DNA Reports & Consulting

Need help understanding your DNA results?

I provide Personalized DNA Reports for both Y and mitochondrial DNA if you’ve tested with Family Tree DNA. These heritage quality Personalized DNA Reports are very popular, customized with your genealogy and family photos and make wonderful, timeless gifts for family members. Each report, delivered as a pdf file, is approximately 80-100 pages and some are longer.

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I’m pleased to offer the Quick Consult which provides you with up to an hour of consulting to answer your question.

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DNAeXplain was founded in 2004 to provide analysis and interpretation of genetic genealogy DNA test results in a plain English, understandable fashion.  Family Tree DNA now offers our reports as part of their product offering as well.

327 thoughts on “DNA Reports & Consulting

    • I am new to DNA and still have difficulty understanding haplogroups, etc. I am trying to find out how my grandson can go about validating his being Native American. I do not have contact with his paternal grandparents or his father, but was told he was Chippewa and his father and grandmother lived in the Red Lake tribe area in Minnesota. I did make contact with a representative of that tribe who did not have a record of my grandson’s father or grandmother’s name listed. I was provided with several possible tribes in Minnesota, but this has proven difficult as I have not received a response from any of them. I was told that a couple of the tribes would likely never contact me. He just wants to verify that he is indeed Native American and what tribe he is from. The Bureau of Indian Affairs was no help either. Anyone have any suggestions?

      Nan

      • He can test his Y DNA assuming the Native comes through his father’s father’s line. He can test his autosomal through Family Finder to give him an estimated percentage. Then you can work the census records to see where his grandparents or great-grandparents were living.

  1. I have a friend who believes he is part native American and Hispanic, but was raised in foster care and has no idea how to get in touch with family to find out his actual race. Is there a place or website I can refer him to that may be able to help?

  2. Just begun reading your blogs. It’s good to have somewhere to go for clear explanations. I was reading your answers to questions about transferring the mtDNA results from the Nat Genographic to FamilytreeDNA. I can’t seem to get back to that particular set of questions and answers. How to I find those questions and answers again. Thanks for your help.

  3. I have Ancestry raw data uploaded to FamilyTree (which I don’t have). I can see matches-111 of them but don’t know what this really tells me. Do I need to take the FamilyFinder test? Or should I just hang out until more people match?

  4. Is there a test that will climb my mother’s father’s mother’s tree to prove Native American ancestry? I’m pretty certain that mtDNA climbs only the mother’s direct side; I’m not clear that autosomal testing will detect that other side …

    Lineage: me < my mother < her father < his mother < her mother < her mother

    Family lore from our side is that my 3x great grandmother was full-blooded Creek [she married a Hart Massacre survivor who fought in the 2nd Creek War]. The tradition recently was reinforced when a very distant cousin (my grandfather's elder aunt's lineage) contacted me; she has the same tradition on her side of the family. Additionally, the 1/2 Creek daughter and her 1/4 Creek daughter's names were submitted for membership when the Poarch Band of Eastern Creek Indians began to subscribe names in the early 1950s (no native proof was ever submitted); anyway, those names were submitted by two families I've never heard of. So it is a strong tradition.

    Thanks,
    Guy Power

  5. Hi Roberta,

    Thank you very much for that information (and for such a quick response). I’ve read some of your informative articles … and will redouble my efforts — time to re-read them.

    Briefly, would the autosomal test identify any NA makeup that I would have? If so, it might be worth upgrading my labs.

    Cheers!
    –Guy

  6. my step dad is a possible descendant but I’m probably not .. I was wondering would they still let me join if he is?

  7. Hi – I found your blog and this site very valuable with a lot of good information; Question: I manually entered my FTDNA Y37 results into ancestry dot com. There are 2/3 matches considered by ancestry to be “close” matches, and two of those individuals share last name. They are pretty much an identical match WITH all of the compared results (I think it did the modification automatic); however, there is several greyed out areas in ancestry that one or the other companies did not test, so it is counted as a non match. This puts the projected MRCA at either 7 or 9 (not open right now). My assumption is that at least some if not most of those greyed out areas would probably be matches and the MRCA would be reduced (no gurantee there would be additional matches). Am I on target, and aside from purchasing the ancestry test to compare identical markers, is there another way to gauge?

