Utilizing Ancient DNA at GedMatch

Mummy of 6 month old boy found in Greenland

It has been a wonderful week for those of us following ancient DNA full genome sequencing, because now we can compare our own results to those of the ancient people found whose DNA has been fully sequenced, including one Native American.

Felix Chandrakumar has uploaded the autosomal files of five ancient DNA specimens that have been fully sequenced to GedMatch.  Thanks Felix.

When news of these sequences first hit the academic presses, I was wishing for a way to compare our genomes – and now my wish has come true.

Utilizing GedMatch’s compare one to all function, I ran all of the sequences individually and found, surprisingly, that there are, in some cases, matches to contemporary people today.  I dropped the cM measure to 1 for both autosomal and X.

Please note that because these are ancient DNA sequences, they will all have some segments missing and none can be expected to be entirely complete.  Still, these sequences are far better than nothing.

1.  Montana Anzick at GedMatch

This is the only clearly Native American sample.

http://www.y-str.org/2014/09/clovis-anzick-dna.html

F999912

9-27-2014 – Please note that kit F999912 has been replaced by kit F999913.

10-23-2014 – Please note that kit F999913 has been replaced by kit F999919.

No matches at 1cM in the compare to all.  This must be because the SNP count is still at default thresholds, in light of information discovered later in this article.

Update – as it turns out, this kit was not finished processing when I did the one to one compare.  After it finished, the results were vastly different.  See this article for results.

2.  Paleo Eskimo from Greenland at GedMatch

http://www.y-str.org/2013/12/palaeo-eskimo-2000-bc-dna.html

F999906

Thirty-nine matches with segments as large at 3.8.  One group of matches appears to be a family.  One of these matches is my cousin’s wife.  That should lead to some interesting conversation around the table this holiday season!  All of these matches, except 1, are on the X chromosome.  This must be a function of these segments being passed intact for many generations.

I wrote about some unusual properties of X chromosomal inheritance and this seems to confirm that tendency in the X chromosome, or the matching thresholds are different at GedMatch for the X.

3.  Altai Neanderthal at GedMatch

http://www.y-str.org/2013/08/neanderthal-dna.html

F999902

One match to what is obviously another Neaderthal entry.

4.  Russian Causasus Neanderthal at GedMatch

Another contribution from the Neanderthal Genome Project.

http://www.y-str.org/2014/09/mezmaiskaya-neanderthal-dna.html

F999909

No matches.

5.  Denisova at GedMatch

http://www.y-str.org/2013/08/denisova-dna.html

F999903

Two matches, one to yet another ancient entry and one to a contemporary individual on the X chromosome.

But now, for the fun part.

My Comparison

Before I start this section, I want to take a moment to remind everyone just how old these ancient segments are.

  • Anzick – about 12,500 years old
  • Paleo-Eskimo – about 4,000 years old
  • Altai Neanderthal – about 50,000 years old
  • Russian Caucasus Neanderthal – about 29,000 years old
  • Denisova – about 30,000 years old

In essence, the only way for these segments to survive intact to today would have been for them to enter the population of certain groups, as a whole, to be present in all of the members of that group, so that segment would no longer be divided and would be passed intact for many generation, until that group interbred with another group who did not carry that segment.  This is exactly what we see in endogamous populations today, such as the Askenazi Jewish population who is believed, based on their common shared DNA, to have descended from about 350 ancestors about 700 years ago.  Their descendants today number in the millions.

So, let’s see what we find.

I compared by own kit at GedMatch utilizing the one to one comparison feature, beginning with 500 SNPs and 1cM, dropping the SNP values to 400, then 300, then 200, until I obtained a match of some sort, if I obtained a match at all.

Typically in genetic genealogy, we’re looking for genealogy matches, so the default matching thresholds are set relatively high.  In this case, I’m looking for deep ancestral connections, if they exist, so I was intentionally forcing the thresholds low.  I’m particularly interested in the Anzick comparison, in light of my Native American and First Nations heritage.

The definition of IBS, identical by state, vs IBD, identical by descent segments varies by who is talking and in what context, but in essence, IBD means that there is a genealogy connection in the past several generations.

IBS means that the genealogy connection cannot be found and the IBS match can be a function of coming from a common population at some time in the past, or it can be a match by convergence, meaning that your DNA just happened to mutate to the same state as someone else’s.  If this is the case, then you wouldn’t expect to see multiple segments matching the same person and you would expect the matching segments to be quite short.  The chances of hundreds of SNPs just happening to align becomes increasingly unlikely the longer the matching SNP run.

So, having said that, here are my match results.

Anzick

I had 2 matches at 400 SNPs, several at 300 and an entire list at 200, shown below.

Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
1 6769350 7734985 1.7 232
1 26552555 29390880 1.9 264
1 31145273 33730360 2.7 300
1 55655110 57069976 1.9 204
1 71908934 76517614 2.8 265
1 164064635 165878596 2.8 264
1 167817718 171330902 3.3 466
1 186083870 192208998 4.2 250
2 98606363 100815734 1.4 256
2 171132725 173388331 2.0 229
2 218855489 220373983 2.5 261
3 128892631 131141396 1.7 263
3 141794591 143848459 2.5 207
4 1767539 3571907 2.7 235
4 70345811 73405268 2.5 223
5 2340730 2982499 2.3 200
5 55899022 57881001 2.3 231
5 132734528 134538202 1.9 275
5 137986213 140659207 1.7 241
6 34390761 36370969 1.8 293
8 17594903 18464321 1.9 200
8 23758017 25732105 1.7 240
8 109589884 115297391 1.9 203
9 122177526 124032492 1.6 229
10 101195132 102661955 1.2 264
10 103040561 105596277 1.3 304
10 106135611 108371247 1.5 226
12 38689229 41184500 1.6 247
13 58543514 60988948 1.6 220
13 94528801 95252127 1.0 277
14 60929984 62997711 1.8 255
14 63724184 65357663 1.7 201
14 72345879 74206753 1.7 263
15 36850933 38329491 2.7 238
16 1631282 2985328 2.5 273
16 11917282 13220406 3.7 276
16 15619825 17324720 3.1 305
16 29085336 31390250 1.3 263
16 51215026 52902771 3.4 224
17 52582669 56643678 4.7 438
19 11527683 13235913 1.7 203
19 15613137 16316773 1.2 204
19 46195917 49338412 3.3 397
20 17126434 18288231 2.1 225
21 35367409 36969215 4.1 254
21 42399499 42951171 1.6 233
22 33988022 35626259 5.0 289

In my case, I’m particularly fortunate, because my mother tested her DNA as well.  By process of elimination, I can figure out which of my matches are through her, and then by inference, which are through my father or are truly IBS by convergence.

