DNA Reports & Consulting

Need help understanding your DNA results?

I provide Personalized DNA Reports for both Y and mitochondrial DNA if you’ve tested with Family Tree DNA. These heritage quality Personalized DNA Reports are very popular, customized with your genealogy and family photos and make wonderful, timeless gifts for family members. Each report, delivered as a pdf file, is approximately 80-100 pages and some are longer.

Have a question?

I’m pleased to offer the Quick Consult which provides you with up to an hour of consulting to answer your question.

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DNAeXplain was founded in 2004 to provide analysis and interpretation of genetic genealogy DNA test results in a plain English, understandable fashion.  Family Tree DNA now offers our reports as part of their product offering as well.

329 thoughts on “DNA Reports & Consulting

  1. So I’m adopted and have been told that I could possibly have enough native american to be looked into. I do not know my father or that side at all my mother passed away in 04. Please help i would like to see if I validate for anything I’m tired of being a mutt.

      • I had a DNA test done in May of 1991 from a certified state agency the HLA A30 my blood type A if I remember I think I read people descended from this strain cant take avirex or some type of HIV meds only way I could Know that is on my readout, please leave comment

    • I sympathize. My dilemma is different but not quite the same. My father who died shortly after my birth and my mother were Eastern European.
      One Slovak and Polish concurrently.
      No one in my family has ever alluded to any other ethnicities other the Eastern European.
      So I get my DNA results backs and I am Super European. 99.7%.
      No surprise in that, really.
      But I have what amounts to 35% Eastern European ancestry.
      I expected more, but whatever.
      About 30% North and Western European????? OK..
      And almost 30% Anglo Irish.
      Huh?!?! And this ancestry came no more that 3 to 4 generations back.
      This is a completely mind effing turn of events as absolutely no one in my family has ever alluded to a relative with Anglo Irish ethnicity.
      And what’s more anybody in my family that might have had and knowledge of it is dead.
      I doubt that I will ever have an answer because the answer is buried to deep to extract.:-/

  2. I am new to this and I always thought about finding my family. I was adopted as a baby in Lima Peru. There are no records. The hospital I was born into isnt there any more. I don’t know anything about myself. I would like to find answers and hopefully meet my family.
    Please Help

    • 1. Look under the help tab on this blog.
      2. Type the word “adoptee” into the search box. I’ve written several articles for adoptees.

      Best of luck on your journey. You’re far from alone.

  3. I am trying to link two lines. The common ancestor 6 generations back. I have descendants from two of the daughters of this common ancestor. I have unbroken female lines. Can you recommend which test from Family Tree DNA I should use? Also, I have another person I can test but this is not an unbroken female line. Would any test work in that case. Thank you so much. I have read many of your archived articles and although they have been very helpful, I’m still uncertain how to proceed. Linda

    • The two unbroken females lines can take the mitochondrial DNA test and they should match. The unbroken female line cannot test for this test because they won’t match – they have a different matrilineal ancestor.

  4. I would like to know more about my family tree. My great great grandmother was full blooded Cherokee Indian on my mothers side. And on my dads side of the family was Blackfoot Indian

  5. My great grandfather, and grandfather are both cherokee indians, and I have the documents to prove. What would be my next step in becoming a registered member of my cherokee nation?

  6. Hi, was trying to contact you regarding consultation, but the email on the website bounced back. Is there a correct email for contacting you for consultation on our DNA results and genealogy? Thanks!

  7. Hello,

    I’ve read many of these responses and I find all of this very interesting. I am a black male and I have been told that we have white (know only of Irish right now…) and native american in my blood line. On my father’s side, his mother is “supposedly” black and native american. On my mother’s side, they say we do, but I have no idea which family member it would be. Also, don’t know if this helps or not, but both my mother and father are from Mississippi.

    I would like to know, once and for all if this is true or not. There are three siblings including myself (2 boys and 1 girl), so I’m making and educated assumption, that my test(s) would be similar if we all were to take the test. Is this correct? I’m also doing this for my niece’s and nephew. (My brother’s children.)

