DNA Reports & Consulting

Need help understanding your DNA results?

I provide Personalized DNA Reports for both Y and mitochondrial DNA if you’ve tested with Family Tree DNA. These heritage quality Personalized DNA Reports are very popular, customized with your genealogy and family photos and make wonderful, timeless gifts for family members. Each report, delivered as a pdf file, is approximately 80-100 pages and some are longer.

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DNAeXplain was founded in 2004 to provide analysis and interpretation of genetic genealogy DNA test results in a plain English, understandable fashion.  Family Tree DNA now offers our reports as part of their product offering as well.

301 thoughts on “DNA Reports & Consulting

  1. Hi Roberta,

    I did DNA test it says I’m 42 percent Italian. My mother is half ? Is this possible? Also my sister came out 17 percent italian. Is that normal?

      • I took the DNA Test on May 2,2018 can you tell me how I even get my results. I’m so confused and not very smart at computers and been watching my US mailbox hoping the results will communicate in the mail? Thank you, Toy

  2. Roberta, I was browsing the web aand saw an ad from Living DNA. What piqued my curiosity was their statement they have the only DNA test to give you your Britain and Ireland breakdown. By the map posted on their site, it appears they break it down by regions. Is this true?

      • Excuse if I have replied to wrong thread but I could not determine how to communicate with you by email directly:

        I have a question on what tests and persons to test, are needed to prove that person A (who is deceased) was the father of B, a male. The only living ancestor of ‘A’ is A’s mother (very old and poort health). ‘A’ has a living sister, but no male siblings. ‘A’ had 2 other children both daughters and each had a different mother. Also, we cannot be sure that the daughters would necessarily be the children of ‘A’ because of known behavior patterns. However if we should test a half-sister of B, there is one that has very distinct physical appearance of ‘A’ and that would be the most likely one to pick for testing.

        We are about to choose a testing facility but because I have little knowledge of dna/ genetics I began research and reading your articles and realized we need more direction before proceeding. The best I can gather at this point, is that ‘A’s mother is the most pertinent for testing. If that is correct, who else should be included to help define it. One of the daughters? or both? Would B’s mother need to be in the mix as well?
        I would appreciate your feedback and help – even privately to my email if you prefer.

  3. Hi Roberta,I had test from myheritage and the result came as 71.9% Scottish,Welsh,Irish and 28.1% Scandanavian.This would fit my maternal grandmother only.my other grandparents while having some Welsh, all have a lot of English and Saxon surnames.But English is Zero on the test.my heritage tells me it cud skip a generation.all 3 grandparents?really.If my son’s test turns up negative for English what then?his mother is sold Welsh with praps a touch of Flemish.

  4. Hi Roberta I want to add an extra point.my estimate for my maternal grandmother had been,62.5%welsh,12.5%Irish and 25%Viking from detailed family history,census etc and the fact that many place names here are Viking- Pembrokeshire Wales.all other per grandparents not from here.Have I inherited most of my DNA from her?the similarity between my estimate and the myheritage result is almost eerie.

  5. Hi Roberta,

    I just got some test results back from MyHeritage. My dad has always told me he was part native American from both his mom and his dad. His dad allegedly played baseball for an all-indian baseball team in Oklahoma (where my dad is from). However, when my DNA results came back, there was no native. It was all North and South and some East Europe, a totally unexpected 26% Scandinavian, and a .07% outlier of Nepal. There is some question in infidelity with my mom back in the time of my birth. Could this at all be “proof” that my dad is not my dad? Or perhaps the part of some gross misinformation? I’m quite perplexed. I have no Y chromosome. I have taken your suggestion and ordered test kits from other companies. Thank you!

  6. Hi Roberta,
    I have a quick question. I just tested my 90 years old paternal great aunt. She had 571 pages of matches day one. She also has four thousand 4th cousins or closer. I tested over 3 years ago and only have 250 pages of matches, 419 4th cousins or closer. She is my grandmother’s sister so I realize all her matches are mine. However I should have matches my grandmother had that her sister did not. I have an extra DNA kit. If I take it again will it cause problems at ancestry.com Thanks

  7. Hi Roberta,
    I have some sample left at FTDNA of my father who has now passed. I did a Y-DNA 37 marker test and a Family Finder test. With the remaining sample which test do you think would be worthwhile doing? Thank you so much,
    Sara

    • You could extend his test to 111 markers. You could do the Big Y test, or you could obtain his mitochondrial DNA information. You could also wait to see if new tests will be available in the future that you want. Partly, this may have to do with who else is available in your family to test. If he has a sibling who will test, then you don’t need to get the mtDNA from his sample. There is no single answer to what is best for you in your circumstances.