    Thanks

  8. Hello Ms Estes.
    I have a question. My brother Rudy seems to match you on chromosome 14
    Start 20,565,861 End 22,048,175 5.5cM 542 SNPs
    My maternal cousin Scharlene matches you on X chromosome Start 132,133,637
    End 135,119,848 cM3.8 SNPs 465
    X Start 150,590,841 End 151,775,070 cM 4.2 SNPs 273
    Gedmatch Kits A058611 and M104259

    My mother, sister, my maternal male cousin nor I seem to match you.
    Are these considered matches?

    Thanks,
    Anthony

      • Hi Roberta,
        Thanks for the update. I have a very interesting tree. My family is multiracial for generations. I have lots of Colonial Virginia roots. My DNA matches seem to support many parts of my ancestry.com tree. I think my family has some relationship with Pocahontas Powhatan as all my family members have at least 10 matches with people claiming to be related to her or her ancestors.Some of the surnames are Poythress, Rolfe, Bolling, Randolph etc. I also match a few on 23andme as well. I can’t find a link as yet to my tree. I have tested with ancestry.com, 23andme and transferred my results to FTDNA. I am also going to take part in a FTdna Wheeler surname project. How can I send you my ancestry.com family link?

        Thanks,
        Anthony

        • Hi Anthony,

          I generally don’t utilize Ancestry links for clients because I have to search all over them, which is not straightforward. So what I need depends on what type of consulting you purchase.

          Roberta

      • Hi Roberta,
        My mother is 87. I transferred her results to FTDNA from ancestry.com. She has 5500 ancestry matches but I have many brick walls that I can’t navigate. She is 70% European 30% African. Which is the best test for her to take?
        Thanks,
        Anthony

    • Hi Roberta,
      Basically I want to be able to expand her tree looking for additional matches that I might be able to link to her current tree. Which is the best FTDNA test I can use to accomplish this? I transferred her results from ancestry.com but I don’t see nearly the same amount of matches that I do on ancestry. Simply put which test will show the most relative matches?

      Thanks.
      Anthony

      • If all you’re interested in is the number of matches, then Ancestry. But they are sorely lacking in tools and you can’t prove that any of your matches are your genetic connection. All three testing companies have different people in their match pools. Many people test with all three. My preference is, in order, Family Tree DNA, 23andMe and Ancestry.

      • Thanks Roberta,
        I tested her with ancestry.com and 23andme. I only transferred her raw score to FTDNA. I guess the mtDNA is the test I should give her. I myself am ordering the Wheeler surname project. I am opting for the 67 markers. This is some mixed-race Klan I am from. I guess that’s what makes this fun. Through my father with have a line that descended from King Edward 1st. Luckily I have a pretty reliable paper trail from my European ancestors on ancestry.com. My mother has some of the same matches but no paper trail. She started with 92 pages on ancestry two months ago and now has 116 pages. Both my parents have matches with people claiming to be related to Pocahontas. The problem is can all those matches be believed? The investigation continues.
        Thanks for your help.
        Anthony

  9. I have from 23Andme Kla4ala I would like to know if I have Ashkenzi Jewish .and what else in in there. Thank you .

  10. My large family (7 siblings, 5 of our children, 3 grandchildren and 2 maternal 1st cousins) have tested at 23andMe. We’ve all seen X chromosome- only matches. Are there small, non-X chromosome matches that aren’t displayed?