    I’d also like to know, if possible, what tribe we would fall under and who else had or has a strong native american bloodline in our family, especially on my mother’s side. I planned to take Ancestry’s test initially, but after reading this blog, I’m not sure now. Have they improved their system since you’ve written this blog? If not, which test would best serve my needs? Many thanks Robert for creating this site and I look forward to your reply

    Daris L. Cotton

  8. To Whom it May Concern:
    I want to start by telling you that I was adopted. On my birth papers for my Mom , its says that she American Indian Cheyenne, Cheyenne River Rez. In regards to my father not much. My mother last name is the same as mine. My adopted parents tell me that my Dad was a SOB and beat my mom a lot, so she left me in the hospital to protect me. My Dad didn’t want anything to do with me. I never met my Mom. As I was growing up I can remember two short heavy set ladies came to visit me. I never heard nor saw them again. My adopted parents always told me That I should marry a Indian princess.at the time I didn’t understand. I always spend most of my time in the woods tracking animal and riding my horses. Later on in life I worked for a magazine. Another writer told me That I need to check this out. She told me that Crazy Horse third wife was Nellie Larrabee her Dad was Joe Larrabee a blacksmith for the cavarly. He was French and Cheyenne. Nellie mom was Cheyenne. She had three sister. The girls was said they were handsome. I found in at Gene Autry museum. and I have talk to Russell Means wife Barb, and she confirm everything. And I’m told that all Larrabee, s on the Rez,s are family. I’m lost. I need your help. I look. Forward hearing from you.
    Richard Larrabee
    email blacksmithranch@gmail.com


  9. I have taken autosomal dna test through familytree dna and 23andMe with the results being somewhat different. I have also uploaded my results to gedmatch. I have multiple dna reference kits including my brother, my 1/2 aunt (mother’s maternal sister), my 1/2 paternal cousin (mutual grandfather) and am waiting for results from another 1/2 aunt and my sister. In addition to that, I have been researching my family for 30+ years and many pre-established cousins have done dna so I know who our MRCA’s are and a good many of us are on gedmatch. In addition, I have dna matches where we have established who our MRCA is and yet, I am still having a hard time establishing the chromosome segment and level where we match. I have done mitochondrial full sequence dna testing and have 6-0 matches- all FMS, 3-1 matches- all FMS, 4-2 matches- all FMS and 1- 3 matches- all FMS. I have tried looking at the X-chromosome matches and have some very strange combinations which appear to show that my mother’s ancestor married into my father’s ancestry (heres the strange thing- they were strictly Polish/German and Russian and my mother’s line which appeared to marry was irish and neither were after they immigrated. There is a 3 segment combination which shows up in almost every one of my cousins lines no matter whether it was maternal or paternal lines. I am looking for some consultation help because I have done webinar’s, read blogs, articles, etc and still can’t decipher my results. I have reference individuals in at least 10-12 lines and am still lost. Do you know where I can get a help?

  10. I apologize if I’m asking a repeated question, but I feel stuck. I’ve completed 23&me DNA test that helped me narrow the location of ancestry! And I hold that close!! Is there any way for me to get as close as possible to knowing (at the very least) medical family history?? I was a baby dropped off….The only information I’ve been given from my adoptive parents is the location of the adoption agency in the city I was left and my birth certificate which does not have the information of my bio parents.

  11. Hello, I uploaded my my test, as well as one of my Son’s test to GedMatch. We Are trying to get, once and for all, what to call ourselves. From my research, we were part of the Cheraw tribe on my Fathers side, but it Comes out mostly European. Coupled with my Mothers side which is all Irish and British, It says I am 88%. We are related to Henry Berry Lowry, the Sampsons, Chavis and Quick. Where can I find my true beginnings? People are always asking what Nationality I am. Can I still say,Native American, even though I do not have that gene?
    I do not look European so it seems strange to say I am British when none of my Paternal family members ever lived there.

    • I suggest you that you identify yourself as bi-racial or tri-racial. (Use the prefix Tetra for a 4 races Miscegenation or Penta for five and so on.) Do this according to your autosomal DNA results. That should be enough information to satisfy the curiosity of anyone.

