Germain Doucet and Haplogroup C3b

I love a good mystery, don’t you?  Well, the Doucet family has one and it’s a doosey.

Marie Rundquist, the founder and administrator of the Amerindian Ancestry Out of Acadia project at Family Tree DNA has recently written a new paper about the C3b results within the project.

Marie’s paper, titled “C3b Y Chromosome DNA Test Results Point to Native American Deep Ancestry, Relatedness, Among United States and Canadian Study Participants,” tells about the project and the findings relative to haplogroup C3b.  Her raw data is available within the project.  The Native American people involved are the Mi’kmaq and ironically, while we have found several Mi’kmaq men who carry haplogroup C3b, we haven’t found any carrying the much more common Q1a3a.

The Acadian people were French and settled in the eastern-most region of Canada beginning in 1605 in Port Royal, Nova Scotia.  They mixed freely with the Native people and intermarried.  Beginning in 1710 and continuing until 1755, when they were forcibly deported, they were in conflict with the English government and refused to sign an oath of loyalty to England. The families were highly endogamous.  Today, if you discover you descend from an Acadian family, you will discover that you descend from many Acadian families.  I have one cousin who discovered that he and I are related 132 different ways.

The map below shows Acadia just before the Acadians were deported.

Marie’s paper shows that 6 different families with different surnames carry haplogroup C3b and all are related within 16 generations, or between 400 and 500 years.  Many are, of course, related much more closely.

The Doucet family is represented by 8 different males who all tested as haplogroup C3b.  They descend from various sons of Germain Doucet, born in 1641.  Germain was always presumed to be the son of the French founder, Germain Doucet, born in 1595 in France, the commander of Fort Royal.

Hmmm, this is known as a fly in the ointment.  Indeed, the original descendants of Germain Doucet (1595) who had tested carried haplogroups of R1b1a2, clearly European, just as we would expect.  But then, there was another Doucet test and he was discovered to be haplogroup C3b.

Keith Doucet, the man who tested to be C3b, and Marie subsequently wrote about their discovery and the process they went through to find other men to confirm that DNA result in a story titled “Confirmed C3b Y DNA Results Test the Heritage of Cajun Cousin Keith Doucet.”

This of course, raises questions, none of which can be readily answered.  Doesn’t every genealogy find raise at least two new questions?  Well, this one raises a few more than two.

The other son of Germain Doucet (1595), Pierre tests to be R1b1a2, while “son” Germain (1641) tested to be C3b.  Obviously, these man cannot both be the genetic children of Germain Doucet (1595) and unless a Native American Mi’kmaq male made their way to France sometime in the distant past, Germain (1641)’s father was not from France and was not Germain Doucet (1595).

We know that Germain Doucet (1595) arrived in Port Royal in 1632, was noted as the commander in 1640 and returned to France in 1654 after Port Royal fell to the English, leaving at least two of his 4 children who had married in Port Royal.

So what happened?  Here are some possibilities.

  • Germain Doucet (1595) and his wife adopted an Indian child and named him Germain Doucet
  • One of Germain Doucet’s older daughter’s had an illegitimate child and named him Germain Doucet, in honor of her father.
  • Germain’s wife became pregnant by a Native man.
  • A Native person adopted Germain Doucet’s name out of respect.  When Native people were baptized in the Catholic faith, they were given non-Native names.

So, through Marie’s project and hard work, we’ve solved one mystery and introduce yet another.

65 thoughts on “Germain Doucet and Haplogroup C3b

      • Yes, it does.

        The man who started the whole Germain Doucet b. 1641 study rolling is a Louisiana native, now living in Texas. You can read Louisiana native Keith Doucet’s story by clicking the link in Roberta’s article, “Confirmed C3b Y DNA Results Test the Heritage of Cajun Cousin Keith Doucet.”

        He has kindly published his paternal line ancestry as part of the article, which was published originally in 2010 and inspired other Doucets who share the same paternal ancestry leading to Germain Doucet b. 1641 to test. Keith’s is only one of the lines leading to Germain Doucet b. 1641 that is represented in the test results we have today.

        Marie Rundquist

  1. Interesting read. Probably related to Germain Doucet, native and father of Francois Doucet who married Marie Pisnet in 1726. So the established lines to Germain Doucet (1641) might contain errors, as Germain Doucet is “proven” to be Marguerite’s brother through a descendant’s marriage dispensation.