I carry Native heritage on both sides, but my mother’s is proven to specific Native ancestors where my father’s is only proven to certain lines and not yet confirmed through genealogy records to specific ancestors.

Because I had so many matches, quite to my surprise, I also compared my mother’s DNA to the Anzick sample, combined the two results and put them in a common spreadsheet, shown below.  White are my matches.  Pink are Mom’s matches, and the green markers are on the segments where we both match the Anzick sample, confirming that my match is indeed through mother.

ancient compare

We’ll work with this information more in a few minutes.

Paleo

At 200 SNP level, 2 segments.

1 26535949 27884441 1.1 258
2 127654021 128768822 1.2 228

My mother matches on 9 segments, but neither of the two above, so they are either from my father’s side or truly IBS by convergence.

Altai Neanderthal

ancient compare2

Russian Neanderthal

Neither my mother nor I have any matches at 100SNPs and 1cM.

Denisovan

I have one match.

Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
4 8782230 9610959 1.2 100

My mother matches 2 segments at 100 SNPs but neither match is the same as my segment.

Matching to Ancestral Lines

I’ve been mapping my DNA to specific ancestors utilizing the genealogy information of matches and triangulation for some time.  This consists of finding common ancestors with your matches.  Finding one person who matches you and maps to a common ancestor on a particular segment consists of a hint.  Finding two that share the same ancestral line and match you and each other on the same segment is confirmation – hence, the three of you triangulate.  More than three is extra gravy:)

I have also recorded other relevant information in my matches file, like the GedMatch Native chromosomal comparisons when I wrote “The Autosomal Me” series about hunting for my Native chromosomal segments.

So, after looking at the information above, it occurred to me that I should add this ancestral match information to my matches spreadsheet, just for fun, if nothing else.

I added these matches, noted the source as GedMatch and then sorted the results, anxious to see what we might find.  Would at least one of these segments fall into the proven Native segments or the matches to people who also descend from those lines?

What I found was both astonishing and confusing….and true to form to genealogy, introduced new questions.

I have extracted relevant matching groups from my spreadsheet and will discuss them and why they are relevant.  You can click on any of the images to see a larger image.

ancient compare3

This first set of matches is intensely interesting, and equally as confusing.

First, these matches are to both me and mother, so they are confirmed through my mother’s lines.  In case anyone notices, yes, I did switch my mother’s line color to white and mine to pink to be consistent with my master match spreadsheet coloration.

Second, both mother and I match the Anzick line on the matches I’ve utilized as examples.

Third, both 23andMe and Dr. Doug McDonald confirmed the segments in red as Native which includes the entire Anzick segment.

Fourth, utilizing the Gedmatch admixture tools, mother and I had this range in common.  I described this technique in “The Autosomal Me” series.

Fifth, these segments show up for two distinct genealogy lines that do not intersect until my grandparents, the Johann Michael Miller line AND the Acadian Lore line.

Sixth, the Acadian Lore line is the line with proven Native ancestors.

Seventh, the Miller line has no Native ancestors and only one opportunity for a Native ancestor, which is the unknown wife of Philip Jacob Miller who married about 1750 to a women rumored to be Magdalena Rochette, but research shows absolutely no source for that information, nor any Rochette family anyplace in any proximity in the same or surrounding counties to the Miller family.  The Miller’s were Brethren.  Furthermore, there is no oral history of a Native ancestor in this line, but there have been other hints along the way, such as the matching segments of some of the “cousins” who show as Native as well.

Eighth, this makes my head hurt, because this looks, for all the world, like Philip Jacob Miller who was living in Bedford County, PA when he married about 1750 may have married someone related to the Acadian lines who had intermarried with the Micmac.  While this is certainly possible, it’s not a possibility I would ever have suspected.

Let’s see what else the matches show.

ancient compare4

In this matching segment Mom and I both match Emma, who descends from Marie, a MicMac woman.  Mom’s Anzik match is part of this same segment.

ancient compare5

In this matching segment, Mom and I both match cousin Denny who descends from the Lore line who is Acadian and confirmed to have MicMac ancestry.  Mom’s Anzik segments all fit in this range as well.

ancient compare6

In this matching segment, cousin Herbie’s match to Mom and I falls inside the Anzick segments of both Mom and I.

ancient compare7

More matching to the proven Miller line.

ancient compare8

This last grouping with Mom is equally as confusing at the first.  Mom and I both match cousin Denny on the Lore side, proven Acadian.

Mom and I both match the Miller side too, and the Anzik for both of us falls dead center in these matches.

There are more, several more matches, that also indicate these same families, but I’m not including them because they don’t add anything not shown in these examples.  Interestingly enough, there are no pointers to other families, so this isn’t something random.  Furthermore, on my father’s side, as frustrating as it is, here are no Anzick matches that correlate with proven family lines.  ARGGHHHHHH……

On matches that I don’t share with mother, there is one of particular interest.

ancient compare9

You’ll notice that the Anzik and the Paleo-Greenland samples match each other, as well as me.  This is my match, and by inference, not through mother.  Unfortunately, the other people in this match group don’t know their ancestors or we can’t identify a common ancestor.

Given the genetic genealogy gold standard of checking to see if your autosomal matches match each other, I went back to GedMatch to see if the Paleo-Greenland kit matched the Clovis Anzik kit on this segment, and indeed, they do, plus many more segments as well.  So, at some time, in some place, the ancestors of these two people separated by thousands of miles were related to each other.  Their common ancestor would have either been in Asia or in the Northern part of Canada if the Paleo people from Greenland entered from that direction.

Regardless, it’s interesting, very interesting.

What Have I Learned?

Always do experiments.  You never know what you’ll find.

I’m much more closely related to the Anzick individual than I am to the others. This isn’t surprising given my Native heritage along with the endogamous culture of the Acadians.

My relationship level to these ancient people is as follows:

Lived Years Ago Relatedness Comments
Montana Anzick 12,500 107.4cM at 200 SNP level Confirmed to Lore (Acadian) and Miller, but not other lines
Greenland Paleo 4,000 2.3cM at 200 SNP level No family line matches, does match to Anzick in one location
Altai Neanderthal 50,000 2.1cM at 200 SNP level No family line matches
Russian Neanderthal 29,000 0
Denisovan 30,000 1.2cM at 200 SNP No family line matches

The Lores and the Millers

Looking further at the Lore and Miller lines, there are only two options for how these matching segments could have occurred.  There are too many for them all to be convergence, so we’ll have to assume that they are indeed because we shared a common population at some time and place.