  8. Thank you, Roberta. I was going to wait for future tests but FTDNA was unsure if the sample had degraded before these last tests (his sample is from 2006). My father and his siblings have all died and being new to DNA testing, I was unsure as to what I should do. I appreciate your input. Thank you. Sara

  9. Hi Roberta,
    My FTDNA result says my mtDNA is R-T16189C!, and Nat Geo assigns me under the macro R haplogroup. I am from East Asia, and not Native American at all. My autosomal result is 22% North East Asian and 78% Oceanian. Do you think getting a full sequencing will help me find out more? Thank you.

  10. Hi Roberta,

    Why would one child have more of what one ethnicity of a parents origin descendent, thanks the other?

    For instance: My dad had a large amount of Irish and Native American, and I received a larger amount of that percent like my dad. My brother had more of my mothers: French and Scandinavian.

    Is it possible that a child could receive more from one parent than the other? Guess I figured it was a 50-50…

    Thanks,
    Lo

  11. I am confused, I am suppose to be Dutch, German, & Scottish, My results came back 40% Scandinavian, 21.5 % Irish/Scottish, English 6.1%, and Balkan 31.6%. With no German or Dutch at all. Could this be right.

  12. I hope you can help me understand my DNA test results from My Heritage.com.
    Since i know that my family is kind of mixed, i thought it would be a great idea to see which parts of foreign DNA i inherited. We live in Northern Germany. My maternal grandmother has definitely slavic heritage and my maternal grandfather is supposed to have also a bulgarian or some southern (slavic) background (he is adopted, so thats what we concluded from the information we had.) the maternal side from my father were German Ashkenazi Jews. Only my paternal grandfather was german.I was really excited for my results. I know that Germany is hard to see at all as one ethnic group. But the result is really strange: A hundred percent(!) result Central-Europe/Northern Europe Ethnicity estimate.
    I still don’t understand how this could work? I know that DNA is not evenly passed down. What confuses me is that i read everywhere that nobody could have a hundred percent of one ethnicity and with my family history it just seems… unrealistic.

  13. I got my Family Tree DNA Certificate back it certifies that a mitochondria DNAsample taken from Paulette Panning differs from the Cambridge Reference Sequence (CRS)* at the numbered positions indicated, by the presence of the bases designated A,C,G or T; my Haplogroup T2 my Sample# 483016 I do not understand this? What must I do?

  14. hi roberta hope all is well
    i was wondering should i do 23andme test ,as i all ready done ancestry and did upload few places
    and also i ordered like upgrade kit from Family Tree DNA which is 37 markers test at moment it should be done in jan of 2018 ,…….and i also got rootsmagic for laptop too
    and also uploaded to gedmatch too ……

    also i was wondering do know of any good ebooks / pdfs for android that i could reed as going on 13 hours of bus from scotland to devon in england so was wanting to reed something of dna and research using ,with idea that i could trace family name of kerr …….. my ancestry dna gave me like 84% british isles

    oo also do know of really good way of getting english registry of b ,m ,d as looking on find my past and they cage same index that u can get from free bmd but there not proper birth records and record offic of england only buy online of records of 1913 i not sent email asking for birth records of 1927 ,person in question is dead of 2012 got her death record as she was born in england but died in scotland so got them easy but thing is no mother name on it so and short index does not show first name of her mother from free b.m.d and all other places online have same as free …… so any help on that would great ,.. and sorry if its long but wanted ask all info at once

    anway good been safe from your ireland trip

    yours thomas

    • Check on the help tab for the books I recommend. I don’t know if they are available electronically or not. British records are not my area of expertise, at all. Have a great trip and it sounds like you are all set up for your DNA results when they are ready.

  15. I have DNA files for my mother and all four of us kids. Is it possible to create one phased file for my father from all of us combined?

  16. Question – Looking at the DNA between my son and I (his father), I see a couple of items that I have a questions on, and would appreciate explaining the genetics as briefly as necessary.

    First, virtually all of his DNA is half-identical with me, as expected.
    Second, a segment of the 2nd chromosome is identical – does that mean his mother and I may have a common ancestor?
    Third, a small segment of the 7th chromosome is not identical at all – what does that mean?

  17. I have a general question about genetics. What is the lowest percentage of an ethnicity that a parent could be to have the potential to produce a sperm or egg that’s 100% of that single ethnicity? So it would result in a child that’s 50% of that particular ethnicity from that one side. Just curious 🙂
    Thanks!