  12. I’m wanting to get my DNA done to check to see if I’m part of the MiKmiq Indiana and my Doucet ancestors I muddy need to know how much and when I’m ready

  13. Hi my name is Dean Varni I did my ydna test on family tree dna and I don’t know what I’m looking at my friend Laura Williamson told me to contact you. I’m an adoptee kastaur56@gmail.com thank you for your time

    • Hi Dean. I do write DNA Reports for people about their Y DNA. You can read more and order on my website http://www.dnaexplain.com. I think you also e-mailed me. I’m not in a position to send a better reply right this minute but will reply as I can. I’m having a health issue this week.

  14. Forgot to ask yet another question….I have always suspected my grandmother ( from Poland ) might have had some Jewish – as she used many Yiddish words…would a mtDNA show Jewish ancestry?

  15. When I got my FTDNA Family Finder results in 2013 I was surprised to see that my origins were 100% European. Surprised, because I am mtDNA J and we are always told that the ancestress of the J people was a woman who lived about 45,000 years ago in what is now the Middle East.

    However, I belong to the sub-clade J1c2, which is supposed to have developed in Europe.

    Do my Origins results simply mean that FTDNA don’t go as far back in time when checking DNA results as they might?


  16. Thanks for your swift response to my query. Here’s a follow-up question. My Family Finder results were 63% British Isles, 32% Western and Central Europe, and 5% Finland and Northern Siberia. This last result intrigues me. Needless to say, I have no paper-trail genealogical connection to that part of the world. Could it be related to my mtDNA J1c2 status? Although my earliest known mitochondrial ancestor was an Ulster Presbyterian woman in Belfast, I have noticed in the mtDNA J project on FTDNA that a lot of people have ancestry from northern Scandinavia and, yes, Finland and Russia.
    My Y DNA haplogroup is R1b-L21 and my paternal ancestry is all Scottish from way back.

  17. Roberta, glad to hear you’re on the mend and have been praying for you.
    My daughter’s husband is adopted.
    Currently, he does not want to find his birth parents, but he has an open mind and aware he may change his mind at some point. My daughter is concerned about my granddaughter’s medical history. Is 23andMe the only option to submit her DNA to for research in case a medical concern may arise?

  18. how much totally does it cost to do a full dna test can you send me everything I need to find out exactly what tribe I come from

  19. So I read about the Y – Line DNA. This will help me to locate my biological family on my father side? Or give some pointers? Is this guaranteed? And how long will it take to receive results?

  20. My grandmother on my father’s side was Native American (Cherokee), but also there is some Native American on my mother’s side as well (great grandmother…or great-great?). Which test is best for me (female) that has Native blood on both sides of the family, but more so on paternal side via grandmother. Thinking Y-DNA, but this would exclude my Mom’s side. Suggestions on which DNA test or others?

  21. I did the Ancestry DNA test and it has come back as 40% Native American. How do I go about figuring out more regarding my native heritage.

  22. I am trying to explain to a few younger adults “Why it is important to have DNA of parents, grand parents and great parents for medical issues, family history and so forth.” is there a good reference that simplifies the message? Thank you

  23. I recently received my 23andme results and, having Indian (from India) parents and grandparents on both side, I was VERY surprised to see ~50% Western European ethnicity (the other half being South Asian). It wasn’t the European ancestry in and of itself that surprised me, with India having a long history of contact with Europe, but it was the amount (50%!). A visual depiction of my DNA showed every chromosome pair had one South Asian chromosome and one Western European chromosome – there was next to no overlap. What are the ways I can interpret these results? Is it possible to have one European ancestor from hundreds of years back and still show 50% of my ethnicity as European, or does it most definitely have to be a much more recent ancestor?

    • 50% is equal to one parent, or both parents being half European each. This is highly unusual given that you clearly are unaware of any close relationship carrying that ethnicity. Are your parents available to test?