The nature of how small the segments are testify that this is not a relatively recent common ancestor, but how “unrecent” is open to debate.  Given that Neanderthal and Denisovan ancient segments are found in all Europeans today, it’s certainly possible for these segments to be passed intact, even after thousands of years.

The confirmations to the Lore line come through proven Lore cousins and also through other proven Acadian non-specific matches.  This means that the Acadian population is highly endogamous and when I find an Acadian match, it often means that I’m related through many ancestors many times.  This, of course, increases the opportunity for the DNA to be passed forward, and decreases the opportunity for it to be lost in transmission, but it also complicates the genealogy greatly and makes determining which ancestor the DNA segment came from almost impossible.

However, I think we are safe to say the segments are from the Acadian population, although my assumption would be that they are from the Native Ancestors and not the French, given the high number of Anzick matches, Anzick being proven to be Native.  Having said that, that assumption may not be entirely correct.

The Miller line is relatively well documented and entirely from Germany/Switzerland, immigrating in the early 1700s, with the exception of the one unknown wife in the first generation married in the US.  Further examination would have to be done to discover if any of the matches came through Johann Michael Miller’s sons other than Philip Jacob Miller, my ancestor.  There are only three confirmed children, all sons.  If this segment shows up in Johann Michael Miller’s line not associated with son Philip Jacob Miller, then we would confirm that indeed the segment came from Europe and not a previously unknown Native or mixed wife of Philip Jacob.

Bottom Line

So, what’s the bottom line here?  I know far more than I did.  The information confirms, yet again, the Acadian Native lines, but it introduces difficult questions about the Miller line.  I have even more tantalizing questions for which I have no answers today, but I tell you what, I wouldn’t trade this journey along the genetic pathway with all of its unexpected bumps, rocks, slippery slopes and crevices for anything!!  That’s why it’s called an adventure!

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126 thoughts on “Utilizing Ancient DNA at GedMatch

    • That’s a good question. Since I wasn’t looking for a genealogical connection, I was willing to drop it quite low, much lower than I would normally without some expectation of a connection. It’s the same question as where does IBS and IBD begin/end. It depends on the DNA and what you’re looking for. If you’re looking to see if you share any DNA at all with these ancient specimens, you’ll have to drop it quite low.

  1. Very nice! My best match was to the Clovis Anzick-1 individual at 110.7 cM with many segments at 200 SNPs or greater, including matches on a few segments of Native ancestry. I matched the Paleo-Eskimo individual at 12.3 cM at 200 SNPs. And I matched the Altai Neanderthal individual on only 1 segment of 1.0 cM, 203 SNPs. I didn’t match the others at all.

    I hope that they add more ancient DNA samples to Gedmatch.

  2. Wow! If it isn’t surprising enough to find recent cousins among your genetic matches, it’s certainly so to find your genes matching up with ones such as these – that are so old! Like you, I’m also lucky that my mother wanted to test — as her results are available to compare with mine when analyzing matches in Gedmatch. Thank you for posting this exercise, Roberta. Great job, Gedmatch! Great job, Felix!

  3. Hi Roberta,

    Did I run this correctly? Here is what I have.

    Comparing Kit F179138 (*Fisherman) and F999906 (Palaeo-Eskimo 2000 BC)

    Minimum threshold size to be included in total = 100 SNPs
    Mismatch-bunching Limit = 50 SNPs
    Minimum segment cM to be included in total = 1.0 cM

    Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
    3 195870680 198146918 4.4 110
    6 156900196 158296257 1.4 127
    9 1622188 2150105 1.9 108
    9 76912087 77780108 1.9 120
    12 20794062 21963524 1.9 114
    12 53536816 55744226 2.2 106
    15 39623526 43635213 1.5 117
    16 61224013 63140112 1.6 122
    22 25910688 26460072 2.7 118
    Largest segment = 4.4 cM
    Total of segments > 1 cM = 19.4 cM

    Comparison took 0.05427 seconds.

    Regards,

    Tia Gray

  4. Hi Roberta,

    Would we run all of these at 1.0 cM and 100 SNP’s? What would be considered a match. For example when I run these Comparing Kit F176798 (*Lilac) and F999912 (Clovis Anzick-1) I get the largest segment at 5.0 on chromosome 17. Would that be considered a ancient match?

    Regards,

    Lilac

  5. When I ran one-to-all for Montana-Anzick at standard threshold (7 cM, 700 SNP) it did indeed return a good number of matches. It takes some time for the one-to-all on a given kit to populate.

  6. Hello, I am still confused when it comes to matches. I have several matches that all meet at the same place on the chromosome bar. I am only talking about Family Finder. My Swiss/German lines are all over PA with my immigrants arriving very early. I look Native American, at least that it what everyone tells me but my Halpogroup in my Family Finder is all over the place too. I am H and my son R1b1a2. Family history on his father’s side is suppose to be Native American and I am looking for that link in him also. Is it possible to be Native American and since it was so many generations back it will not show in you but perhaps in further generations show up in a grandchild?

  7. Just for fun, and not expecting any meaningful results, I checked my family kits against Clovis Anzick-1. The autosomal results showed lots of very small segments but the X one to one results were quite interesting. My mum, her-half sister, her paternal-side 3rd cousin, and I all have the exact same matching segment on chromosome X from 152616024 to 154545424, for a segment of 1.9 cM. The SNPs vary slightly between us but are all in the 130 to 133 range. Should I get excited by any of this?