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  6. I have a genealogy report prepared by my Aunt several years ago The report show Germain Doucet as a direct relation in Nova Scotia,in the 1500s so I believe I may very well part of the blood-line,I saw a site that test for Doucette DNA,, but it stares nine men were tested int he study, so as a woman would I be eligible to be part of the Doucette DNA study?* I am a Doucette from my fathers side*

    • You’re not eligible directly because you don’t carry the Doucet Y chromosome, but if you have a Doucet male relative who could test, that would work. Also, I don’t know how much the Doucet project is focused on autosomal DNA, but you could take the Family Finder test and participate that way. I suggest you contact the project administrators and ask.

      • These Doucet’s show up on my family tree many times both through grandma and grandpa. I am male. LeClerc-Vautour and Breau/Breau lines. At this time I just don’t have the funds to pay for such an endeavor.

      • Thank you, Emile, for your inquiry. So many have been interested in the Native American, “C P39,” Y Chromosome DNA finding for descendants of Germain Doucet born 1641. The numbers of Doucet descendants who have participated in Y Chromosome DNA testing in the past several years attest to the significance of these “game changing” results.

        The Y Chromosome is passed, virtually unchanged, from father to son. The Y Chromosome DNA results for known, (male) Doucet descendants included within the C P39 Y DNA project, along with the results of others of Native American lineages, are for those participants who trace their direct, paternal line ancestry, by way of documented genealogies, from father to son, in an unbroken line, to Germain Doucet b. 1641 in Nova Scotia. I hope this explanation helps you understand the concept of a “paternal line” ancestry, the concern of Y chromosome DNA tests.

        If you haven’t already done so, I welcome you to read the following article about the original Doucet DNA finding, in 2008, http://www.familyheritageresearchcommunity.org/doucet_dna.html.

        Also, please visit the C P39 Y DNA Project website where results, for paternal line descendants of several sons of Germain Doucet, b. 1641 are compared: https://www.familytreedna.com/public/ydna_C-P39/default.aspx?section=yresults.

        The Amerindian Ancestry out of Acadia project hosts many of these same results: https://www.familytreedna.com/public/AcadianAmerIndian/default.aspx?section=yresults

        Thanks again for your interest.

      •     Hello   there, I would like to test for either side : is this possible?  Peter  Doucette.  Thank You.

      • Hello, Peter.

        Thank you for your inquiry. Please email me at mrundqui@shentel.net so I may follow up. Within the Germain Doucet b. 1641 study, that Roberta Estes and I manage by way of the C P39 Y DNA Family Tree DNA project, documented, paternal line ancestries have been as important to the research of this line as the DNA results.

        Please include any genealogy information that you may have about your paternal line, beginning with you, then your father, his father and so on and so forth as far back as you have researched.

        In addition to the P 39 Native American haplogroup finding, through advanced Y Chromosome DNA tests, repeatable trends for genetic distance have emerged and it’s been possible to group participants, genetically and genealogically, by way of their descent from the several of the sons of Germain Doucet b. 1641.

        Thanks again for your interest!

        Marie Rundquist

  7. I would like to have Keith Doucet contact me again. I am a descendant of Germain Doucet (1641). <carold@doucetfamily.org

  8. I’m a direct defendant of Germain and still reside on part of the original land granon St.Mary’s Bay Nova Scotia. I would like to be tested could someone tell me how or where I could get this done? This is very interesting to me for the simple reason my grandparent whole brought me up always said be proud of your native blood as well as your Acadian history. How ever after getting the family tree done I see no one who married native person.

  9. Hello, Michael!

    Roberta Estes kindly forwarded your post and I’m happy to reply to you.

    Please consider having a 12-marker Y Chromosome DNA test, which is now offered at a discounted price of $39.00 U.S. (this is the LOWEST price I’ve seen for this test since becoming involved with this project!).

    Please visit this link for details:

    http://www.familytreedna.com/landing/Y-DNA12-Promo.aspx

    We have found that the 12-marker Y Chromosome DNA test result (for males only) will qualify a match with our current database of results for descendants of Germain Doucet (1641).