  24. I hope you can help me with a simple answer — my full sequence mt test with FTDNA and with Geno 2 each stated my mtDNA Haplogroup is H7. No subclade or additional letters– only H7. I’ve received comments from other FTDNA members who share the H7 that I should really refer to my H7 subclade when looking for more connections. Could it be I am only H7, or where at FTDNA would I request my full sequence H7 subclade? I know this is a less-common MT group to begin with.
    Thanks so much — I enjoy reading all of your posts.

  25. Hi, I was adopted and as my biological mother refuses contact, I did the mtDNA test to see where my maternal lineage is from. My results from the full mtDNA sequence is J1c2c2 – what does this mean? Where did J come into existence and where did mine split off from J1c2c? I do know that she is of German/Dutch heritage and according to my biological father who I have a good relationship with, she has Norwegian features (and she is very tall at 6ft, I am 6ft 2, my dad is 6ft4). is there a possibility of Celtic/Viking heritage? My dad’s side is mainly from Wales and Great Britain. Thank you for your time.

  26. I am from India (East India/Asian India). I am interested in DNA analysis to know my roots. 2 questions:
    1. Will getting DNA tested via any of the major US-based companies help as they may not have much of Indian population data base?
    2. Does any company similar to MYfamilyTreeDNA exist in India?

    • There are numerous people from India who have tested. You would want to do a Y DNA test, minimally, and Family Tree DNA is the only company that does those. No, there is no company like Family Tree DNA in India. Family Tree DNA does have European and Middle Eastern affiliates, but all of the DNA is processed in the lab in Houston, Texas. The only other option for you would be the National Geographic test, but they don’t do comparisons to other people, so if that is what you’re looking for, then Family Tree DNA is the answer, and the only answer. I would suggest that you do the Y DNA, mitochondrial and Family Finder.

  27. My DNA test came back as 6% Native American, which we are pretty certain it’s Cherokee. But how does that calculate into a “degree?”, would it be calculated as a fraction?

      • I completely understand that the tribes don’t use DNA test to qualify. I’m not interested in obtaining anything from Cherokee Nation, however being a member would be great as part as my anstery. I just don’t understand how to calculate the percentage into a degree, if it’s actually done in fractions. My husband has a member card of Cherokee Nation. And if that percentage is calculated into fractions, then I have a larger percentage than him.

        • The amount of DNA that you carry does not necessarily equate to the particular ancestor who was 100% Native. Those the things are not equivalent because you can and do inherit different amounts of each ancestor’s DNA.

        • The tribe determines blood quantum based on your descent from a Cherokee ancestor who was tribally enrolled, and their blood quantum. Your DNA and their determination of your blood quantum may be quite different.

  28. I tested the full sequence of my mitochondria with Family Tree DNA and my haplogroup is B2. I have to try to find out information about this specific haplogroup and there is not much information about it. I am from Peru. On my profile for Family Tree DNA, I have two matches and other info I can understand. I think one match says is from Argentina and the other person is listed as Native American.
    mtDNA – Haplogroup Origins
    Haplogroup Country Comment Match Total
    B2 Argentina – 1
    No matches were found.

    Haplogroup Country Comment Count
    B2 Argentina – 1
    B2 Unknown Origin Native American 1

  29. Hello, I read the recently published article about melundgeon ancestors and dna results that clarify their origins (R. Estes). Toward the end of the article the writer mentioned that the research team was still looking for more participants. My mom and I are from East Tn. We are supposedly decedent from melundgeons of Newman’s Ridge (Hawkins/Hancock Co) and Tazwell (Hoop Creek). Please contact me if you think we can help or participate in anyway. Thank you.

  30. Hello all, recently got back my daughters dna results back and she is 49% Native American and 29% Iberian Peninsula. The reason we did the dna is because my daughter had a tooth extracted and dentist told us it was a Native American tooth. Our ancestors dating as far back as the early 1800’s are from Mexico. Is there any point to try and find out if we MIGHT have any links to any U.S. Native Americans?