      • Point taken, so – again just for fun – I decided to compare all of our autosomal segments with yours, which you kindly shared. Here are the results (having deleted all non matching segments):

        Chr Start Location End Location (cM) SNPs

        1 26552555 29390880 1.9 264 – Roberta
        1 26552555 29390880 1.9 266 – Teresa

        1 31145273 33730360 2.7 300 – Roberta
        1 31462994 33205110 1.5 209 – Nicole

        1 71908934 76517614 2.8 265 – Roberta
        1 72208277 76804404 3.0 274 – Glenn

        1 167817718 171330902 3.3 466 – Roberta
        1 167764355 169377975 1.8 229 – Teresa
        1 169444714 171330902 1.5 218 – Glenn

        1 186083870 192208998 4.2 250 – Roberta
        1 188687795 193782054 3.6 223 – Teresa
        1 186090160 192208998 4.2 250 – Glenn

        2 218855489 220373983 2.5 261 – Roberta
        2 218855489 220332459 2.4 249 – Nicole
        2 218855489 220332459 2.4 251 – Teresa

        3 128892631 131141396 1.7 263 – Roberta
        3 129176107 131141396 1.4 214 – Glenn

        4 1767539 3571907 2.7 235 – Roberta
        4 1504781 3484337 2.9 267 – Teresa

        5 137986213 140659207 1.7 241 – Roberta
        5 139181248 141281090 2.7 284 – Joanne

        6 34390761 36370969 1.8 293 – Roberta
        6 34390761 36234628 1.6 271 – Nicole
        6 33962794 36234628 2.0 354 – Teresa
        6 34390761 36384788 1.8 292 – Glenn

        8 23758017 25732105 1.7 240 – Roberta
        8 23758017 25541001 1.4 211 – Teresa

        10 101195132 102661955 1.2 264 – Roberta
        10 101726995 102893276 1.0 207 – Joanne
        10 101357305 102617218 1.1 214 – Teresa

        10 103040561 105596277 1.3 304 – Roberta
        10 104847208 107540200 1.3 343 – Teresa

        12 38689229 41184500 1.6 247 – Roberta
        12 38963296 41376968 1.6 253 – Joanne
        12 38637109 40967935 1.5 236 – Teresa
        12 39212545 41376968 1.5 200 – Glenn

        13 58543514 60988948 1.6 220 – Roberta
        13 58506727 60667281 1.5 208 – Joanne

        13 94528801 95252127 1.0 277 – Roberta
        13 93949743 95793053 2.6 431 – Nicole

        14 60929984 62997711 1.8 255 – Roberta
        14 59732372 61963519 2.1 243 – Teresa
        14 62025407 65494358 2.8 351 – Nicole

        14 63724184 65357663 1.7 201 – Roberta
        14 63504041 65494358 1.9 235 – Glenn

        14 72345879 74206753 1.7 263 – Roberta
        14 73352955 74962649 1.6 222 – Nicole
        14 72794520 74851837 1.9 255 – Glenn

        15 36850933 38329491 2.7 238 – Roberta
        15 37584350 39056793 2.0 244 – Joanne

        16 29085336 31390250 1.3 263 – Roberta
        16 27847977 30435773 1.7 239 – Joanne
        16 27886219 30574532 1.8 256 – Teresa

        19 46195917 49338412 3.3 397 – Roberta
        19 46430052 48558663 2.0 214 – Nicole

        21 35367409 36969215 4.1 254 – Roberta
        21 34317573 36234591 4.2 299 – Nicole

        21 42399499 42951171 1.6 233 – Roberta
        21 42366655 42859024 1.5 222 – Glenn

        22 33988022 35626259 5.0 289 – Roberta
        22 34071820 35284574 2.9 202 – Glenn

        I have no idea what this means – if anything – but it keeps me out of the pub 🙂

        • Adding to the fun, I decided to compare my results to yours – here are complete or partial matches – with Anzick and you…

          Suzanne comparison with Anzick ( settings: 100,1,50) and Roberta/Joanne/Glenn
          1 167217765 171533067 4.1 240
          2 218789223 220909903 3.6 127
          4 178445520 183116926 8.7 248
          6 34440157 36450159 1.8 107
          12 32216222 41184500 2.9 217
          14 70777320 73759397 3.4 185
          16 27886219 31383959 2.2 104
          21 35007283 36758581 4.5 131
          21 42394547 42754127 1.2 116

          Largest segment = 8.7 cM
          Total of segments > 1 cM = 450.2 cM

          We have to remember that what is being measured is autosomal DNA so what is it we share? The colour of our eyes? Our height? Our ability to metabolize drugs – coffee – alcohol?
          What does it all mean? There is a site where someone with patience and time could find out which SNPs are associated with these chromosome regions:

          SNP FAQ Archive [Internet]. Bethesda (MD): National Center for Biotechnology Information (US); 2005-. Locating SNPs in (a) Chromosome(s) Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK44454/
          This is an older site – there may be something more up to date.
          Suzanne

      • Getting back to the X chromosome for a moment, I realize the segments are very small, but I thought the fact that myself and three members of my family all shared exactly the same segment was significant. No?

  8. After reading your column, I of course tried it too. I too match with Clovis Anzick – At 200 I have much fewer matches, but they are all longer than yours. I am French Canadian with Acadian ancestry – so I know full well what “related several times over” means.
    I have 0.2% native ancestry according to 23&Me but no proven line, apart from a Mathurin “born from unknown parents” 6 generations up. He married in Montmagny, on the south shore below Quebec City. That would also be potentially MicMaq country.
    Here are my matches to Clovis
    Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
    1 5483999 7645445 4.1 234
    1 167217765 171533067 4.1 240
    2 49219551 53987248 3.0 202
    4 178445520 183116926 8.7 248
    8 73978433 81644892 4.3 277
    10 30976220 34616095 3.0 206
    12 32216222 41184500 2.9 217
    12 129198526 131251193 5.9 218
    19 8929530 12613425 5.5 223
    19 14056892 16704244 4.7 207

    My question : how do I find other people with MicMaq ancestry to see if there is a match?

    • Suzanne I am overjoyed to see your reference to the “related over and over” for the french Canadian. I’m struggling on my french Canadian lines because everyone seem to have “intermarried in Nova Scotia and Quebec”. How did you make it past all that genealogically speaking?

      • Kim:
        Being part of an endogamous population has its advantages! If an ancestor shows up five times, I only have to enter him once in the database… I use Geneanet (geneanet.org) because they have a great tool to find and display these multiple lines, including relationship by marriage. They also have separate lines for aliases – for first names and last names – a great place to put all those “dit” names. The worst part is to keep all the people with the same names in their correct line. I had fun unravelling all my Joseph Lesage (25 of them in my tree – several in a row).

  9. Roberta, I compared my brother-in-law’s autosomal test with Anzick. He’s the one who matches you and has the NA mtDNA, haplogroup C1b-T16311C!. At 200 SNPs and 1 CM, he has more matches than you do and one is 5.7 cM. His maternal line is French Canadian. Could he be Acadian? Could he be MicMaq?