    Please follow-up with me at mrundqui@shentel.net for an invitation to join the Amerindian Ancestry out of Acadia Family Tree DNA project (http://www.familytreedna.com/public/acadianamerindian/) where you will find the C3b Y Chromosome DNA test results for Germain Doucet’s (1641) descendants.

    Thank you.

    –Marie Rundquist (Administrator).

  10. I have a genealogy report ( from my Aunt) that traces us back to the 1500s Nova Scotia , to one Germain Doucet. Very interesting read and shows how our family migrated to the U.S. My grandfather and his brother married two sisters from New England ( Maine)

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    • Hello, Mark,

      Thank you for your interest in DNA testing! This particular Y Chromosome, DNA test applies to MALE, paternal-line descendants of Germain Doucet (b. 1641) — typically having the Doucet / Doucette surname.

    • Hi Mark,

      Does your Mom have any brothers perhaps. You need to test the Doucette Y chromosome and that is through her brothers or uncles or a male in her line that carries the Doucette surname. You can do the autosomal test though if you would like or the yline for your surname or the mtdna which is also your mother’s and her mothers.

      Roberta

  13. One other extremely unlikely possibility, and it is unlikely but not impossible, is that Germain Doucet (1641) was from France and carried Haplogroup C3b. Haplogroup C3b actually does exist in the European gene pool at *extremely* low rates and is mostly found in Eastern Europe (Russia, for example), due to intermingling with Asiatic groups like the Tatars. But as far as I am aware, it is not present in France. …… I do love being a part of a good mystery, so I checked my family tree, however, despite my large amount of Acadian ancestry, the only Doucets I have in my family tree are Marguerite Doucet (b. 1625/wife of Abraham Dugas) and her father Germain Doucet (b. 1595). None of Germain (1595)’s sons are in my tree, so I shall assume that excludes me. :o(

    • Dave B

      The presence of the terminal P39 SNP distinguishes the Native American C3 haplogroup C3b. The descendants of Germain Doucet and the other participants whose ancestries also trace through Native American paternal lines have tested positive for this SNP in the study and therefore have the distinguishing P39 SNP which qualifies the result as Native American.

      • Does it have to be male tested only as I am female and was tested and show no native even though in Nova Scotia my family line says otherwise. My family names are vickers and Jesso, Wyse, Doody, Keigan. Probably a few more but this is what I remember. Grandfather was Doody, born in Placentia. Grandmother was Vickers but her mother was Lejeune/young born in Nova Scotia. I have been contacted by folks who hve told me they are relatives and they are Micmaq origin. I have been trying to find family and this is getting stranger by the minute.

      • Marie Rundquist, Administrator C P39 Y DNA Project, Amerindian Ancestry out of Acadia Project on said:

        The test discussed in the article (as applies to the male descendants of Germain Doucet, born 1641) is a Y chromosome DNA test, available to men only.

        For women and men the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the Autosomal DNA tests are available. The Y DNA test referenced in the article, and others, are described here: https://www.familytreedna.com/products.aspx

        For more information about Autosomal DNA tests, please read Roberta Estes’ blog: https://dna-explained.com/2013/03/03/the-autosomal-me-rooting-around-in-the-weeds-using-third-party-tools/

        Thanks.

        Marie Rundquist

  14. Bob Arsenault’s family tree
    has Marguerite Doucet being married to Abraham Arsenault and not Abraham Dugas.
    who were the parents of Pierre Arsenault that immigrated to Arcadia
    he’s the ancestor of Hubert Arsenault who is Bob’s ancestor and my ancestor

    • Hi Raymond, if that’s a reference to Marguerite Doucet, daughter of Germain Doucet (1595), then it is an error. Marguerite Doucet, daughter of Germain Doucet (1595), was unquestionably married to Abraham Dugas.

      • Hi Dave,

        Do you have a family tree that I can check out?
        I am part of an Arsenault family line myself.
        I definitely want to know about my heritage.

        I found out that I am related to Bob Arsenault through matching 30.3 cM on Gedmatch.
        This was on my African American father’s side. My father was born in New Orleans, Louisiana. Both his parents were born in Louisiana.
        Before I met Bob, I got French Canadian matches at 23andme.
        One of them does have Doucet as one of her family surnames.
        Bob figures that 5 generations back, our most recent shared ancestor was Hubert Arsenault.

