did was to post any finding about haplogroups A, B, C, D, M or X that suggest there may be Native ancestry, with the source. This does not mean every one of the haplogroups, especially subhaplogroups, is confirmed to be Native. Some only have one reference of being found in Mexico, for example, which does not MEAN they are Native but it’s a piece of evidence that can be used to determine Native haplogroups, in conjunction with other evidence. The confirmed haplogroups are noted as founder haplogroups with links to the paper.

  13. Question: I have 4 Native American matches with HVR1 & HVR2 and 1 Native America match with 1 distance of the HVR1 & 2 & coding. Yet my mtdna shows as K1c1 with Family Tree DNA. Could my mother’s ancestors have a tiny bit of Native Amer. MTDNA? Thanks and I love your posts and website. GLK

    • Haplogroup K is not known to be Native. When you say matches, so you mean that they are mitochondrial DNA matches and their direct matrilineal ancestor was proven to be Native?

  14. mtDNA – Ancestral Origins shows a match with 5 USA (Native American) of HVA1 2. and 2 matches for HVA1 & 2 with coding that staes match with 2 USA (Native American) with 1 distance.
    On my mother’s line which is Hungarian/Italian/French/German but surnames only go back about 3 generations but there is a very small East Asian/Native American % from 23 & me 0.1% I don’t know how to contact the 5 & 2 USA (Native Amer.) matches individually as it just gives the place or area. Thanks so much for your thoughts.
    Any further info is always welcome. Gerald Kisabeth

    • The Ancestral origins is what people fill in for that line. People get very confused. If there Native believed to be in the mother’s line, whether it’s in the direct matrilineal line or not, they put Native sometimes, even though the instructions are explicit. So, always take that with a grain of salt unless the haplogroup is indeed Native.

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  23. Hi, Roberta, we are attempting to solve a Native American ancestry puzzle and would appreciate your insights. My mother’s grandmother was supposed to be 1/4 Native American, with her father having been 1/2 Native American, and his mother a full-blooded Cherokee from North Carolina. My sister and mother have always proudly thought we had a small percentage of Native American ancestry. We’ve drawn out what we thought to be the ancestry tree with the Cherokee linkages….HOWEVER….
    Recently, my mom, who is 96, took the mtDNA test and it did not reveal Native American ancestry (came back as haplogroup K1A26), so we were really surprised. Our family has a photo of her grandmother–and in the photo, her grandmother looks more than 1/4 Cherokee; she actually looks like a full-blooded Cherokee. There are stories in our family from way back about relatives not wanting her great grandmother to marry the “half-breed” father, etc., etc., which certainly arose for a reason. So, for us, this is all odd. Do you have any suggestions? Thanks, HK Childress

    • I would suggest a Family Finder test in addition to the mtDNA test. From what you said, it appears that your mother’s mtdna does not come from her Native ancestor, so there is no surprise there. I do consults if you are interested.

  24. Hi Roberta, the list you have put together is just awesome! Is there a map that plots each haplogroup? Just wondering. If not would you mind if I used the info you provided to make one?

    • I have not made a map. You might refer to the original articles because some of these haplogroups have a significant range and some are found in only a few places.

  25. Hi Roberta,
    Just an update on this. I contacted Felix Immanuel, since I noticed that he uploaded to GEDmatch a Botocudo sample as I noticed it as a new match in my mother’s ONE TO MANY list. He confirmed that he just did it but never had time to really look into it.

    He estimated the sample (based on radio carbon dating) around 1600AD, definitely pre-Columbian as it was hypothesized. I told him that the top match is a Maori, followed by two Hawaiians that I know, plus other Maoris and Hawaiians and one of them being my mother and also a half Cook Islander Maori in New Zealand.

      • I only know of that one paper – Identification of Polynesian mtDNA haplogroups in remains of Botocudo Amerindians from Brazil.
        http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23576724

        There are actually two samples, both have C1b2 (2015 per ISOGG) Y haplogroups. Aren’t those typical for NA too? I know C also exists in Polynesia but I haven’t been able to determine specifics yet, at least not with my project members.

        F999963
        F999964

        • Kalani,

          I did some checking and I have never seen these Y haplogroups associated with Native, except in this circumstance. However, given that they showed absolutely no admixture of any kind, I don’t think we can “count” them as Native. It’s certainly an interesting puzzle isn’t it. I notice on GedMatch that they match several of your kits. Where are these people from? I’m thinking maybe you said they were Hawaiian but I don’t recall.

          • That link I provided, only now I am reading it and it did rule out Native American and Malagasy. And some Polynesians have the C haplogroup but I haven’t tested all the specific SNPs to figure out where they fall. Now that I have this information, I probably will start testing for those specific SNPs.