    1 8925765 10690489 2.4 297
    1 15310107 17349418 3.3 300
    1 42128069 43823334 1.3 207
    1 48977516 53082395 1.5 206
    1 72235847 76325063 2.5 212
    1 96311831 98602548 1.5 252
    1 150697304 152032023 1.2 234
    1 169888457 173324405 2.2 241
    1 198824390 199930724 2.6 275
    2 31365986 33466906 1.3 205
    2 50383684 52713333 1.1 220
    2 127631805 129539628 2.2 245
    2 136916684 141591980 3.6 379
    2 157099980 159725160 2.0 218
    2 159847596 163987397 2.4 257
    2 168798808 170771707 4.2 273
    2 174553113 177636417 3.8 341
    2 184382647 191201411 2.9 271
    3 2176147 3479270 5.7 252
    3 11920930 13320450 1.5 286
    4 146482197 149606154 3.2 260
    5 158422780 160438570 2.4 262
    6 168709387 170195237 2.2 240
    7 56845907 67043077 2.5 264
    7 93871736 95876999 1.5 230
    8 143900465 145817378 2.0 283
    9 128812316 130812291 2.8 292
    9 138813417 140138244 2.1 241
    10 20635684 23434882 2.0 287
    10 87292233 89356194 1.5 243
    10 99998426 102094511 1.9 301
    10 106127216 108956889 2.3 316
    10 110588055 112952818 2.2 263
    11 115341842 116745567 2.9 261
    12 52529539 54301325 2.8 231
    12 69126444 71784014 1.6 211
    12 100836361 102967595 2.9 247
    12 108107358 111757914 2.5 338
    13 48414873 50620406 1.7 239
    13 76341720 78509398 1.8 209
    14 22589815 23617456 3.4 205
    14 68580194 70181627 2.5 239
    15 61441840 63755841 1.4 229
    16 13230842 16067252 2.7 327
    17 52963090 56750377 3.8 368
    18 22612517 23570812 1.3 215
    19 11769397 13734996 2.8 236
    19 40892240 43213368 1.2 222
    22 18581954 20416373 3.3 200
    Largest segment = 5.7 cM
    Total of segments > 1 cM = 116.3 cM

    I’m sure I could never explain this to him, but is his result significant??

  10. I love that you found these Ancients for us! Using 200 SNPs and 1 cM for each, I got this:
    Clovis Anzick, total 246.8, largest 7.9; Paleo-Eskimo total 12.2, 2.6; Altai, total 2.6, 1.3;
    Denisovan 1.2, 1.2, Russian, none.
    One of my Altai segments is #6 from 31,428,789 to 32,887,974 1.3cM 267 SNPs, which I think matches your mom, and almost matches you.

    Thanks, again for sharing this with us.

  11. Pingback: Analyzing the Native American Clovis Anzick Ancient Results | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  12. I hope I did this correct,
    Minimum threshold size to be included in total = 100 SNPs
    Mismatch-bunching Limit = 50 SNPs
    Minimum segment cM to be included in total = 1.0 cM
    Comparing Kit M125740 (*AUGUSTALLEN28) and F999912 (Clovis Anzick-1)

    Largest segment = 5.4 cM
    Total of segments > 1 cM = 296.1 cM

  13. Another one
    Comparing Kit M125740 (*AUGUSTALLEN28) and F999906 (Palaeo-Eskimo 2000 BC)
    Minimum threshold size to be included in total = 100 SNPs
    Mismatch-bunching Limit = 50 SNPs
    Minimum segment cM to be included in total = 1.0 cM
    Largest segment = 2.8 cM
    Total of segments > 1 cM = 37.9 cM

  14. Roberta, I was looking at the matches to Marie Mi’kmaq and notice that my mom who has many Acadian Ancestors fell in the range illustrated on Ch. 2, hers is 8028682-9270035, 4.1, 163.

    I do not have Marie as ancestor so any thoughts what else this may mean on her Acadian lines.

    Lots of learning and fun.

    Thanks Roberta
    Paul

    • Hi Roberta,

      To follow up and to look into this deeper, I compared my mom’s and her brother’s kit to Anzick on Ch 2 using Dodecad Ad-Mix world 9. The results where impressive, They had Amerindian, East Asian and Siberian matches. Since my mom and uncle do not have Marie Mi’kmaq but you all have matching segments, this may be indicating other Mi’kmaq/Acadian admixture in there blood line.

      Let me know what you think.

      Paul

  15. When I dropped to 1 cM and 100 SNPs, I matched all those kits except for the Altai Neanderthal. For the Montana Anzick and Paleo Eskimo kits, though, I matched on many chromosomes. So I upped the threshold for Montana Anzick to 2 cM and 300 SNPs and I still matched in several places.

    Minimum threshold size to be included in total = 300 SNPs
    Mismatch-bunching Limit = 150 SNPs
    Minimum segment cM to be included in total = 2.0 cM

    Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
    1 51577319 54356866 2.9 311
    2 86872058 98315832 2.6 343
    2 177043537 179466252 2.5 302
    3 52132068 54345803 2.3 351
    6 34233259 36600748 2.2 334
    11 64550536 68354630 2.7 541
    16 31302223 48800875 3.1 397
    19 46195917 48968877 2.8 350

    Largest segment = 3.1 cM
    Total of segments > 2 cM = 21.1 cM

    I have no known Native American ancestry, but of course that doesn’t rule out the possibility on some of my lines. So I guess my question is, and I am not even sure there’s an answer to this yet, but could this connection really be IBS or is it more likely (not definitive or anywhere near that level of certainty) that I have a Native American ancestor?

    I also ran my partner’s kit, and like me he doesn’t know of any Native American ancestors, and he has similar results. So I’m left wondering if this is a false positive or if this is meaningful. Thank you for whatever help you can provide.

    I really enjoyed reading this post. Very cool stuff.

  16. Pingback: New Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups Extrapolated from Anzick Match Results | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  17. Interesting. My father has a “small but real” (in the words of Doug McDonald) Native American stretch on one chromosome. His mtDNA haplotype is x2e1a1. Based on testing of various cousins, we know this NA DNA could be (but is not necessarily) from his matrilineal ancestor.

    I ran a one-to-one comparison between my father and the Anzick kit (100-SNP threshold, 50-SNP mismatch-bunching limit, and 1-cM minimum segment length). I got a largest matching segment of 6.3 cM and a total of segments > 1 cM of 715.5 cM. In light of the above information, does this seem significant?

    • Following up on this… either I’m not running the analysis properly or I’m skeptical: I did the same comparison substituting my mother-in-law and her cousin, both of recent central European ancestry, and got roughly similar results.