        I have been reading a lot of references about Marguerite Doucet being married to Abraham Dugas, and so I believe you

        Even on Bob Arsenault’s site, I noticed that he has Marguerite Doucet being noted as being married to both
        Abraham Arsenault and being mother of Pierre Arsenault
        and
        Abraham Dugas and being mother of Marie Dugas
        then Marie Dugas married Charles Melancon, and they were parents of Elizabeth Melancon
        then Elizabeth Melanson married Michel Bourg, and they were parents of Marguerite Bourg
        then Marguerite Bourg married Martin Richard, and they were parents of Marguerite Richard
        then Marguerite Richard married Claude Arsenault who was great grandfather of Hubert Arsenault

        I definitely would like to know if I am a descendant of Abraham Dugas and Marguerite Doucet.

        I have French on my mother’s side too.
        Huguenots that arrived in Virginia in 1610.

        Are we related?
        If so, that’s cool!

  15. I’m a 25 family researcher and very excited about this Doucet DNA. I have my Y-DNA67 kit in and will be submitting my dad’s DNA Monday. I share Keith Doucet’s ancestry for 6 generations back to Germain Doucet, Jr., where our branches split with two brothers here in Louisiana. My line of descent follows:
    Germain Doucet + Marie Landry
    Laurent Doucet + Jeanne Babin
    Laurent Doucet + Marie Pellerin
    Michel Doucet + Marguerite Martin
    Joseph Doucet dit Hilaire + Anne Landry
    Joseph Doucet + Celeste Bellard
    Joseph Julien Doucet + Josephine Fontenot
    Joseph Julien Doucet + Melaide LeBlanc
    Joseph Edmond Doucet & Josephine Thibodeaux
    Joseph Edmond Doucet & Laperle Bergeron
    Joseph Euclid Doucet & Lena Thibodeaux
    Lawrence Doucet & Joyce Smith
    Deadra Doucet Bourke
    The DNA is all very new to me and hoping I’ll have help figuring it all out.

    • Yes, it’s very exciting and there are lots of people to help. Doucet is one of my lines too. You know what they say about Acadians….if you’re related to one of them, you’re related to all of them:)

      • Roberta, I also descend from Maguerite Doucet and Abraham Dugas through their daughter Marie b. 1648. (That’s a second set of common ancestors between us!) I have read excerpts from a 2014 article on the Doucets of Acadia in La Revue L’Entraide by two researchers, which states that Stephen White had made some errors in determining relationships between the first Doucets of Acadia. First, that church dispensation records do not prove that Pierre and Germain were brothers, as they had married half sisters, creating the requirement for dispensations to their marrying descendants. The y-DNA evidence further proves they had different fathers. Second, that Pierre and Marguerite were not closely related due to no existing dispensations that would have been required by the church to their marrying descendants had they been siblings. Third, that Marguerite and Germain II were closely related, indicating a sibling relationship, as supported by Mr. White. (I’ve read elsewhere that there was another dispensation indicating more of a mother and son relationship.) If you put all these pieces together, it’s looking very possible that Germain was Marguerite’s illegitimate son with a Native man prior to her marriage to Abraham Dugas. It’s either this or they share the same mother, but that seems less likely to me. I wanted to ask if you’ve seen this article and to get your thoughts about all of these findings. I’m not sure how much weight to give this as I haven’t seen any follow-up discussions. Thanks!

      • Joan and/or Roberta, I am very interested in seeing this article that Joan mentions regarding Marguerite having an illegitimate son before marrying Abraham Dugas. Could you share it with me at wendybumstead@yahoo.ca Thanks and congratulations on all your hard work on this!

      • Wendy, the illegitimate son theory was a possibility I had pieced together based on the information from the article. The info was actually from a post I had seen referring to the article. I was never able to find the actual article, but I can send you the link to the post about it. It was suggested to me not to put much weight on these kinds of posts which try to refute things that have already been proven. Also, once I learned that Germaine II had been born in a Micmaq village, I no longer thought it made sense that Marguerite could be his mother.

  16. “robertajestes
    on October 9, 2013 at 1:36 pm said:
    I too an a descendant of Abraham Dugas and Marguerite Doucet through their son Claude”

    so we’re distant cousins
    awesome!