    • Nothing yet. I tried to order but it wouldn’t accept United States. I contact customer service to ask when I could order a kit and told them of the problem. I received no reply. I do know that some other folks from the US have managed to order, although how is beyond me. I’m not impressed with their lack of a reply to someone trying to place an order. But that’s it so far.

  31. Hello, I am adopted from Tegucigalpa Honduras back in 1974/1975. I did the DNA test on Ancestry.com. along with my husband. My test said I was 53% Native American. I know that here in America you can research and find your yribe and gain citizenship. Is there anything similar for the Central American people to claim or join a tribe? Also with my husbands Native American DNA and me combined – our 2 daughters are 32% Native American. Would we be able to claim anything for college?

    Thanks for your help!!

  32. Since you have been assimilated into other cultures and you are not a full blood Native American that speaks a Native American language, you will not be considered as a Native American in any of those countries. Most people in Central America carries a heavy Amerindian Blood Quantum. Your genetic is a common thing among them.

  33. After reading some of your blog and reading other sites, I am confused about the method of atDNA triangulation. Your blog leads me to conclude that if I have three people, or more, who have overlapping chromosomes on the same Chr, they triangulate. With this approach, the following would triangulate:

    A matches B on Chr 11: start 61k and end 3.2m
    C matches D on Chr 11: start 61k and end 132m

    In the above example, A matches B, C matches D and the four of them share overlapping cM.

    Other sites suggest that triangulation requires A to match B, B to match C, and C match A within shared or overlapping cM on the same Chr. For example:

    A matches B on Chr 13: start 21K and end 25k
    B matches C on Chr 13: start 24k and end 25k
    C matches A on Chr 13: start 24k and end 25.5k

    In the above case, A, B, and C share cM similar to the first example, but there is a circular, or triangular relationship.

    Which of the above represents triangulation of atDNA?

    Thank you,


    • Triangulation takes a minimum of three matches on the same segment that all match each other on that same segment, or a significant overlapping part of it, PLUS the identification of a common ancestor or ancestral line. Without the ancestor, it’s only a match group, or mathematical triangulation.

  34. Thank you. I apologize for struggling with this idea. I realize it is a pretty easy concept, but the word “match” is a problem.

    When you say “match”, I assume you mean the three people overlap on the same segment.

    Chr 1
    A matches B Start —— End
    C matches D Start ——– End
    E matches F Start ————-End

    Gedmatch produces a report that looks similar to the above.

    On these reports, I assume match means down to the SNP level. So, the above does not necessarily mean A&B match C&D – or does it? A&B and C&D overlap Start and End, but does A&B, down to the SNP level, match C&D just because they overlap one another?

    If triangulation means A matches B and C down to the SNP level, why doesn’t GEDMatch produce a report that looks like:

    A matches B and C at Start ——- End

    I’m sorry, the word “match” versus overlap has me confused.


  35. I’m trying to determine what type of DNA test is best to determine possible Native American Ancestry in the following scenario: The line to be determined is from FEMALE SUBJECT to her FATHER to his MOTHER (paternal grand mother) to her MOTHER (paternal great grand mother who is believed to be of NA ancestry). Thank you.

  36. My husband has German ancestry and we are going to Germany this spring to do some searching and to attend a wedding. He has done DNA testing and we have done some genealogy researching of his family. We have hit a “road block” with one ancestor born in Germany 1731, immigrated to the US around 1733 to Philadelphia and died in NC around 1800. His name is Christian Frey…but there are two Christian Frey individuals with similar details and many conflicting reports from other relatives doing research. What would be the best way to determine which Christian Frey is our ancestor?

  37. Hello. 🙂 I had testing done through 23andme, and it came up as nearly 1% Native American. I realize this is a small percentage, but I’m wondering if there’s any way to narrow that down even more to a specific area or tribe? Would you recommend a certain test? Due to the way my family came to North America, I suspect this was a maternal link with a First Nations or Metis woman in Canada in the 1800s. Thanks in advance for any advice!

  38. hi, im writing from spain, almost half of spanish mtdna matches the CRS, however , in the southwest , where i live, the CRS frecuence is much lower, about 20/25 %. what do you think this can mean

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