      • Hi, I am torn, I have my 23andme DNA results and don’t really understand it. Speculatively it shows 54% European and 45 % Subsaharan African with the remaining asian/native american. My mother is a dark skinned african american woman, my father was also dark complexioned. I am light complexioned and was told by rumors that my father may not be my real father. So when I received my DNA results I became more confused. My mother would not take the test to eliminate any other possiblities and my father is no longer living and I don’t know anyone on his side of the family to do the test with. So can you explain my results to me based on the information given. Is it possible that my father could be of caucasian race? I just want to find out my true identity and these rumors in the family does not make it easy. Thank you for a reply. I feel as though I’m going around in circles and not getting any closer to any answers. I could have received my light complexion from my great grandmother who had maybe about 25 percent native american, but everyone else in my family, all eight of my siblings are dark complexioned and their fathers are also dark complexioned, so how did I end up being the only light one and my DNA results coming out more European than African??? Thanks again for your time. SRR

  11. I noted your title about matching X part of genome. If a father and his daughter produce a girl child? The Child’s genetic profile should have two X sets of genes from the father and his daughter, the mother of the child. X from the father and another identical X which he gave to his daughter and an X from her mother, wife of her father. The child should then have two complete sets of X’s from its father/grandfather and one set of X from its mother/grandmother. Is there a way to filter out the double X’s of the father/grandfather to get his sequences?

    • The child will not have a complete duplicate set of X from the father, because the mother had an X from her mother and the X from her father and the child would receive a subset of those.

  12. I have completed the National Geographic MtDNA and uploaded it to FTDNA. I would now like to upgrade my testing. Will the ‘full DNA’ test show the results for the 3 Types of DNA that I am compatible with(female)? Since I am adopted, I would like to find ethnicity, siblings, cousins, parents etc.

  13. hi my name is Thomas
    i was wondering ,if u can help me choose good DNA test , , as there lots of them , i live in Scotland , any way my plan is to search name kerr with a possibility of an origins ,and me collaborative with a possibility of a close ties to names that could become ker or car or cor or kear so on , its for book i been wanting to do , as name kerr can come from longer tribal names from Scotland and rest of isles , ,so as it hard to know what best to say will give me best information , but also a good price is the key …….. with my idea that car cear ker or kehr or kir could be older than most stands as place names and tribal or clan name,….so any help would tribalistic

    yours Thomas kerr

  14. Hi,

    I’ve been doing paper genalogical research on my family tree for thirty years. About the time I started, I realized the potential value of genetics but, at that time, genetic testing was just making the transition from idea to reality. I would like to take the most revealing test but I would also like to combine the goal with a medical goal. I have inherited two traits that are undesirable but cannot define them.
    Is there one test that will ID, both, genealogical ancestry and medical issues? That is, is there one test that will well serve medical and genealogical needs? If not, which genealogically oriented test is most comprehensive?
    I’m also trying to develop an idea of the mature of genetic inheritance so that I might know when to turn to genetics during a paper search. Questions like:
    If there is a group of tests of four consecutive generations embedded in a group of ten randomly selected generations, can genetic theory extract and sequence the four consecutive generations? Does the genetics of inheritance follow an inverted tree structure?
    Over the years, I’ve run across a couple of interesting tidbits of genetic trivia regarding the association of certain visible biological traits with a place of origin. Blueyes combined with blond hair is said to have originated in Siberia. Severe acne problems implies an ancestor from southern Europe and the Meditterainean area. Do you know of a database or website dedicated to such data?
    My father’s family is Viking via gay Paris. The actual area in France is speculative and not really known. A slightly darker skin color, not noticeable if you were not looking for it, and fine black hair, of my brother and father’s brother suggest southern France as a possibility. The French part is verified by paper and the Viking part by a family Y-DNA website which specifies a village in Norway circa 850 AD, around the time of the invasion of France and the rest of Europe, by the Norsemen. The American branch dates, on paper, to late seventeenth century, circa 1685, Charleston, South Carolina.