    • There really isn’t a good answer. 100% produces a 50% average but theoretically if a child got every smidgen of the parent’s Native-50%. But I’ve never seen anything like that and it isn’t how genetics works in the real world.

  18. Dearest Ms. Estes, Greetings! Could you assist me with my question? How and where should I look for information on the South Asian DNA of which I am mostly made up of? Thanks in advance and Happy 2018!

  19. Hello! My mtDNA Haplogroup is I3c (Familytree DNA). I have done some research and am trying to understand what this means. Still not gettin’ it! What does the “3” and the “C” mean? Is there any Native American in the DNA? Thanks.

  20. Roberta, hoping you can help me understand how to use my X results from 23andMe. Trying to determine paternity. Have matched with a female predicted first cousin match at 1275 CMs across 39 segments and her nephew who had also tested. I match him at 809 CMs across 31 segments as predicted 1st cousin also. We all agree I am related to her as a her half sister or she is my half aunt (making him my half nephew or half 1c.) The “father” (her dad) has passed away, but his location and travels align with my mothers and she “remembers” him.

    another side note: This paternal family is middle eastern (where their culture does intermarry) so I wonder how that may distort DNA. He and the wife (mother of the half sis and gma of the half nephew) were 1st cousins (of other 1st or 2nd cousin parents).

    Our question is can we use the X chromosone to verify if she is my half sibling? Would it
    help to compare our raw data in GED Match?

    on the X – for her, I match genomic postion: 68411445-112741785, genetic distance: 31.89cM and number of SNPs: 3226 (23andMe predicted relationship – 1c, our guess – half sister)

    on the X for him, I match genomic position: 13867132-112741785, genetic distance: 90.59cM and number of SNPs: 8146 (23andMe predicted relationship – 1c, our guess – half nephew)

    If we are off base here, is there another way to prove if she and I are actually half sisters or if she is my half aunt or (even half cousin – if another male family member (like brother to this presumed dad) is possible.

    thanks for the help! Love and appreciate your knowledge!

  21. Hi I was adopted and Did ancestry DNA and uploaded my DNA to Family Tree and my heritage I know my biological mother but she has no info on my father not even his last name how can I tell who is on my fathers side? I had a bunch of X matches on family tree is that from my mother side or father side? I had one second cousin match that I think is from my father side because my grandpa and mother did not think the person was from their side of the family I did gedmatch too but I cant figure it out any tips on how to figure out my fathers side ?

    • If you test your mother and your grandparent on her side, if your matches don’t match your mother, then they are on your father’s side, or if they are small segments, below about 10 cM, they could be identical by chance. But larger segments won’t be. Testing your mother is the best way to tell.

      • Hi,thank you for replying my grandfather did the test and two of my uncles kids did the test they are my first cousins my grandma passed away but none of them are matches to the second cousin I match with so could it be from my fathers side? you would think my first cousins from my moms side we would share the same matches and they don’t share any matches to the person I’m wondering about

  22. Roberta,
    I know of a man in the U.S.whose ggrandfather immigrated here in the 1880’s from the same German village as my 1680’s ancestor…same original surname. I am going to see if he’ll take a Y-DNA37 test and will pay for it if need be. There is no need for a FF test, right, since all I’m attempting is to break through my male surname brick wall with his Y-DNA? My brother has done FF/Y-37/full mtDNA. Am going to test Dad (Y-67/FF/full mtDNA) and Mom (FF & full mtDNA). I will also do an FF test just to compare my brother’s FF results with mine…as a learning experience on how that inheritance pattern works.

      • Not in my line, per se, but I am 99% certain (presuming there is no non-parental event) that he belongs to the same surname as my early 1700 immigrant ancestors…but perhaps a different branch. The German surname, which was abbreviated in America approx one generation after the immigrants’ arrival, is very unusual. The man’s great-grandfather lived about half a kilometer from the parish where my ancestors were baptised and about 3 kilometers from the small “dorf” that carries this family’s surname. I have learned from local residents that the first farmhouse in the “dorf” was built circa 1540’s by the patriarch of this family. Fifteen years ago I was in correspondence with a descendant of the patriarch. While I could approach him, I thought it might be easier to approach the man here in the U.S. first whose ggfather most assuredly descends from the patriarch.