    Do you match with Bob Arsenault?.

  17. I believe I am a direct descendent of Germain Doucet, My lineage – starting with Captain Germain Doucet Sr., from Couprie Brie Provence, Champagne, France, arrived in Port Royal between 1632 and 1640, (married Marie Bourgeous) à Germain Jr (Marie Landry) à Charles Doucet (Hugette Guéron) à Jean Doucet (Marie Robichaud) à Jean Doucet Jr. (Madeleine Thériault) å Paul Marie Doucet (Félicité Michel) à Simon Doucet (Scholastique Cormier) à Francois Doucet (Suzanne) à Phillippe Doucet (Hélene LeBlanc) à Gabriel Doucet (Anglélique Deveau) à Joseph Doucet (Antoinette Doucet) à Gerald Doucet – my father. Is the test still available for one of my brothers to take?

    • Thank you for your inquiry. Male, paternal-line, descendants of Germain Doucet b. 1641 are testing currently with the Amerindian Ancestry out of Acadia and the C P39 Y DNA Family Tree DNA projects, with the C3b (Native American) haplogroup result, 67 marker matches, and the requisite P39 SNP+ (positive) finding occurring in 100% of cases, thus far. New tests are under way, and at this time, the latest, “BIG Y” test results are beginning to arrive in the study. To view project results and find out about testing with the Amerindian Ancestry out of Acadia or the C P39 Y DNA Family Tree DNA projects, where Doucet / Doucette, and other results, are hosted, please email mrundqui@shentel.net.

      Thank you.

      Marie Rundquist, Administrator
      Amerindian Ancestry out of Acadia Project
      Co-Administrator, C P39 Y DNA Project

  18. I am related Germain Doucet Dit Laverdue b. 1595 he is my 10th Great Grand father on my mothers side and I also have his parents names which are Germain Theophile Doucet Dit Laverdue b. 1569 d. 1640 and Priscilla Mallison b. 1570 d. 1630. I’m also related to the Dugas, Denys, and Bourgeois also on my mother I’m sure the gene pool was rather low so I’m related twice over to many people who founded Acadia and the first town. If you would like to contact me I have left my e-mail address I also have an ancestry dna account and have had my DNA mapped as well.

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  20. Howdy ! I share Keith Doucet’s family line until our 3rd great grandparent, splits after Charles Doucet. Charles had a son Paulus, he is my grandmothers father. I am reaching out to Doucet cousins from my grandmothers brothers line, trying to get them to take the Y-test .. Sure hope I can ! Thanks

  21. Thanks for this thread. It looks like I have many more cousins than I thought as I am also a descendant of Abraham Dugas (on my mother side, Adele Marguerite Dugas) and Marguerite Doucette. My mother’s family is largely from Cape Breton and Brittainy, France.

  22. I have one Acadian line the Doucet family, and I descend from both Germaine’s but not in direct male lineage. my Doucet ancestors are women, a paternal ancestor who descends from the Native American branch and a maternal mitochondrial DNA ancestor who descends from the European branch. All very interesting.

    • Hi, Jeanne. I guess we are cousins. I, too, descend from both Germaines, but on the Doucet side. We have traced our lineage back to Poutrou, France and I am a 13th generation Canadian. I have recently received my Metis status, but on my maternal side from my Acadian grandmother’s side. She was an Aucoin. We believe that there is Aboriginal blood on the Doucet side too, but have not yet proved it. I now own land in the Acadian village of Grand Etang, Cape Breton, Nova Scotia and am very proud to be a Doucet.

  23. My DNA test revealed I have a 100% Native American great grandparent (4th to 7th) born between 1690 and 1780. I have no other Native American DNA – it all came from one ancestor. Claude Dugas (b.1652) & Marguerite Bourg (b.1674) are my 7th great grandparents. But their birth dates are not within the range given me by 23andme.

