Updated Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups

dna helixI’ve updated the list of Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups and their sources.

This most recent update comes from both GenBank the Anzick extrapolations, with links provided when possible.

If you know of other credibly sourced Native haplogroup information, please let me know.

11 thoughts on “Updated Native American Mitochondrial DNA Haplogroups

  1. Roberta, how confident are you that x2e1 is Native American? My father, who according to autosomal DNA evidence has NA ancestry somewhere on his mother’s mother’s side, is x2e1 (or more precisely, x2e1a1). His FMS matches (given as x2e1) are all out of the colonial South and shed no light on the mtDNA origins, but his HVR1/HVR2 matches, as well as another known person in this subclade, seem to be pointing towards an Irish or Scottish ancestor. I’m thus a little skeptical about this one.

    • That’s a great question. This list doesn’t mean that these are exclusively Native American, although in some cases, they are. Some are also found elsewhere. In the case of X2e1, GenBank doesn’t have anything for X2e1, but does for subclades. http://www.ianlogan.co.uk/sequences_by_group/U2e1b-h_genbank_sequences.htm Going to http://www.mtdnacommunity.org, we see that X2e1 is shown there with 2 submissions, both from Behar. Looking at those papers, one is on the founders of Jewish people and I think the second is an updated tree. In any case, there clearly are European instances of this haplogroup. However, there is at least one case where someone who is a high enough Native percentage to match at a current day or nearly current day level with the Anzick skeleton, also carries this haplogroup.

      • “However, there is at least one case where someone who is a high enough Native percentage to match at a current day or nearly current day level with the Anzick skeleton, also carries this haplogroup.”

        Even if someone is a strong match to the Anzick sample, that does not preclude him or her having a European matrilineal ancestor, correct?

      • No, it does not. However, in order for someone to match at that level, it’s very unlikely that they have much non-Native ancestry. If their haplogroup fell into the Native range, I noted it. Almost all of the Anzick matches at this level do have either proven Native haplogroups, meaning those never found outside of Native people, or those in the same main haplogroup but as yet positively identified as Native. This does not prove it one way or the other definitively. However, in conjunction with other information, it’s is a piece of evidence.

    • I updated the article to reflect the comments I just made to you and also x2e1. It’s very rare. Take a look at Genbank and see if there are any submissions. The link is at the bottom of the haplogroup list and you can use Ian’s tool to search by haplogroup.

      Also, X2e1 is not the same as X2e1a1 – and GenBank differentiates between subclades – so be sure you’re looking at the right one.

      • Thanks, Roberta. I looked at GenBank (both via Ian’s tool and directly). There are two submissions classified under x2e, one from Europe and one from the Near East. Nested under that is one x2e1a submission (“Azer18” [presumably Central Asian] from a paper by Schoenburg et al.) and below that under subclade x2e1a1 two submissions from the Behar et al. paper (presumably from the Middle East on the basis of the subject of their paper, Jewish Diaspora mtDNA lineages). I am just not getting a sense that x2e or any of its subclades are Native American (although that would certainly simplify my search for my NA ancestor).

      • Also, most of the Anzick matches are from Mexico south through Central and South America – that’s one of the only places that we’d find people really not terribly admixed. So, I’d agree with you.

  2. Pingback: Haplogroup C3* – Previously Believed East Asian Haplogroup is Proven Native American | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

  3. Pingback: Haplogroup C3* – Previously Believed East Asian Haplogroup is Proven Native American | Native Heritage Project

  4. Pingback: DNAeXplain Archives – General Information Articles | DNAeXplained – Genetic Genealogy

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