    Thanks,
    Jim Julian

  15. Hi,

    I’ve been doing paper genalogical research on my family tree for thirty years. About the time I started, I realized the potential value of genetics but, at that time, genetic testing was just making the transition from idea to reality. I would like to take the most revealing test but I would also like to combine the goal with a medical goal. I have inherited two traits that are undesirable but cannot define them.
    Is there one test that will ID, both, genealogical ancestry and medical issues? That is, is there one test that will well serve medical and genealogical needs? If not, which genealogically oriented test is most comprehensive?
    I’m also trying to develop an idea of the mature of genetic inheritance so that I might know when to turn to genetics during a paper search. Questions like:
    If there is a group of tests of four consecutive generations embedded in a group of ten randomly selected generations, can genetic theory extract and sequence the four consecutive generations? Does the genetics of inheritance follow an inverted tree structure?
    Over the years, I’ve run across a couple of interesting tidbits of genetic trivia regarding the association of certain visible biological traits with a place of origin. Blueyes combined with blond hair is said to have originated in Siberia. Severe acne problems implies an ancestor from southern Europe and the Meditterainean area. Do you know of a database or website dedicated to such data?
    My father’s family is Viking via gay Paris. The actual area in France is speculative and not really known. A slightly darker skin color, not noticeable if you were not looking for it, and fine black hair, of my brother and father’s brother suggest southern France as a possibility. The French part is verified by paper and the Viking part by a family Y-DNA website which specifies a village in Norway circa 850 AD, around the time of the invasion of France and the rest of Europe, by the Norsemen. The American branch dates, on paper, to late seventeenth century, circa 1685, Charleston, South Carolina.

    Thanks,
    Jim Julian

  16. Hello. Like Sandy Fuller above, I too am adopted. My wife and kids have from time to time prodded me into looking into my ancestry…I just never had a driving interest, or a need, in tracing my genealogy.

    However, a recent trip to my new dentist proved interesting. He inferred that from looking at my dental X-ray that somewhere in my ancestry is Native American lineage. He said that there is a certain dental structure that has been studied and documented as unique to Native Americans. So, now my curiosity is peaked.

    In my online searches I found the National Geographic National Genographic Geno 2.0 test. Looking at it, it seems the most reasonably priced for the information provided back to the participants ($199). I would appreciate your incites.

  17. Hi Roberta,
    I have a question. I know we get 50% or so of our DNA from both parents. My sister has a maternal match on ancestry.com that my brother and I don’t share, no problem. But how is it that my mother does not match this person. 23andme via split view clearly identified her as a maternal match. I am currently awaiting the ancestry.com DNA results for my sister’s daughter. Is it possible for her to have maternal matches that does not match her mother or grandmother?
    Thanks,
    Anthony

      • I know this because I also tested with 23and me and my brother and sister along with my mother matched her. I also had a split view with my mother done and she showed up with a Red M next to her name. incidentally I have since learned that she matches my sister on ancestry.com but she has a private tree there. She does not match me my brother, or my mother there. I sent her an email and I’m awaiting a response. We all share 0.15 with 1 segment. I assumed my mother would share more DNA but we all share the same. With the ancestry match it says confidence very low.

        Thanks
        Anthony

  18. um…I was always told I was native American by my mother, my father was killed when I was a child and never met with him or his family. how do I go about getting dna testing done to prove if I have any native American background? I really am lost and confused on this

  19. Hi Roberta,
    I hate to ask this question because I know it’s basic and I should know the answer, but here goes. My brother, sister and mother match a lady on ancestry. My sister and mother also share X chromosomes in four segments with her the highest being 5.7cM. Is she related to my mother’s mother or my mother’s father?

    Thanks,
    Anthony

  20. Hi Roberta,
    I am just beginning the search process for my 15 year old son’s Native American lineage, as we are looking for his percentage of Cherokee Indian heritage from his dad’s side, so that when he applies for colleges in 2 years, we will know if any scholarships/loans are available. I loved your website and all of the helpful tools to assist me in this search, but I have a question for you.