  18. I think I’m getting the hang of this now, comparing my son Edwin, #3 on list, M174237.using these:
    I need to learn more about what all of this means.

    Minimum threshold size to be included in total = 500 SNPs
    Mismatch-bunching Limit = 250 SNPs
    Minimum segment cM to be included in total = 7.0 cM

    Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
    2 235075881 240629067 13.8 972
    3 11039091 16637492 8.2 967
    3 20763585 25992611 7.6 595
    4 164740516 173246588 9.4 583
    8 26639020 31516339 7.5 716
    14 21608501 25424824 8.0 779
    19 53647787 56574475 9.9 588
    22 18080846 21870414 8.0 560
    22 34243922 37993131 8.5 665

  19. Pingback: Ancient DNA Matches – What Do They Mean? | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  20. Pingback: Matching DNA of Living Native Descendants to DNA of Native Ancestors | Native Heritage Project

  21. I was intrigued to see that my mother (whose grandfather is the only ancestor who could have any Native, short of medieval Vikings bringing some back) matches the Clovis Anzick in two places with over 500 SNPs (1.5cM on 3, 4.7 on 6). However, when I tried my brother and me, we shared an over-500 SNP match on 10 instead. Well, we know that our father had no Native (unless from medieval Vikings), and in fact our paternal cousin who matches us on that part of 10 did not share our Anzick match, so that one was definitely IBS.

    So while this is fascinating stuff, I’d caution people to check their purported Ancient matches very carefully before assuming they’re meaningful.

  22. Thank you for sharing this information! Montana Anzick at1cM @ 200 Capped limits. Until I was shown no Matches was at 2cM 600. Paleo Eskimo from Greenland was limited 1cM @300 no more matches 1cM @400. The Rest Absolutely Nothing. Guess that kinda throws the “You are 2.9 % Neanderthal” into question. LOVE this DNA stuff! New and Interesting to say the least!

  23. I compared Montana Anzick with my Mom who is mtDNA Haplogroup B and got the following results (not sure I did it right):
    GEDmatch.Com Autosomal Comparison
    Comparing Kit M145336 (Frances Gregg) and F999912 (Clovis Anzick-1)
    Minimum threshold size to be included in total = 100 SNPs
    Mismatch-bunching Limit = 50 SNPs
    Minimum segment cM to be included in total = 5.0 cM

    Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
    4 132794763 139930692 6.2 288
    5 36063957 39255372 5.1 373
    5 155907842 162683449 5.9 695
    7 106254691 112773255 5.7 423
    17 52181991 56942634 6.2 546
    17 57007070 62320584 5.4 562
    18 4239393 5825138 5.6 180
    18 69856260 71348765 5.2 278
    Largest segment = 6.2 cM
    Total of segments > 5 cM = 45.3 cM

    Our Native ancestry comes from the Minnesota Territories – Winnebago/Ho-Chunk/Menominee/Dakota/Lakota

    Sherril

  24. I have mostly European but also known Cherokee heritage. We know that there was early intermarriage with whites, and the Native American doesn’t always show up, but Dr. McDonald did find real Native American.

    When I ran a Gedmatch for Anziac using what you recommended SNP at 200, and set for 1 cM, I came up with with 88.6 cM and the largest segment being 5.5cM. One SNP match at 415, 5 in the 300s, and many in the 200s. Does this most likely point to the Native American?

      • And don’t forget to mix in traditional genealogy. Since my native ancestor had been baptized, even with only a given name, I was able to find the baptismal record where his parents and where they lived was mentioned. They were in Sept-Iles, Quebec, where there still exists a native population : Innu – formerly known as Montagnais – those who greeted Champlain – of the Algonquian group (that also includes Cree and Mi’kmaq). So I am very thankful to DNA testing that pointed me in the right direction. It also means that as little as 0.2% NA can be significant (to answer someone who told me it’s noise, why bother). My matches with Anzik were what made me think that my tiny segment was real. A wonderful week indeed… So even Northeastern tribes have some common genes with someone in the Southwest – pointing to a common origin.
        Thanks also for pointing out the link to the IGG conference. I recommend highly the presentation by Ugo Perego. “Native American Ancestry through DNA Analysis “. A very learned yet very clear presentation. Also, if you don’t want the whole conference you can purchase individual videos for $4 each – no excuse really.
        Thanks Roberta!

  25. My matches to Anzick at 500 SNPs (there are many more as I lower the threshold):

    Comparing Kit M852064 (Carola D) and F999913 (Clovis Anzick-1)

    Minimum threshold size to be included in total = 500 SNPs
    Mismatch-bunching Limit = 50 SNPs
    Minimum segment cM to be included in total = 1.0 cM

    Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
    8 31925590 41103217 6.2 576
    Largest segment = 6.2 cM
    Total of segments > 1 cM = 6.2 cM

    Comparison took 0.05401 seconds.

  26. Hi Roberta! We’ve discussed this before via e-mail, but I’ve found through research that I have a lot of Native American in me (adopted and was unaware), with percentages as high as 85%, in Haplogroup A2, and so I compared with GedMatch and found this with the SNP to 700

    Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
    14 33550265 48917130 10.6 985
    Largest segment = 10.6 cM
    Total of segments > 7 cM = 10.6 cM
    Estimated number of generations to MRCA = 5.2
    And when I changed settings to 200, and lowered the CM I have matches on each line, and this being my highest
    14 32993674 48917130 12.5 1098
    I’m confused as to what this means?!
    Any insight?

  27. Pingback: Ancient DNA Matching – A Cautionary Tale | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  28. Pingback: More Ancient DNA Samples For Comparison | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  29. Pingback: Anzick (12,707-12,556), Ancient One, 52 Ancestors #42 | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  30. Hi,
    Newbie here who would love an expert opinion… I ran this, is it significant to prove Native ancestry?