    Your research has my full attention for two reasons: 1) I’m on a mission to find my Native American grandparent and 2) I’m writing a book about my Acadian ancestors, starting with their ancestors lives in France, including the desperation of the Filles du Roi, to the Acadians ordeals and battles for New France, the privateers (pirates) free services to save Acadia after King Louis XIV cut off funding, the relationships with, and marriages to Native Americans, the horrific murders, deportations and scattering during the Expulsion, the thousands of deaths incurred as a result, the Metis culture, ending with the joyful proliferation of descendants today, etc. – my book will be called 10,000 from 2. My dream is to get a shortened screenplay version approved for film production. If I make it exciting, action-packed, heart-wrenching with a triumphant ending, it just might sell here in La La Land. And our ancestral Acadian story definitely meets all the requirements for the big screen. The fact that a major production hasn’t been done yet in the U.S bothers me. If we’re related, and you have stories about your branch that you’d like to share, I’d appreciate receiving them. Also, I’m including a list of ancestors / descendants at the end of the book, including the live ones willing to share their names and contributions.

    Back to the lineage: Claude Dugas’ parents were Abraham Dugas & Marguerite Doucet, my 8th great grandparents. They fall out of the range given me in both dates and generations. So, I haven’t considered them as candidates for my 100% Native American ancestor.

    Marguerite Bourg’s parents were Bernard Bourg and Francoise Brun. I do have a 3rd cousin (LeBrun) who is descended from both Bourg’s and Brun’s. And he is also .2% Native American. And through my research I’ve found that Bourg, aka Bourge, Bourke, Bourque, was a common Native American name in Acadia at that time, and still to this day.

    I descended from Claude Dugas and Marguerite Bourg’s daughter, Marie Dugas, born 1-20-1703, baptized 2-11-1703 at St. Jean Baptiste Parish, Priest Felix Pain.

    I’ve narrowed my list down to 17 Acadian 4th to 7th great grandparents, although I still have two French branches left to research. Documentation on males is much easier to find – ex. all baptismal certificates list the father, but, not all list the mother. I’ve found Parish records that annotate marriages of French and natives. Unfortunately, many do not. I’ve learned that there were a few of my extended family male ancestors on these particular branches who married native women. I’ve found no French women yet who did.

    The 4th to 7th great-grandparents I haven’t yet ruled out as possibly my 100% Native American ancestor, born close to, or between 1690 and 1780 are:
    1. Marguerite Bourg (b. 1674), m. Claude Dugas (1652)
    2. Marie-Jeanne Charlotte Richer / Eriche (b. 1747) m. Francois Bergeron D’Amboise / dit de Nantes (b. 1703),
    3. Marie-Marguerite Tessier dit Lavigne (b. 1705), m. Joseph-Marie Desaulniers / Lesieur (b.1750)
    4. Marguerite Teresa Lamy (b. 1721), m. Jean-Baptiste Desaulniers / Lesieur (b. 1708)
    5. Marguerite Ursule Blais / dit Blaye (b. 1688), m. Etienne Lamy (b. 1689)
    6. Elisabeth Rivard Laglanderie / Lavigne (1689), m. Jean-Baptiste Lesieur dit Desaulniers (b.1686)
    7. Marie-Jeanne Laplante dit Veillette / Veillet (b. 1717), m.Joseph-Jean Baptiste Richer dit Lefleche (b. 1717)
    8. Marie-Louise Charlotte Pilote (b. 1692), m. Michel Richer dit Lefleche (b.1686)
    9. Marie-Catherine Lariou / dit la Fontaine / dit la Fantaisie (b. 1683), m. Jean-Baptiste Laplante Veillette (b. 1661)
    10. Marie-Claire Bergeron (b. 1686), m. Jean-Charles Vacher Lacerte (b. 1686)
    11. Marie-Josephte Crevier / Bellerive / de Belleville / de la Melee (b. 1713), m. Etienne Gelinas (1704)
    12. Marguerite Gelinas / Gellineau (b. 1739), m. Pierre Tessier (b.1742)
    13. Catherine Vacher / Lacerte (b. 1712), m. Pierre Tessier (b. 1700)
    14. Pelagie Desaulniers dit Lesieur (b. 1794) m. Joseph-Marie Bergeron, (b.1786)
    15. Marie Dugas (b. 1703) m. Michel Bergeron D’Amboise / dit de Nantes (b. 1702)
    16. Marie-Angelique Masse (b. 1682), m. Michel Crevier Bellerive (b. 1680)
    17. Catherine Amelin (b. btw. 1660-1684), m. Jacques Tessier

    For those who have Native American DNA: are any of these listed above, also your ancestors? If so, this could help us all narrow down the search.