    My son is Bi-Racial (Black/Cherokee Indian from his Dad and Caucasian from me), his dad’s mother (so my son’s grandmother) is Black/Cherokee and HER father was 100% Cherokee Indian (or so I am told and I only met him 1 time in 1999 as he lived in Birmingham, AL) and HER mother was 50% Black and 50% Cherokee Indian (again I don’t have their Birth Certificates to verify this information, so this is all based on my son’s grandmothers comments to me). So I am a bit overwhelmed with all of the resources available and wondering where I can go to find Birth Certificates (since my son’s grandmother said she doesn’t think she has her dad’s or mother’s birth certificates from AL) for the great grandparents, to prove the Cherokee Indian heritage? And if I can find this information, I am assuming I still need my son’s father’s birth certificate and his mom’s (so my son’s grandmother) birth certificate to show the Cherokee heritage for them too? If I can collect all of the birth certificates necessary, would you recommend me still ordering the DNA tests that you discuss on your website to prove my son’s Cherokee Indian ancestry?

    I really appreciate ANY assistance/guidance here, as there is SO much information online, so please let me know your thoughts.

    Regards,
    Amy Brooks
    Email: acbrooks35@gmail.com

  21. Hi Roberta,
    This is a silly question but I have to ask. A DNA relative at ancestry.com matched my sister and her two daughters as well as my brother but not me or my mother. Me I understand as I just didn’t get the DNA. But she is related to my mothers relatives. My mother is 87. Shouldn’t she have the most DNA with this relative? Is it just a fluke?

    Thanks,
    Anthony

    • Unless she is genetically related to you through your Dad. Unfortunately, without any tools at Ancestry there is no way to tell unless you download everyone’s results to GedMatch.

      • Hi Roberta,
        I just wanted to update you in connection with this question. My match has uploaded her information to Gedmatch and it turns out she is my father’s relative. Since my mother tested along with my brother and sister, we had our results Phased at ancestry. The funny part is she released her tree to me and I discovered she actually is a relative of my mother. I guess my father had more DNA with her than my mother. On my mother’s side it was a 7th great grandparent. So far I don’t recognize any of my father’s relatives in her tree. My mother and father are both of mixed ancestry and of course it is generally only their European ancestors that can be traced that far back.

        Thanks,
        Anthony

  22. Thanks that’s what I thought to. I forgot to mention she did not match my maternal first cousin either. I just assumed he didn’t get her DNA either. I asked her to upload her Raw Scores to GEDMATCH.

    Thanks,
    Anthony

  23. Hi, do you have a list of charts, documents and or reports that you will need to do a consultation for my mom to try and locate the correct family of her unknown father?

    Mom does not have nor did she have any siblings. Mom, my dad, my brother and myself, also a 2nd male cousin of my mom, all have tests at FTdna, Main family at Ancestry and Gedmatch. We all have tests at 23andMe except my mom.

    Hope all of that was clear. Mom has 8% West African and It is from her father’s side in Louisiana who was from a Group of the Lumbees of NC (I believe). Surnames: Gibson, Perkins, Sweat, Johnson, Willis. Her male cousin is 100% European.

    Also, do I need to make chromosome charts on all of her close matches and or X matches?

    Just want to make sure I have everything you will need.
    I’m not getting any younger and my mom is very old.
    We need your help. I think I stay confused about dna.
    Thank you,
    Vernon

  24. Roberta

    What is your view on the reliability/accuracy of relationship projection pathway programs, i.e. computer programs that project the number of paths in which two people may be related? There used to be a program like that on Gedmatch but they took it off the website. It would be a wonderful tool if accurate in determining the various possibilities of how two people that match autosomally (sp?) connect.