    Comparing Kit A445771 (me) and F999913 (Clovis Anzick-1)

    Minimum threshold size to be included in total = 400 SNPs
    Mismatch-bunching Limit = 50 SNPs
    Minimum segment cM to be included in total = 1.0 cM

    Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
    10 99564747 102442126 2.8 400
    18 25884110 30891937 4.2 415
    Largest segment = 4.2 cM
    Total of segments > 1 cM = 7.0 cM

    Comparing Kit A445771 (me) and F999913 (Clovis Anzick-1)

    Minimum threshold size to be included in total = 200 SNPs
    Mismatch-bunching Limit = 50 SNPs
    Minimum segment cM to be included in total = 1.0 cM

    Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
    1 5713085 6965857 2.5 226
    1 8295795 9702632 2.2 209
    1 26563761 29017775 1.5 225
    1 55611705 57045760 1.9 204
    1 96766037 98873811 1.5 229
    1 225159944 227248320 1.8 275
    1 231750975 232930225 2.7 217
    1 243796934 245777490 3.9 293
    2 8608610 10074176 3.8 217
    2 42544385 43958429 2.2 213
    2 53481767 55630297 1.6 283
    2 112092434 114147690 1.6 236
    2 226499217 228591273 3.1 227
    3 10209065 11011624 1.5 222
    3 129749192 132050480 1.2 237
    4 48031128 54776514 2.8 208
    4 183235232 184517689 4.2 207
    5 14040061 15977697 2.9 219
    5 55601906 57464862 2.2 252
    5 90208087 94651360 3.0 210
    5 157421605 159912229 2.9 314
    6 15002519 16660781 2.7 250
    6 24059493 25301043 2.2 213
    6 25487905 27363708 1.2 373
    6 34051992 36450159 2.2 353
    7 29579823 30938320 2.8 217
    7 43413286 45159111 2.4 209
    7 96945393 99638495 2.6 322
    7 105147257 107127147 3.5 216
    7 149746116 150700229 2.3 221
    8 62813554 65660886 1.2 205
    8 75046809 80274449 2.1 295
    8 136116909 139185487 5.5 288
    9 36856070 38302365 1.9 207
    9 114799340 115953538 2.8 206
    9 129363306 131035892 2.6 254
    10 99564747 102442126 2.8 400
    10 105649816 107814413 1.1 255
    10 126257749 127339749 2.8 207
    11 60300485 61398118 1.5 203
    11 123910521 125452108 1.9 283
    12 54081243 55520673 1.3 204
    12 97326007 99901141 2.3 200
    12 108763195 111640806 1.5 226
    12 129663572 130761627 3.1 247
    13 26284031 27331193 2.8 201
    13 27443268 29186990 3.5 253
    13 30334668 31784213 3.3 209
    13 76304933 78480362 1.8 208
    15 37598656 38996538 1.9 230
    15 50284225 51760017 1.7 209
    15 61971678 64205392 1.9 220
    16 28165 975549 3.5 213
    16 30740822 47225218 1.1 253
    16 49256683 51030764 3.4 268
    17 23359608 25596486 1.0 248
    17 52528032 53739021 2.8 270
    17 58127473 60517472 2.0 228
    18 25884110 30908538 4.2 417
    19 13633030 14994787 2.8 209
    19 16314268 17629818 3.0 243
    19 46954731 48985196 2.1 214
    Largest segment = 5.5 cM
    Total of segments > 1 cM = 150.0 cM

    • You can’t really use the Anzick kit to prove Native ancestry. We’re still learning how to interpret these ancient remains. I discussed this, and the values to use in the comparisons, in the articles. For now, just chalk this up to “interesting” and enjoy the journey.

    • Since I last posted, I got my son tested and of course decided to see how he stacked up against Anzick. I expected to see all of our segments matching, with potentially shorter segments in his and probably some missing. I did a phasing test to see what whas the father’s contribution – and got zero for him (threshold 200/100 for mismatch and 2 cM). I was not surprised since he is Northern Italian whereas I have some documented native ancestry.

      Here is what I got. We have no real matching segments and worse, he has some that I don’t have, with supposedly no paternal contribution!

      Chr Start end cM SNP
      1 5993457 7124777 2.3 204 Son
      1 242825235 243700890 3.2 215 Son
      1 38332120 39330798 2.0 220 Me
      1 161110230 162008708 2.3 230 Me
      2 218789223 220500564 2.8 292 Son
      2 208077458 211104925 2.0 329 Me
      3 14483315 16195356 2.5 354 Me
      4 5138454 5836343 2.1 200 Son
      4 37963728 39214752 2.0 251Son
      4 68820981 72579342 3.1 405 Son
      6 16691126 18152751 3.2 268 Son
      6 100987417 104182159 2.2 410 Son
      6 159015687 160169358 2.2 250 Me
      7 44344432 45927170 2.2 221 Me
      8 28395310 29835803 2.9 215 Son
      8 138087952 139209390 2.6 219 Me
      9 4307825 4826566 2.0 203 Son
      9 138264677 139370639 2.5 205 Me
      10 15573087 16819121 2.7 249 Son
      10 116104626 117841308 2.0 238 Me
      12 93056896 93901621 2.0 227 Me
      12 130188688 131251779 2.3 207 Me
      13 30031133 30888805 2.4 215 Me
      16 24581399 25777911 2.2 209 Son
      17 26952709 28478980 2.6 221 Son
      17 53448060 56774017 2.9 280 Son
      21 35279222 36615959 3.5 274 Me
      22 33696230 35278391 3.8 366 Son
      22 25554108 26021026 2.3 213 Me

      How could that be? I decided to rerun the list with 100/50/1 as threshold. And there, there are many matches – but he has segments that are sometimes longer than mine. I decided to rerun the phased paternal file with those numbers – and sure enough, there are several matches. I will not copy them here because the list is too long. It just so happens that many of the paternal segments are adjacent to mine resulting in longer “matching” segments in son.
      Example
      4 5138454 5836343 2.1 200 Son
      4 5438304 5803954 1.2 116 Mine
      So a tiny father’s contribution between 5138454 and 5438304 with another piece between 5803954 and 5836343 results in a longer segment in my son than mine – but the source of these small segments is highly questionable as being due to Native Ancestry.
      I would therefore caution any conclusions drawn from the matches done at 100 SNPs with 1 cM as being really meaningful.

      I found that the only real conclusion I could draw from these test was that I was a lot more like Stuttgart than the rest of the ancient DNA. I would not do any very fine analysis with these numbers because at these low threshold everyone can match many.

  31. Pingback: Peopling of Europe 2014 – Identifying the Ghost Population | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  32. It looks like the Anzick sample is gone (F999913). I tried the old number and it doesn’t work either. Too bad, I was goofing around with F999913 yesterday on GEDmatch.