    My family documentation says that many descendants of our Acadian family erroneously identify their native heritage as Mik’mac and that our native heritage is instead Malicite / Maliseet. When the English took lower Acadia, my ancestors moved up the St. John river to Pointe Sainte Anne, just below the Maliseet Aukpaque village. Many lived in Pt. Ste. Anne then, while some lived on the island below Savage Island. The west side of the St. John river, and much of the east side surrounding this area was Maliseet territory. The Mik’maq’s territory was much further east. My ancestors are noted as knowing the St. John well, being “navigateurs” and privateers, and of having good relations with the Maliseet, long before they fled there. My 6th great-grandfather’s cousin, whom he grew up next door to, was Ambroise St. Aubin, first name given in honor of his Uncle Barthelemy Bergeron D’Amboise (my 7th great-grandfather). Ambroise was half Maliseet, and many of my ancestors were fluent in the Maliseet Algonquian language. Ambroise St. Aubin became the chief of the Maliseet Aukpaque village. If I can determine who my Native American ancestor was, I can resolve the discrepancy of Mik’mac vs. Maliseet.

    Through 1762 / 63, the Brits razed Pt. Ste. Anne, burned the homes, crops and livestock. They tied a couple of my male ancestors to trees, made them watch while they brutally slaughtered, with an axe and rifle butt, two of their daughters and two of their grandchildren. The Brits then proceeded to round up and imprison at Fort Frederick many of my ancestors for deportation, including my 6th great-grandfather, Francois Bergeron D’Amboise / dit de Nantes and a woman named Rosalie Bourg / Burke. Rosalie and Francois fell in love while imprisoned at Fort Frederick, just as Francois’ father, Barthelemy Bergeron D’Amboise and Genevieve Surreau dit St. Aubin had fallen in love while imprisoned in Boston. Due to over-crowding and lack of guards at Fort Frederick, Francoise and Rosalie managed to escape. They ran north on foot through the woods, built make-shift rafts to cross rivers, and three months later, they reached Cacouna on the coast of the St. Lawrence river. They married that year, 1764. They continued down the St. Lawrence river, settling in current day St. Gregoire, Nicolet, Becancour, Quebec, where they raised nine children. After Rosalie died in 1783, Francois married my 6th great-grandmother, Marie-Jeanne Charlotte Richer. Their son, Joseph-Marie Bergeron m. Pelagie (Philomene) Desaulniers dit Lesieur. They moved their family to Au Sable Fork, NY. Pelagie died in 1867, and 81-year old Joseph moved with two of his middle-aged sons, Narcisse (Nelson) Bergeron / Bashaw, and my 4th great-grandfather, Ulderic (Deric) Bergeron / Bashaw to Marquette, MI. I’ve found relatives from this branch in Canada, NY, VT, ME, PA, MA, MN, WY, MT, LA, NM, WA, OR and CA, where I live. Also relatives who were deported to France.

    Marie Dugas, my 7th great grandmother was a widow and the second wife of my 7th great grandfather, Michel Bergeron D’Amboise (b.1702). Michel went by one of his mother’s lineage names (de Nantes), called himself Michel Bergeron dit de Nantes after getting into trouble with the English – he was a privateer, as was his father, Barthelemy Bergeron D’Amboise, after he retired from a decade with the French Navy. Many of their descendants use the last names of Bergeron, Bashaw, Amboise, Ambroise, Damboise, Dansboise/r, or Nantes.

    Michel Bergeron D’Amboise / dit de Nantes was married four times, the first wife is unknown. She birthed him 2 Bergeron children, 1. Pierre (1722-1804), 2. Jean-Baptiste (1722-1783). Pierre m. Marguerite Bourg (b. 1730) – their child = Raphael (b.1758). Jean-Baptiste m. Marguerite Bernard, daughter of Jean-Baptiste Gaudet & Cecile.

    2nd wife = Marie Dugas – their Bergeron children: 1. Marie-Madeleine (1728-1778), 2. Marie-Josephe (1730-1808), 3. Joseph-Augustin (1731-1808), 4. Anne (1731-1794), 5. FRANCOIS (MY ANCESTOR) (1733-1820), 6. Michel II (1737-1832), 7. Simon (1738-1804), 8. Angelique (1740-1789), 9. Etienne (1741-1792/3).