        I’m trying to prove/disprove that my BELLIS line descends from this family. My brick wall is in KY in 1813 and everything points to my ancestor belonging to one of several BELLIS branches back in NJ. I have a potential father living 7 miles from my KY ancestor but can find no documentation connecting the two. I’m corresponding with a male descendant of this candidate father and hope to be able to compare his DNA with my brother’s/father’s. In the meantime I thought I’d also get a DNA test done on this later immigrant of the same surname.

  23. I already took my brother’s DNA and had it tested. We are 32% Native American. I also did a DNA test on my mother and she is 100% Causcasian, so I know that we inherited all of our Native American ancestry from my father. All I know is he said he was Navajo and Apache. His grandfather only spoke Apache. How can I apply for my tribal registry?

  24. In your opinion has anyone ever calculated reliable probabilities for # of generations back to a MRCA for two men, based on Y-DNA test results? I ask because years ago I found on-line (don’t remember the website!) 3 charts showing probabilities for # generations back for 37-marker matches, 67-marker matches & 111-marker matches. At the bottom of each chart is written: “This calculator is based on the Infinite Alleles Model described in “Estimating the Time to the Most Recent Common Ancestor for the Y chromosome or Mitochondrial DNA for a Pair of Individuals” by Bruce Walsh, Department of Ecology and Evolutionary Biology, University of Arizona, published June 2001 by the Genetics Society of America.” For the past ten years I’ve collaborated with men whose Y-DNA closely matches the Y-DNA of my (Patterson) nephew and we have shared with each other our research findings (based on original source records). I have also found many living Patterson men who I think might somehow be related, and have talked them into Y-DNA testing (spending thousands and thousands of dollars). I’ve consolidated all these findings in a 30+-page paper. Our findings do NOT seem to agree with the probabilities on the charts I found. Perplexed, I found, on-line, the original Bruce Walsh article referenced on these MRCA charts and I learned that these probability charts were NOT part of Bruce Walsh’s article. I then emailed Bruce Walsh and asked him if he knew who computed these probabilities. He replied that he had no idea. So back to my question for you: Do you know of any reliable computations for # of generations back to the MRCA, based on Y-DNA test matches?

  25. Hi Roberta, I read your 2012 article on Melungeons. I’m linked to that community through oral history, geography, and now a recent DNA test which shows small percentages of Central African, Native American, and (at this point more than 5-10 generations later) overwhelmingly European. Needless to say we married white as your article points out. I trace my father’s lineage to at least early 18th century Virginia but the DNA test shows up that I have most in common with Bermudans?! After reading your article I was wondering if you had considered the possibility the the English’s strategic use of Bermuda as a human trafficking / dumping ground in the 16-1700s for Irish, African, and Native American slaves / indentured servants. Also, my surname Minton moved west with the Collins’ in the early 1800s, but we are not listed as a core Melungeon surname. More than likely this is because the Minton name is English and taken for citizenship status by people of color / Melungeons in the early 1800s. One of my direct ancestors is named Vardaman Love Minton, which (I believe) is a tribute to Vardy Love Collins, a noted Melungeon leader. Near to my home town is a Minton-Collins cemetery with chess pieces of kings and queens as markers. Anyway…I wanted to contact you 1) since your research focuses on this historical era and 2) because I’m interested in possibly collaborating on research material. Mainly, I wanted to know if you have ever run across the Mintons in your research. Thanks for the time. James “Ike” Minton

  26. I intend to soon put “quick consult” into the shopping cart, then hope to follow up with a Personalized DNA Report. But before I do this, I’d like to know how the “quick consult” is conducted. By email only? Or by phone? I’d prefer by phone. Please let me know.

  27. Roberta,
    You may have answered this before. I have a full mtdna and I have my brother’s Y-111 dna, both through FTdna. Which report should be done first, and how much duplication would there be?
    Thanks/Valyrie

  28. Hi. I just got back possibly the most useless/boring ancestry results from 23andMe – 99.5% Ashkenazic Jewish and 0.4% (yes 0.4%, not 0.5%) Broadly European. I would like to find a service that can do something more interesting that that, especially since I am J1c1. Any advice?
    P.S. I asked a separate question under a different post in your blog about taking my J1c1 to the next level to find which subgroup of J1c1 I belong to. Thank you.

  29. Hi. I know I am a Speake. My grandfather was a Speake. But he was born in 1906, and would of been labeled a bastard. I live in Maryland and there is so many of the last names with Speak(e)(s). That I have no clue where the Speake dna or country they come from. I have a mixture of DNA. 25% Sachanivian some Greece and or Italian ,18% Irish, Scottish,whales. So, how do I know what is the part for the Speake Name?

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