    Anyway, these were the results of my parents and my own comparisons with Anzick. My dad has a consistent Native American reading on all his ethnicity tests (about 1% average) but no story. I suspect either Saami or possibly Greenlander:

    Comparing (Christine) and F999913 (Clovis Anzick-1)
    Minimum threshold size to be included in total = 400 SNPs
    Mismatch-bunching Limit = 200 SNPs
    Minimum segment cM to be included in total = 1.0 cM
    Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
    1 159281892 161769805 4.1 406
    10 103388824 106662110 1.6 419
    Largest segment = 4.1 cM
    Total of segments > 1 cM = 5.7 cM

    Comparing (Dad) and F999913 (Clovis Anzick-1)
    Minimum threshold size to be included in total = 350 SNPs
    Mismatch-bunching Limit = 175 SNPs
    Minimum segment cM to be included in total = 1.0 cM
    Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
    6 104470668 107607740 4.7 354
    10 111327250 114051969 2.6 362
    Largest segment = 4.7 cM
    Total of segments > 1 cM = 7.3 cM

    Comparing (Mom) and F999913 (Clovis Anzick-1)
    Minimum threshold size to be included in total = 350 SNPs
    Mismatch-bunching Limit = 175 SNPs
    Minimum segment cM to be included in total = 1.0 cM
    Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
    1 153063519 155385045 2.3 384
    2 88322784 99543207 1.6 374
    Largest segment = 2.3 cM
    Total of segments > 1 cM = 3.9 cM

    • So here are my final results:

      Montana Anzick:
      Largest segment = 5.2 cM
      Total of segments > 1 cM = 378.3 cM

      Palaeo-Eskimo:
      Largest segment = 1.8 cM
      Total of segments > 1 cM = 10.1 cM

      Altai Neanderthal:
      100 SNPs:
      Largest segment = 1.3 cM
      Total of segments > 1 cM = 5.8 cM

      200 SNPs:
      Largest segment = 1.0 cM
      Total of segments > 1 cM = 1.0 cM

      Russian Causasus Neanderthal: kit not found

      Denisova 100 SNPs:
      6 31837904 32912195 1.0 220
      22 26500690 27499420 1.3 121
      Largest segment = 1.3 cM
      Total of segments > 1 cM = 2.4 cM

      Please delete my first comment…

  33. Doesn’t the Gedmatch program only consider you a match if you use 700 SNP which is the default and Minimum and you use segment 7 cM which is also the default. Here is a quote on their page “Estimates of ‘generations’ are provided as a relative means of comparison, and should NOT be taken too LITERALLY, especially for more than a couple of generations back.” and “Autosomal results with a largest segment less than 7 cM are usually not considered a ‘match’.
    Leave the default values if you are unsure.” and “To qualify as a ‘match’ in the genealogical time frame, results must have a largest Autosomal segment that has at least 700 SNPs and be at least 7 cM. It must have BOTH”

  34. Autosomal DNA cannot predict a relationship with DNA 12,500 years old, Family Tree DNA, 23 and me and Ancestry all state in their information section that Autosomal DNA can only be picked up within the last 5 or 6 generations, at the most 400 or 500 years, not 12,500. Here is a quote from 23 and me “Matches are labeled as “distant cousins” when the degree of relationship is difficult to estimate, due to the small amount of DNA shared. For every degree of separation in a relationship, the average percent DNA shared drops by half, so that the percent DNA shared remaining is quite small when you get to distant cousins. The vast majority of relatives found by DNA Relatives share a common ancestor within the last five to ten generations. A few may be more distantly related.”

    • I realize that Denise. However, that is not cast in concrete. What they are doing is setting expectation. If you will look at the many results, you will discover that in many, many cases, the DNA reaches back many generation. The most poignant case is that we carry part of the Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA is us today – and that’s reaching back much further than 12,500 years. If you’d like to ready more about that, I wrote about it or you could order the book, “Neanderthal Man, In Search of Lost Genomes” by Svante Paabo, the scientist who made the discovery.

  35. Pingback: Kostenki14 – A New Ancient Siberian DNA Sample | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  36. Pingback: Kostenki14 – A New Ancient Siberian DNA Sample | Native Heritage Project

  37. Comparing Kit A613749 (*jbertmcc) and F999935 (UstIshim, Siberia, 45ky)

    Chr Start Location End Location Centimorgans (cM) SNPs
    1 102071353 106583135 3.8 743
    2 232889163 234575667 3.7 624
    4 8156220 10282181 3.8 462
    5 11149972 13672926 3.2 451
    6 42565984 43909856 3.1 308
    6 44405750 46259190 3.4 451
    6 135524259 137667613 3.3 389
    17 13124198 13941800 3.2 334

    Largest segment = 3.8 cM
    Total of segments > 3 cM = 27.5 cM
    Comparison took 0.07546 seconds.

    So, still learning about all this… do these results suggest I have a relatively large amount of 45,000 year old chromosome bits matching with the Siberia F999935 individual?

    Thanks,
    Jim McCullough A613749 (*jbertmcc)

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  39. Shé:kon Roberta,

    I’ve got quite a few at 3 cM/300 SNP’s. Chr 8 and 10 have the highest SNP’s (bwtn 400-700).

    Chr 2: 3.8 cM/ 308
    Chr 4: 3.4 cM/ 360
    Chr 6: 3.2 cM/ 360 Start Location, 4013334 End Location, 5227949
    Chr 6: 3.2 cM/ 384 Start Location, 137420556 End Location, 138736986
    Chr 8: 4.3 cM/ 432
    Chr 10: 3.6 cM/ 648
    Chr 11: 3.6 cM/ 372
    Chr 16: 3.4 cM/ 317

    gr,
    Sebastian

  40. With Ust-Ishim, it appears higher. How can I be a closer cousin to a 45,000 y.o. ancestor than a 12,500 y.o. ancestor (Clovis Montana)?

    Ust-Ishim:
    Chr 8 5.8 cM/ 878 snp’s

    • It is important for everyone testing against these kits, that many are not complete, and are partial samples, so you will get varying results.

  41. Shé:kon Roberta,

    I’ve got quite a few at 3 cM/300 SNP’s. Chr 8 and 10 have the highest SNP’s (bwtn 400-700).

    Chr 2: 3.8 cM/ 308
    Chr 4: 3.4 cM/ 360
    Chr 6: 3.2 cM/ 360 Start Location, 4013334 End Location, 5227949
    Chr 6: 3.2 cM/ 384 Start Location, 137420556 End Location, 138736986
    Chr 8: 4.3 cM/ 432
    Chr 10: 3.6 cM/ 648
    Chr 11: 3.6 cM/ 372
    Chr 16: 3.4 cM/ 317

    gr,
    Sebastian

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