    Thanks
    Deborah

  25. Roberta:

    I started a Project to prove using the demographic registry records that my neighborhood was created by Spanish Canary Islanders. I was unable to finish it because the records were destroyed. I tried the catholic church baptismal records but the church only has one volunteer working 4 hours just three days in a week. I didn’t try because they don’t have the staff to do a research of 24 surnames of my neighborhood to find a record that states He or She born in Canary Islands. So I decided to use Y and Mit DNA testing to prove that my neighborhood was created by Spanish Canary Islanders and now I have 2 options: Genochip and FTDNA. The only thing I am trying to prove that certain individuals living in Manati Puerto Rico with 24 spanish surnames came from Canary Islands and create a neighborhood. That is all. The Genochip is so far the cheapest way to determine the halogroup of those individuals. I will finance this project of DNA testing 13 individual with those 24 surnames some Y-DNA, some Mit-DNA some both test. Am I deciding correctly to select the Genochip test for this project or should I decide to use FTDNA for testing?

  26. Hi Roberta, I have found that my Haplogroup is U2e1a, My maternal family is all from Sweden, my mother first generation born in this country. Do I need to try to research on line in Sweden for others who have this line? thanks, Eleanore

  27. HI MY NAME IS LISSA AND IM TRYING TO FIND OUT WHAT IS THE BEST TEST FOR ME. I DON’T KNOW MY FATHER BUT I KNOW THAT HE IS NATIVE AMERICAN. IM TRYING TO LOCATE MY ROOTS AND ANCESTORS. ALOS ON MY MOM’S SIDE THEY HAVE SOME NATIVE AMEIRCAN AS WELL. I HAVE BEEN TRYING TO LOCATE MY FATHER AND FIND OUT MY ANCESTRY FOR SOME TIME NOW. CAN YOU HELP ME PLEASE?!

  28. About a month ago I submitted a question about my grandson and his Native American ancestry. We are not in contact with his fathers side and Roberta was kind enough to respond we could possibly prove it if it was through his fathers father. Unfortunately, it’s his fathers mothers line. What can I do in this situation?

  29. All results that I have received from FTDNA and other sites like GEDMATCH have left me with more questions than answers as I do not know my heritage. Basically, from what I gather, I could be any mix of the following which differs from test to test: Southern Italian, Eastern European, Middle Eastern, Spanish, Jewish (possible Sephardic). Wow, sort of confusing and it really sucks because by dark hair, dark eye, olive skin phenotype could really match any of them.

    Now, to muddy the waters further, I decided to look at my individual chromosomes paintings on Eurogenese K10. Well, now I see I have small, but fairly constant Native American/Siberian/East Asian at the individual chromosome level. Here are some details. Just based off of amount and frequency, is this work looking into? Any help would be greatly appreciated. I am at a frustrating impasse.

    11/21 chromosomes show either Amerindian, East Asian, or Siberian (Totals range from .8%-5.8%)
    7/21 chromosomes show Amerindian (range from .2%- 2.10%)
    5/21 chromosomes show East Asian (range from .5%- 2.5%)
    3/21 chromosomes show Siberian (range from .10%- 3.3%)

    • I should include the 11 of the same segments include one or all of the 3 groups listed. The 7, 5, and 3 fall withing this 11.

  30. I get so lost when people start talking Y and X chromosomes. Can you explain to me in laymens terms, how can I trace both my Fathers and Mothers side. I am female, so I can test myself for my mothers side but I would have to test a brothers for my fathers? Is that correct? – Sorry, it’s all confusing!

  31. I did national Geographic’s DNA test and it said I had 2.8% Denisovan DNA. I did a separate Internet search which yielded the general summarised impression that only Melanesians, Phillipines people, PNG people , Australian Indigenous people & some from SE Asia carried the Denisovan genes at rates of 4%-6%, with a much much smaller % found in others eg Europeans/Indoeuropeans/ at 0.25% or less. If I were an Australian for many generations with a H1v haplotype does this affect the test results? My Q is, the data seems incomplete if as it is mentioned elsewhere on this blog, a person had registered 2.5% Denisovan DNA with no known ancestral history from any of the high % regions mentioned above? If indeed archeological Denisovan DNA had been found in Iberia as well as in Siberia is there a higher % Denisovan DNA in Iberian descendents than the mainstream articles and media reports suggest?