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  30. Roberta, I failed to mention this earlier, but some of the FTDNA, Family Finder matches to my mom were from Brazil, & their Brazilian ancestry went back several generations. I’ve found other clues, while researching my mom’s ancestry, which lead me to the Bahamas, Caribbean & Latino/Native American origins as well. The Benge [& I believe Goins too?] family also matched my mom, per FTDNA, Family Finder results. One of the most common surnames DNA linked to my cousin Mark Brown [per FTDNA, DNA results] was Cauble/Coble. Also, other very popular/numerous matches came from families: Markle/Miracle/Myracle/Merkel, Ashley, Fisher, Martin, & others. DNA testing of the long time resident families of Abaco & other Bahamian/Caribbean islands may shed new light on some of your research interests & groups? The history of the Bahamas is quite interesting, French, Dutch, English, as well as integrated Brazilian slaves as well, some of who’s descendants, no doubt still reside there today. Their DNA tests could be most interesting/enlightening. Some of the Dutch [& Melungeon?] origins, may travel back to the north African coast, to Iberia, & eventually, here.

    Marshall Spencer

  31. I understand that Natives only fall in Haplogroups A, B, C, D, M or X – My mtDNA Haplogroup is: N Subgroup X2.
    I cannot find any information on this Subgroup, but notice that there are Native migrations with Haplogroup X2a on one of your maps. Can you possibly tell me what my Subgroup means since my Haplogroup is N ?

    • X2 is a subgroup of N. To find out your entire subgroup, you’ll have to take the full sequence test at Family Tree DNA to discover the values at all 16,000 locations of your mtDNA. That’s the only way to know. You will also be matched there against others in the data base so you will match other people in your haplogroup.

      • So, only mtDNA Hg B who it the descendants from Macrohaplogroup N – R in the New World + Native American Maternal Haplogroup? Mitochondria DNA Hg A and X were descendants from Macrohaplogroup N and mtDNA Hg C and D were descendants from Macrohaplogroup M?
        Kennewick Man firstly though as “Caucasian Race” because his Dolichocephalic head shape. But, Kennewick Man actually just a regular Native American based from his Uniparental Haplogroups: Y DNA Hg Q3-M3 and mtDNA Hg X2a. But i don’t know about Kennewick Man Autosomal DNA.

  32. Hello Roberta,
    My haplogroup is B45 but a cousin did her DNA and it was B2A2 Her great-grandfather and great-grandmother were my great-grandparents sister and brother. Can I persume my DNA would be B2A2 if I took the full mtda test.

    • It depends on how you are related. The Y shows your direct paternal line – the mtdna your matrilineal line – and autosomal reflects all of your ancestry that you inherited from your parents. You can also find other relatives to represent Y and mtDNA lines you don’t personally carry.

  33. I find this all fascinating, but I’m fairly new to this and trying to make sense of where things currently stand with X2b4. Based on an earlier comment from a year ago, it was not ruled in or out as being possibly native. Is this still the case or is it now only considered to be European? Thanks

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  38. Is there a distinct A or other haplogroup identified as associated with Abenaki/Algonquian ancestry? I have at least three full-blooded ancestors from Quebec on my father’s side nine and 10 generations back. Is that too dilute? I just received results from YDNA37 (my brother) and am awaiting mtDNA results.

  39. Hey Roberta! My great grandmother was known to be of Native descent, I do show 4% North American Indian results in my DNA testing, and I also three C1C halpo cousin matches, could this be coincidence? Or could this be of our Native connection? How common or possible for someone to get C1C cousin matches, if it is unrelated to Native connections?

    btw, I tested with AncestryDNA and transferred to FTDNA and GEDMatch so I didn’t get my own haplos.

  40. Miss Roberta Estes, i don’t expected when actually not only mtDNA Hg B2 in The New World – America. An mtDNA Hg B4a (Southeast Asian and Pasific Islanders) and it’s subrances actually already reached Southwest America in Chile and, surprisingly, they’re reached to Amazon rain forest on Brazil. I belongs to mtDNA Hg B4c – B4c2, so am i have distingtly related with the South Americans who have mtDNA Hg B4a, B4a1a, B4’5?

    • If you’re referring to the Botocudo skulls that are actually of Polynesian origin, those were received by the Museu Nacional in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil from The Wellington Colonial Musuem, now known as Te Papa Museum in Wellington, New Zealand in the 1880s according to the Manager Repatriation of that museum and of which they have archival records of that transaction.

        • I asked the manager repatriation again to see if they did publish anything other than what was shared previously. I know that when that came out he was on his way to the U.K. to repatriate 12 (?) bones of their ancestors. I figured they will do one once they can get the ones from Rio.

          • It was this:

            Related DNA Research – Two “Botocudo Indians” with Polynesian DNA    

            Te Papa’s archival records dating back to 1883/84 indicate that a Māori skull and a Moriori skull were sent to the National Museum in Rio de Janeiro in the early 1880s. 

            In 2013-14, the findings of DNA research which included samples of Botocudo Indians housed at National Museum in Rio de Janeiro indicated that two of the Botocudo ancestors had typical Polynesian DNA sequences. 

            It seems likely that these two “Botocudo Indians” with Polynesian DNA are the tupuna (ancestors) that were sent from the Wellington Colonial Museum (now Te Papa) in the 1880s.  

            Here is the webpage link to the scientific papers, including DNA tests etc, which are all in the public domain:

            http://www4.furg.br/paginaFURG/arquivos/noticias/000024507.pdf

            http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3631640/

  41. This is a wonderful article. I just received my results and am in Haplogroup A2ae. Do you have any info on that specific group.
    Thanks!

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