    The above children and their descendants married into the following families. I have all the names, dates, etc. But, it’s too long to list here.
    Families the above children married into: Landry, Cormier, Thibodeau, Levasseur, Theriault, Cyr, Gendreau, Bernabe, Mercure, Beaulieu, Brun, Lebrun, Melancon / Melanson, Boucher, de Louviere, Saindon / Sindon, Le Marquis, Soucy, Benoni, Simon, Dube, Cote, Bernier, Bourg, Arseneau / Arseneault, Hebert, Godin / Gaudin / Goudin / Goudit, Lincour, Bienvenu, Verseron, Bellefontaine, Dupre / Dupres, Terbonne, Simonet, Le Blanc, Prevost, Marcelite, La Chaussee, Broussard, Richard, Petronille, Langlinais, Villeneuve, Lepine, Belliveau, Pellerin, Grenier, Richer, Le Huitre, Catalogne, Daigle, Terriot, Doiron, Robertson, Boudrot, Theriot, Roy, Hache, Blanche, Paulin, Blanchard, Couroit, Landrille, Petipas, Roireau/ Roirault / Roireault, and more.

    3rd wife – unknown – she birthed him one child. 1. Marie Bergeron (1746-1828), m. Joseph Bourg (1738-1797)

    4th wife – Marie-Jeanne Hebert – their Bergeron children: 1. Marie (1750-1828) m. Pierre Bourgeois, 2. Madeleine (1753-1795) m. Ambroise Godin dit Antoine (1739-?), 3. Pierre (1758-1814) m. Marie-Josephe Lesieur dit Duchesne.

    The above children married into many numerous families in LA. Child 2. Madeleine had a daughter, Madeleine Godin m. Alexandre Bourgoin – their son = Alexandre Bourgoin m. Salomee Cyr.

    Are you related to any of the above?

    Thanks for your time,
    Roberta R.

      • Roberta, Thanks. Your article was very informative and appreciated. Yes, I do believe I made that mistake. And I got sucked in because the first four of my six 100% Native To Their Population ancestors are known, without a doubt – I was impressed with their accuracy and timeline.

        The fifth (Native American), I also know happened. I just don’t know when or who yet. I’m now searching beyond the confusing 23andme parameters I initially misunderstood, clarified now thanks to your education on the subject. And I’ve since confirmed that I’ve more than just one Native American ancestor.

        The sixth 100% given me by 23andme (Sardinian): it made sense too, due to the large French / German ancestry. I’m mainly an analytical historian who relies on history and verifiable documented records, and Sardinian influences played a good part in the Southern French population. Important to note is that more than half of my French ancestry came from Northern France (Normandie = ruled by Germanic tribes for the majority of history, then later by Normans, ie. Scandinavians and their admix).

        Also, I found interesting: your 23andme 100% Native To Their Population report is almost identical to mine. As for the Scandinavian ancestry: the viking invasions of Britain / France lasted from 800 a.d. through the 11th century. Some historians place sporadic rule as high as 600 years. Location of ancestors (Northern UK, Southern UK and Northern France) is crucial to understanding a high level of Scandinavian DNA. It’s not yet washed out as too many in these specific regions today have high concentrations of it, and are still breeding with each other. In fact, 1 of every 33 men on the planet have Scandinavian DNA, and those figures are substantially higher in the U.K., and secondarily, Northern France.

        When asked where my British ancestors were from, I once had an English Historian scholar tell me that I descended from Vikings who invaded the U.K. (Normans). I didn’t believe him. It was shocking and this was at least 35 years ago, long before we had DNA tests. But, my DNA tests have proven him right, with high Scandinavian DNA showing.

        I see the dates provided you by 23andme as problematic, and it is food-for-thought. It seems that numerous, accumulative Scandinavian DNA is being mistaken as recent due to its large amount. There’s a lot of it in Great Britain today. And it is old. Can it really add up to so much that it’s mistaken as recent? This is a question I ponder today.

        Please, keep educating us on how to interpret our DNA reports. You’re clearly an expert on it. It adds to our documented research, is crucial, a service to us all. I firmly believe we can all solve the mysteries of our ancestors if we work together.

        Sincerely and much appreciated,
        Roberta R.

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