  32. hi… i would like to know if i will only have a jewish ancestry if i have the jewish diaspora in my family finder exam.. thank-you

      • Hi… Thank-you for your fast answer… I think that i was not clear so i will try it again…

        I have done the exam from ftdna – Family finder and my result was – European – 81% (42% – Western and Central Europe / 39%Southern Europe) 12% Middle Eastern ( 9% north africa / 3% asia minor) 3% East asia – New World 2% and African 2%.

        So i would like to know if i have a chance to have a jew ancestry or not. Or if i have it, it would appear in a different group such as Ashkenazi Diaspora.

        Do you think i was clear now?

        Best regards

        Francis

  33. I have done the exam from ftdna – Family finder and my result was – European – 81% (42% – Western and Central Europe / 39%Southern Europe) 12% Middle Eastern ( 9% north africa / 3% asia minor) 3% East asia – New World 2% and African 2%.

    So i would like to know if i have a chance to have a jew ancestry or not. Or if i have it, it would appear in a different group such as Ashkenazi Diaspora.

    Do you think i was clear now?

    Best regards

    Francis

  34. We learned prior to mother-in-law’s death there may be some connection to Native Americans. My wife’s great grandfather was the son of an Irish immigrant and a full-blooded Indian. He was easily recognized as the only red-headed Indian in the tribe. What DNA testing would prove to be the most productive?

  35. I was not raised with my family. I had a DNA test done with 23 and Me in 2010 then Ancestry.com in 2013. My son & my uncle’s daughter on my mother side had their done at Ancestry.com. My mother’s mother ancestry is well documented for well over 100 years. My son has been able to do some documentation for my grandfather on my mother side. I have no information about my father. That is what I am trying to achieve. We are finding a lot of 2-4 cousins with no surnames from my grandmothers sides. Suggestions of what we should look for?

  36. I want to put together a family tree for my daughters, so I’d like to order a DNA test to help with that. I’m not looking for anything but help in finding my family to pass on to my daughters like my mother did for me. We are unable find the information due to the fact birth records were not kept due to the time period. Any direction I can look would be so helpful and appreciated. Thank you

    • DNA testing is certainly an important piece of the puzzle, but it, along will not give you your answers tied up with a nice bow:) Start with taking your mtDNA full sequence and the Family Finder autosomal and go from there. That’s a beginning.

  37. Laree Lee of Calvert_Genealogy thought you might be able to help me. Two questions: If two or more families originally had the same progeniture, how long would it take for y-DNA to mutate so that 9 or more allelles (sp?) were different? Queston #2? Do Haplogroups mutate? If so, how long would it take for a RP-312 to mutate to a RP-311?

  38. Hi! I am starting with my family tree and I want ask you about one question. I get my FTDNA results and it is saying that I am 98% European and 2% Middle eastern (I discovered that middle east is from my mothers side). I am curious about how far could be person of mostly Middle eastern origin in my family tree. Thanks for answer 🙂

    • These are estimates from all of the vendors. I see Middle East a lot in mixed race people with no known history of Middle Eastern ancestors. You may have a deep ancestral link there. You can’t just do the division and take these estimates literally.

  39. My daughter was adopted from China. Have begun the process with 23andme in hopes of locating biological family history. Would we also benefit from Family Tree gleaning additional info or would it be redundant.

  40. I have several questions ~ I would like both sides done & check if there are any Family connections that could be traced. What is the price for that?
    Is there a separate price for each? Or is there just one price? And how accruate are these results?

  41. I am also a Moore that is also at dead end. Ironically my 7th Great Grandfather was from Virginia and had the name William. We are very confident he served in the Revolutionary war and moved to Woodford county KY where he lived till his death in 1823.

  42. I’ve gotten my dna tested and it show that I’m 48%native American my father is full blooded chactow my mother is mostly Irish but my mother has pasted away and my father wasn’t in my life and they werent married. So how can I get on the roll just for prof of my blood line.

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